Cognitive decline


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This presentation looks at the research behind cognitive decline, and suggests ways in which you might change or reverse changes brought out by aging or lifestyle.

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Cognitive decline

  1. 1. Cognitive Decline<br />NOT necessarily age related!<br />
  2. 2. What is Cognitive Decline?<br />A deterioration of cognitive function<br />As we age, we are more inclined to experience cognitive decline as we notice difficulties in memory, speed of information processing, language and other cognitive functions.<br />This type of age related cognitive decline CAN BE SLOWED OR REVERSED<br />
  3. 3. Research into Cognitive Decline<br />In 2010, a review of the literature was published which tried to identify factors associated with Alzheimer’s Disease and Cognitive decline.<br />What follows is a summary of their findings.<br />You can view the entire report by clicking this link.<br />
  4. 4. Summary of report findings<br />Decreased risk of cognitive decline<br />Increased risk of cognitive decline<br />Diabetes<br />A specific gene (APOE e4)<br />Smoking<br />Depression<br />Cognitive engagement<br />Physical activities<br />
  5. 5. Additional study by BBC…<br />An additional review of the literature was published by BBC in 2010<br />They evaluated where the evidence was strong, where it was possible, and where the jury is still out<br />Their results are on the next page…<br />
  6. 6. Summary of BBC report<br />Strong evidence <br />Less evidence<br />Exercise<br />Not being obese<br />Lower blood pressure<br />Reduce cholesterol<br />No smoking<br />Moderate alcohol<br />Diet<br />Socially active<br /><ul><li>Brain training
  7. 7. Vitamin supplements</li></ul>Jury <br />still out…<br />
  8. 8. Cognitive Engagement Ideas<br />Keep your brain active by:<br />Lifelong learning<br />Read, write, crossword puzzles<br />Lectures and plays<br />Enroll in adult education classes<br />Play games, or memory exercises<br />Take up or continue a musical instrument<br />
  9. 9. Physically Active Ideas<br />Physical activity helps the brain by:<br />Increasing blood flow <br />Encourages new brain cell growth<br />Protects cardiac system<br />Types of physical activity:<br />30 min a day<br />Walking, bicycling, gardening, tai chi, yoga<br />Helps to include mental activity during exercise<br />
  10. 10. Become Socially active<br />Remain socially active by:<br /><ul><li>Staying active in the workplace or community
  11. 11. Volunteer
  12. 12. Join groups such as a bridge group or square dancing
  13. 13. Travel</li></li></ul><li>Brain Healthy Diet<br />Research suggests that the Mediterranean diet may benefit the aging brain:<br /><ul><li>Lots of fruits and vegetables
  14. 14. Whole grain foods
  15. 15. Fish
  16. 16. Olive oil
  17. 17. Low in dairy food & processed food</li></li></ul><li>Quick Quiz<br />How can you become cognitively engaged?<br />Why would physical activity benefit the brain?<br />Describe how you can become socially active after retirement<br />What is an example of a brain healthy dinner?<br />
  18. 18. recent research on Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer’s <br />Advances in Science<br />
  19. 19. A molecular signature of Cognitive Decline<br />From: Science Now<br />Research study suggests that the function of histones (tiny protein spools that control gene expression in DNA) may change with aging. Perhaps a future drug will boost histone production.<br />
  20. 20. Coffee may decrease risk of brain disorder?<br />From: Live Science<br />A slew of new research is suggesting that caffeine can help prevent Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's. Amount needed? Up to 4 cups a day.<br />Research suggests that it does not improve memory by prevents deterioration of memory by blocking “insults” (which can be cholesterol, or the actual disease of Alzheimer’s).<br />MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED!<br />
  21. 21. Older Caregivers at Greater Risk<br />From:<br />If you are caring for a loved one with dementia, you may face an increased risk, according to a new study. Factors which contributed to the decline of caregivers include:<br />Psychosocial factors (depression, loneliness, social isolation and sleep problems)<br />Behavioral factors (exercise & diet)<br />Physiological factors (obesity, chronically elevated insulin & inflammation)<br />
  22. 22. Silent Vascular Disease May Accompany Cognitive Decline<br />From: Science Daily<br />As we get older, we can experience the decline of our cardiovascular system, even if we do not have a heart attack or stroke.<br />This research suggests that this “silent vascular disease” may influence our ability to think.<br />It further links the importance of a heart healthy lifestyle in maintaining cognitive function.<br />Follow-up article in Science Daily suggests that risk for heart disease is also a risk for cognitive & memory problems.<br />
  23. 23. Sleep and Cognitive Decline<br />From: PsycCentral<br />Recent study suggests that women and men who begin sleeping more or less than 6 to 8 hours of sleep a night are subjected to accelerated cognitive decline.<br />Ideal sleep for women was between 6 and 7 hours a night.<br />Ideal sleep for men was between 6 and 8 hours a night.<br />Adequate sleep is fundamental to functioning & well being, according to the study. <br />
  24. 24. Moderate Drinking Associated with Better Cognition<br />From: Science Daily<br />This article summarizes that in the last 3 decades, involving 68 studies and 145, 308 men and women, the research suggests an association between light to moderate alcohol consumption and better cognitive function.<br />Another Science Daily article adds the value of tea and chocolate to improve cognition.<br />
  25. 25. Older brains don’t rewire from experiences<br />Normally, the brain rewires in response to life’s experiences. However, research shows that the aging brain loses its capacity for experienced-induced plasticity<br />Studies from rats suggest a rigidity in cell structure as they age, which disrupts ability of the nerve cells to conduct synapses. These rigid cells don’t respond well to stress or learning.<br />This is a case for using a well designed brain training program to strengthen nerve cells.<br />
  26. 26. Bottom line…<br />Proven : exercise, socially active, cognitively engaged, no smoking, low cholesterol & blood pressure, healthy weight<br />Quite possibly effective: moderate alcohol, heart healthy diet<br />Additional research suggests: drugs to target histones, moderate caffeine, regular sleep patterns, brain training programs<br />
  27. 27. Begin your <br />heart and brain healthy <br />lifestyle today!<br />
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