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Part 6 new media and journalism

Part 6 new media and journalism






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    Part 6 new media and journalism Part 6 new media and journalism Presentation Transcript

    • Professor: Michael Prieler, Ph.D. prieler@hallym.ac.kr Office: Dasan Hall, 5th Floor (Room 507) 1
    • New Media and Journalism * 2
    • Discussion Do you think New Media led to changes in journalism? 3
    • The crisis of Journalism Journalism suffers from many crises:  the fall of circulation (less people buy newspapers);  the fall of advertising income (less advertisements, since more advertisements in new media);  the diffusion of attention (many media to choose from);  a crisis in authority (newspapers are not the only sources of information and might be connected with political parties or companies);  the inability or unwillingness of journalism to question structure of power. 4
    • Time and Journalism Time had always been important for news - the very concept of ‘news’ includes the importance of time, as only the most recent events qualify as ‘news’. The flow of the news followed the flow of time that suited each medium: the news cycle for newspapers typically ends in the early morning, while in television it follows the regular news broadcasts, for instance at 12, 6 or 10 o’clock - although some allowances were made for extra editions or breaking news. 5
    • Time and Journalism Newness and speed of publication are extremely important. While traditional news cycles allowed for some research, new media led to more pressure for constant updates with speed taking the main importance over everything else. This leads to changes in journalism. The emphasis is placed on techniques for hunting the most recent news, rather on research, in-depth analysis and commentary. 6
    • Time and Journalism Online news has to be updated several times a day to attract more readers, or to get the same readers to visit more than once. This is typically accomplished through harvesting anything as long as it is recent, regardless of whether its actual news value is minimal. The result is a decrease in the quality of news as well as a decrease in credibility, as there is no time to go through the necessary relevant checks on stories often resulting in extremely trivial or even inaccurate stories. 7
    • Journalism and the Market Income from sales as well as advertising revenue from classifieds is in steady decline. Newspaper bankruptcies and closures are becoming increasingly common with some famous newspapers falling victim to the finical crisis. However, traffic to the 50 top news websites rose by 24%. Although the number of newspaper readers (34%) and radio news audiences (35%) and television news audiences (39%) is still higher compared to online news consumers (29%) the gap is steadily declining. 8
    • Journalism and the Market Newspapers are losing money because people are no longer willing to pay, since online news are for free. As a result, jobs were cutted. This led to less journalists and resulted in the repetition of the same news across different media. Cost cutting also led to the cutting of expensive news: (1) international news that relies on correspondents, (2) investigative journalism that requires a higher number of hours spent investigating. The result is a loss of diversity in the news, and an over- reliance on news or even on PR agencies for news. 9
    • Cultural Shift While traditionally people read their morning newspaper over breakfast or on the train to work, and they watched the evening news at 8 or 9 o’clock, the consumption of online news has introduced a new pattern which is mainly to steal quick looks at the headline at several intervals while at work. 10
    • Changes in Journalism The internet restructures journalism across four dimensions (Pavlik 2001):  the context of journalism;  the skills necessary of journalists;  the structure of news organizations and newsrooms;  the relationship between journalism and all its publics, including the people, its sources, politicians and so on. 11
    • Changes in Journalism Media organizations The most important change is connected with convergence. Convergence refers to the process which blurs the lines between media, such as newspapers, television and the internet. Newspapers may converge with online news sites and/or with broadcasting companies. Their products, already digitalized, can be used in audio, text or video at a computer, a television, or even a mobile phone. 12
    • Convergence Just one journalist or news producer for all media platforms and the same contents for all these media. At the level of distribution, convergence means that one device could combine all media. The most endangered medium seems to be print. Newspapers and books are considered too old fashioned to survive in a convergence era. At the level of consumption, convergence emphasizes the increased user participation. Media organizations must make sure to keep open channels for communication between media and their publics. 13
    • Convergence Convergence cuts costs for media organizations. Four strategies for competitiveness: Organizational and technological integration of newsrooms (merging departments). Hiring and using journalists that have knowledge and skills across all media. The application of flexible and user-friendly technology at all levels of production, which clearly makes the production process more efficient. Media organizations actively pursue the extension of their services in new media. They seek to find ways to grow and to use more platforms. 14
    • Convergence Convergence in news production means the creation of a fully digitized newsroom that uses a server-based system of news and other media content production. This means that contents and news are available to all news personnel, who are then instructed by their editor as to how to deal with it. UK Daily Telegraph: Key editors decide which themes to pursue, and they have to design the news from the point of view of not only text, but also video and audio material, as well as to think of the hyperlinks that will appear in the online version. These are just some of the changes taking place in converged newsrooms from a practical point of view. 15
    • Change in Content Four broad new dimensions for online contents: Hypertextuality (using links for background information and further information). Multimediality (combining video footage, interactive charts, etc. for enriching the story). Interactivity (users have some control over contents; . Collective Authoring. 16
    • News Narrative Changes in the News Narrative: Personalization and customization of news (hypertextuality and interactivity: users can choose their own stories with hyperlinks and personal testimonies as part of news) Increasing integration of games (multimediality) Multi-perspectival news (collective authoring and multimediality). News include many views (not only one of objectivity). 17
    • Consumption/Use of Online News Most online news consumption tends to be quick and superficial. The so-called news grazers tend to graze or merely scrape the surface, quickly glancing the headlines or checking their RSS feeders a few times throughout the day. In general, from a user perspective, online news tends to have credibility issues, mainly when it comes from blogs or other non-established sources. This tends to privilege established media organizations and known brands, such as the BBC, CNN, Reuters and so forth. Thus, research has found that the majority of people who go online for news actually rely on mainstream media sources (Horrigan, 2006). 18
    • Minute Paper 19
    • Minute Paper Most interesting? Least interesting? Most unclear? Most important? Others? 20
    • 21