Art of the Middle Ages Romanesque and Gothic Art Medieval Times 500-1050 Dark Ages 400-800
Around 400 A.D. the Roman Empire fell to invading armies
Charlemagne (742-814) In the 8 th century, Charlemagne brought Europe together as a civilized continent.
In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated.
Page of text from a Carolingian Gospel Book written in Carolingian minuscule.
Art of the Dark Ages Celtic-Germanic art combined ornamental interlacing patterns with animal style
Lock for a purse makes use of garnets, glass, enamel, and gold and was mounted on a slab of ivory. The two bears are facing each other in perfect symmetry, forming the shape of a heart .
Geometric and abstract designs were fascinating to Pre-Romanesque artists. Monks in secluded monasteries decorated pages of Scripture and other writings with infinite detail. X-P page From the Lindisfarne Gospel Book
The Lindisfarne Gospels: Gospel of St John the Evangelist, initial page, late 7th or early 8th century .
A page from the Book of Kells Celtic-Germanic art combined ornamental interlacing patterns with the animal style
Architecture: Castles: fort like dwellings with high Walls and towers, protected further By a moat and drawbridge
Worms Cathedral about 1168-1181. Worms, Germany
Wooden roofs are replaced by masonry barrel vaults which eliminated the danger of fire and produced better acoustics Worms Cathedral typifies Romanesque architecture in Germany. Towers or campaniles
Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France. 1120-32 Romanesque features Exterior View
Vezelay, nave: Groined vaults rather than single barrel vaults
Vezelay, exterior tympanum (Mission of the Apostles) Sculpture used to teach religion to people since most could not read. This type of sculpture is called architectonic since it is part of the architecture.
The Bayeaux Tapestry was stitched to commemorate the Battle of Hastings It measures 230 feet long (70 meters) and 20 inches wide. It was made To hang around the wall of a cathedral or castle.
Gothic Art is the style of art produced in Northern Europe from the middle ages up until the beginning of the Renaissance. Typically rooted in religious devotion, it is especially known for the distinctive arched design of its churches, its stained glass, and its illuminated manuscripts. People moved from the countryside into towns.
Here, the construction begins with an equilateral triangle, the simple rule of thumb for which is - all sides are equal. Now adjust your compass to half the length of the baseline, and from point A construct a semicircular arch. The Pointed Arch
With your compass still adjusted to half the length of the baseline, construct a concave arch from point B. Repeat at point C. World Trade Center, New York.
There are several features that Characterize Gothic construction. There is an overall feeling of verticality as architects tried to make the interiors as high as possible, as if reaching toward heaven. Chartres Cathedral
Fan Vaulting broke the vaulting into many umbrella spokes and also lightened the pressure of the ceiling
Gargoyles: a protecting ornament on a building carved in the shape of a fantastic animal or grotesque creature; meant to look like spirits fleeing or being driven from the holy building, could also have been to entice non-believers to enter the cathedral.
In Italy Romanesque style dominated over Gothic. (Basilica San Francesco)
The Capture of Christ A Fresco is a painting created when pigment is applied to a section of wall spread with fresh plaster. Fresco is the Italian word for “fresh” Fresco Upper Church of San Francesco, Assisi
Madonna Enthroned with the Child, St Francis and four Angels (detail) 1278-80 Fresco, 73 x 60 cm (full painting: 320 x 340 cm
Apocalyptical Christ (detail) 1280-83 Fresco, 350 x 300 cm Upper Church, San Francesco, Assisi
St Matthew 1280-83 Fresco, Upper Church, San Francesco, Assisi
The fresco decorations in the Arena Chapel at Padua have long been considered the greatest of Giotto's works, and one of the major turning points in the history of European painting.
Madonna and Child (1320-30) Giotto. Lamentation 1305-1306
Simone Martini. c. 1315 (or later). Tempera on wood. Louvre, Paris, France The Road to Calvary.
Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry (The very rich book of hours) is the classic example of a medieval book of hours. Calendars, prayers, psalms and masses for certain holy days were commonly included. January The month of giving gifts
April The arrival of spring, hope and new life August The month of hawking
December February Winter in a peasant village .
For more on medieval art http://witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTHmedieval.html