Based on article of same name by Len Kravitz, PhD and Retrieved from internet on 2/25/10: http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/musicexercise.html
Effect of Music on Respiration and Heart Rate <ul><li>Ellis & Brighouse (1952) showed increased respiration rate with jazz music, returned with cessation of music </li></ul><ul><li>Dainow (1977) Any type of music will how moderate increase in HR </li></ul><ul><li>Application: Play music to depict intensity of upcoming workout as students enter room. Increased respiration & moderate increase in HR from music will help prepare student </li></ul>
Effect of different types of music on physical strength <ul><li>Only 1 study (Pearce, 1981) compared stimulative, sedative & silence to strength </li></ul><ul><li>Found listening to sedative music decreased strength significantly compared to stimulative & silence. </li></ul><ul><li>Application: Sedative music may decrease muscular fitness training ability. Might poll students on their favorite type of music (stimulative, sedative, silence) during exercise. </li></ul>
Effect of music & rhythmic stimuli in rehabilitation of gait disorders <ul><li>Steadfast research (Rudenberg, 1982, Staum, 1983) showed external auditory cues (rhythmic music & percussion pulses) favorably affected coordinated walking and proprioceptive control. Might have been due to the beat of the music. </li></ul><ul><li>Application: Music & auditory stimuli can be used to enhance gait & gross motor skills, leading to increased stability & mobility. </li></ul>
Effect of music on exercise performance <ul><li>Inconsistent data. Range from improved muscular endurance during sit ups to no change in running speed of youth. Others show ability to walk further with less effort. Others no change in submaximal bicycle performance, no influence on any physiological variable, psychological effort not altered, to even longer times to exhaustion with music. </li></ul><ul><li>Application: Jury is out, but if it works to improve enjoyment & compliance to program, it is worth it. </li></ul>
Effect of rhythmic accompaniment on learning fundamental motor skills <ul><li>With 600 kids grades 1 to 6, Beisman (1967) found motor skills were learned better with rhythmic accompaniment. Music produced relaxation & enjoyment. </li></ul><ul><li>Application: Music useful in teaching motor skills in elementary school at least </li></ul>
Effect of music on aerobic fitness <ul><li>Gfeller (1988) polled 70 college students, found 97% had greater perceived influence of music on performance in aerobics. Gender not particularly important for type of music </li></ul><ul><li>Application: Supports fact that music is motivating (Nelson & Finch 1963), mental attitude enhanced, music taste of class (boomer, seniors, students) should be considered when selecting music. Preferred music may facilitate focus on music or other external stimuli rather than discomfort. Can evoke pleasant associations, mask unpleasant stimuli (heavy breathing) or distract negative internal feelings. Can reduce stress, tension & anxiety (Maslar, 1986) </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>Use music as pre-class stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Sedative music may decrease muscular fitness potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Gross motor skills can improve with music & rhythmic stimulation in rehabilitation process </li></ul><ul><li>Music may make the activity more enjoyable </li></ul><ul><li>Music may help with basic motor skill learning </li></ul><ul><li>Music may motivate for exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Music may produce pleasant associations and mask unpleasant stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Future trend to incorporate music into holistic approach of exercise for mind, body and spirit </li></ul>
References <ul><li>References: Beckett, A. (1990). The effects of music on exercise as determined by physiological recovery heart rates and distance. Journal of Music Therapy, 27, 126-136. Beisman, G. L. (1967). Effect of rhythmic accompaniment upon learning of fundamental motor skills. Research Quarterly, 38, 172-176. Boutcher, S. H., & Trenske, M. (1990). The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 167-176. Chipman, L. (1966). The effects of selected music on endurance. Master's thesis, Springfield College. (From Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 9, Abstract No. 462). Copeland, B. L., & Franks, B. D. (1991). Effects of types and intensities of background music on treadmill endurance. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31, 100-103. Dainow, E. (1977). Physical effects and motor responses to music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 25, 211-221. Ellis, D. S., & Brighouse, G. (1952). Effects of music on respiration and heart-rate. The American Journal of Psychology, 65, 39-47. Gfeller, K. (1988). Musical components and styles preferred by young adults for aerobic fitness activities. Journal of Music Therapy, 25, 28-43. Koschak, E. P. (1975). The influence of music on physical performance of women. Master's thesis. Central Michigan University. (From Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, and Recreation 19, Abstract No. 99). Leslie, J. J. (1967). The effect of music on the development of speed in running. Master's thesis. University of Washington. (From Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, and Recreation 10, Abstract No. 697) Maslar, P. M. (1986). The effect of music on the reduction of pain: A review of the literature. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 13, 215-219. Nelson, D. O., & Finch, L. W. (1963). Effects of audio-analgesia on gross motor performance involving acute fatigue. Research Quarterly, 33, 588-592. Pearce, K. A. (1981). Effects of different types of music on physical strength. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, 351-352. Rudenberg, M. R. (1982). Music therapy for handicapped children: Orthopedically handicapped. Washington, DC: National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Schwartz, S. E., Fernhall, B., & Plowman, S. A. (1990). Effects of music on exercise performance. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 10, 312-316. Sears, W. W. (1957). The effect of music on muscle tonus. In E. G. Gaston (Ed.), Music Therapy (pp. 199-205). Lawrence, KS: Allen Press. Staum, M. J. (1983). Music and rhythmic stimuli in the rehabilitation of gait disorders. Journal of Music Therapy, 20, 69-87. </li></ul>
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