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Part 4 privacy and surveillance
 

Part 4 privacy and surveillance

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    Part 4 privacy and surveillance Part 4 privacy and surveillance Presentation Transcript

    • Professor: Michael Prieler, Ph.D. prieler@hallym.ac.kr Office: Dasan Hall, 5th Floor (Room 507) Tel.: 033-248-1938 11
    • ‘EVERYONE IS WATCHING’: PRIVACY AND SURVEILLANCE IN DIGITAL LIFE *2
    • Discussion What is surveillance? 3
    • Background Increased ability to gather data about others which, up until recently, would have been considered impossible and immoral.  Protection of one’s children (vs. controlling them).  Legitimate concern that employees to do not misuse company equipment and instead get on with the activities they are paid to undertake.  Surveillance of our activities in the public, in order to keep us save from terrorists? 4
    • Discussion What do you think about these forms of surveillance?  Protection of one’s children (vs. controlling them).  Legitimate concern that employees to do not misuse company equipment and instead get on with the activities they are paid to undertake.  Surveillance of our activities in the public, in order to keep us save from terrorists? 5
    • Background UK has become one of the most surveilled societies in the world. A typical London resident is photographed 300 times a day by CCTV cameras, and have their cars tracked through number plate recognition system. Their city movement is tracked through the use of public transport cards, and potentially even their pedestrian movements located through their mobile phone signals. Fears of a “big brother” society in which government and law enforcement amass huge amounts of data of their citizens, only comparable to dictatorships. 6
    • Discussion Do you think it is a good or a bad thing to be permanently watched? 7
    • THE CHANGE OF PRIVACY *8
    • The Change of Privacy Three elements of privacy (Spinello 2003):  Solitude: away from others, one could find one’s ‘authentic’ self by escaping from the self of sociability. Western idea of being only able to be oneself by being alone.  Secrecy: being able to limit or have control over the amount of information others can know about oneself.  Anonymity: Right of protection from unwanted attention and scrutiny. In medieval times the contemporary concept of private life and personal space did not exist (small villages, small houses, etc.). Now: separation of work and home, larger houses. 9
    • The Change of Privacy Mills (2008) suggest that there are four broad categories of privacy related to different spheres of legal rights:  Freedom of personal autonomy, the most obvious being freedom of choice.  The right to control personal information, which relates to defamation, or the right not to have one’s personal information disclosed to the public.  The right to control personal property, including one’s name and likeness, as well as information about oneself.  The right to control and protect personal physical space, which suggest a freedom from unwarranted intrusion, surveillance and intimidation. 10
    • The Change of Privacy September 11, 2001 attacks, USA-PATRIOT act - ability of government agencies to use traditional form of surveillance. In Europe has been traditionally much more concern with enshrining and protecting rights to privacy. For example, the economic value of information about individuals. In United States, very little regulation over distribution and processing of personal data (Van Dijk, 2006). The European Union has more emphasis on privacy protection and less on free speech. 11
    • Discussion How is the situation for privacy protection in Korea? 12
    • DIGITAL SURVEILLANCE *13
    • State Surveillance At no point in the past have government agencies, private companies, or even lone individuals been able to collect so much information about others, in terms of their (virtual and physical) movements, their interaction and communication, or their interest and tastes. Fingerprinting, picture taking, and face scanning are the sort of measures that were reserved for convicts and suspects, but now all of us are increasingly having our biometric data stored in databases and our action monitored. All of us, in effect, are being treated as potential threats, suspected criminals, or terrorists. 14
    • Discussion Do you feel like a criminal to be permanently monitored, fingerprinted, etc.? 15
    • State Surveillance Echelon is a secret data collection system run jointly by the governments of the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. It screens all international communication (including phone and internet) for intelligence by searching through communication texts for phrases, keywords, and phone numbers that are deemed relevant for security purposes. 16
    • State Surveillance In 2008 The US government passed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which states that all internet communication going through the United States are subject to government surveillance through various methods of ‘wireless wiretapping’. Similarly, Sweden, an important northern European regional hub for internet traffic, passed the New Signal Surveillance Act in 2008, which permits Sweden’s National Defense to access all internet and telephone conversations in and out of (and through) Sweden. 17
    • Discussion What do you think about that your e-mails are read by other people/computers? 18
    • State Surveillance At the same time, many governments are passing data retention legislation, which compels private telecommunications and internet companies to keep a record of all communications on their system for a long period of time, so that data can be accessed and used by the governments in criminal and security investigations. For example in 2006, the European Union passed the data Retention Directive. This law was designed to assist in the coordination of criminal investigations within the EU. 19
    • State Surveillance It demands that all providers of electronic communications services (such as mobile phone and internet service providers) must retain identifiable phone call and email data for at least six months and up to two years after the communication is made (the duration varies between countries). This data includes at minimum the originator and receiver of the communication, as well as the data, location and duration of the communication (Bigami, 2007). 20
    • State Surveillance Mobile phone surveillance: Not only captures digital communications, but also real- world location and movements. A new surveillance technique by the FBI is the roving bug. The microphone can then be switched on without the holders knowing and nearby voice conversations can be monitored and recorded. The microphone can even be switched on when the phone is ‘off’. The only way to completely disable the bug is to remove the mobile phone battery. Phonesitter or Mobilespy: These allow a third party to track and monitor the position of a mobile phone on the internet with GPS accuracy. 21
    • Video on State Surveillance 22
    • Commercial Surveillance  Internet or HTTP ‘cookies’ are a small piece of text that is automatically downloaded onto computer when its browser visits a web page. It then records one’s internet activity and sends this information back to its home web site.  In addition, free internet services such as search engines and email are used to collect data. Google currently keeps every search performed attached to your IP address for 13 months, Microsoft for eighteen and Yahoo for nine, before that data is anonymized.  In addition, in many workplace, employee email is routinely monitored by employers. 23
    • Commercial Surveillance Marketing techniques that speak more directly to people interests and personalities. This kind of marketing process is driven by information, particularly information about consumers. The more information available about consumers, the more ‘understood’ a consumer is and thus they become a more direct target for advertisement. The internet was embraced by business as having massive potential to collect, store, analyse and exchange data on consumers (Zwick and Dholakia, 2004), as well as the potential to communicate more directly with them. 24
    • Commercial Surveillance The internet and web have been so revolutionary in this regard because every action that takes place on the web, every purchase, every research, every website viewed and every communication, leaves a trace, data trail, footprint or record of that action. This means that, effectively, all consumer and non consumer activities can be monitored (Zwick and Knott, 2009). If one looks at a company such as Google and its use of some of the digital surveillance tools, it is easy to see how much data one private organization can obtain. 25
    • Discussion Are you worried by commercial surveillance? 26
    • Commercial Surveillance Google provides many valuable services to the web population absolutely free of charge, but makes 99 percent of its revenue from selling directed advertising to consumers. Using any search engine leaves a record of what a specific computer searched for and when. Google stores this information for 13 months to help in its marketing efforts. Google also installs cookies on the computer of each visitor to a Google site, which monitors what web sites are visited and when. GoogleMail, are subject to having their mailboxes data- mined by automated search tools that collect information about what a user is talking about, etc. 27
    • Commercial Surveillance As one can imagine, Google is able to gain unprecedented amounts of information about the users of their services: what they are interested in, what they look at, who their friends are, what advertisements they have responded to in the past. Google’s massive value is based on its growing database of information about consumers. 28
    • Commercial Surveillance We generate more and more information: Supermarket fidelity cards, e-shops such as Amazon, download music from iTunes or vote on talent shows using our mobile phones. These data are subsequently collected and used to create massive databases, which are then bought and sold. These database are used to inform markets of our choices and preferences, enabling them to sell or market products and services in more efficient ways. The data trail we leave behind is used to classify us, to include us in certain categories which then are used to inform production, marketing and distribution of product and services. 29
    • Commercial Surveillance Already Facebook and Twitter are making money by selling ‘analytics’ demographic information combined with user online behaviors, which they collect on the basis of what their users disclose and how they move within these applications. This is raising serious questions regarding information ownership, privacy and exploitation. In some ways, submitting to this constant monitoring in all its forms is seen as participation - we are doing it willingly, because we want to be part of the online networks, and to take advantage of what they offer. 30
    • Discussion How do you feel that Social Network Sites sell your data? 31
    • Commercial Surveillance Advantages of Databases and Profiling:  Customers get more personalized experience and therefore information on goods in which they might be interested;  Helps to avoid customers to receive irrelevant information characteristic of mass advertising (junk mail and spam).  Improves the economic efficiency of marketing activities by making contact with good consumer prospects for a product and weeding out the poor ones.  Although personal information is collected in abundance, the information is not normally subject to direct human surveillance (but automated). 32
    • Interesting Video http://www.cbc.ca/news2/interactives/digitalsurveillanc e/ 33
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    • Minute Paper Most interesting? Least interesting? Most unclear? Most important? Others? 35
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