R2r2

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  • -Treaty of Paris brings peace to N Amer-France lost all territory in N Amer -Colonial Americans took pride in victory they had helped win-there is a feeling of promise in the air and…
  • … a new king on the throne of England,25 year old George III-how in the short span of 13 years did colonies go from loyal subjects to overthrowing most powerful nation on earth
  • -In N Amer Britain had two big problems, Indian unrest on frontier and need for more revenue out of colonies -they wanted colonies to pay part of war debt & contribute towards costs of frontier defense & colonial government -Parliament began imposing new restrictions & laws whereas previously colonies had been allowed to develop largely on their own
  • French army is gone from N. America-British settlers eagerly move across Appalachians onto Native land despite British government’s promises to Natives not to settle these lands -Pontiac’s Rebellion-Indians fought back to protect their land-attacked frontier settlements-uprising put down by fall-made British government see that defending Western lands would be costly -King George III issued Proclamation of 1763-forbade colonists to settle west of the Appalachians-declared it illegal to settle west of the Proclamation line until the Indians could be dealt with -colonists were angry-felt they had won right to settle the Ohio River valley -ignored the law and continued to move west -British government angry at colonists who did not want to pay for their own defense
  • -To keep peace w/ Natives Britain decided to keep 10,000 soldiers in colonies -Colonists had to provide troops w/ food & places to live -prevented by our 3 rd amendment
  • -In past king had asked colonial assemblies to pass taxes to support military actions in colonies but this time Parliament decided to tax Americas directly -tax sugar & molasses imported to colonies from West Indies to raise money for war debt -regulate a colonies trade = mercantilism
  • -Colonists angry because (1)did not think they should be taxed to pay Britain’s debts (2)strict enforcement of import duties would cost colonial merchants a lot of money(colonial smugglers reacted in anger) (3)Taxation w/o representation
  • -Parliament placed tax on any paper that carried a message -Colonists furious because internal vs. external tax -Sugar Act had been tax on imports, affected merchants-Stamp Act was tax applied within colonies, fell directly on all colonists
  • -Colonial leaders met to discuss their concerns-first time the colonies met to consider acting together in protest
  • -They vowed loyalty to the king but insisted that only colonial assemblies could tax colonists -Non-importation agreements signed by colonial merchants in which they pledge not to buy British goods-the boycott hurt British merchants -Sons of Liberty organized by Sam Adams as a group of agitators to protest British policies-not all of their protests were peaceful-they burned stamp paper, attacked customs officials(covered with hot tar and feathers and paraded in public)
  • -Sons of Liberty begins in Boston – see their role as leading the people into the street -Hang Boston’s newly appointed stamp collector, Andrew Oliver, in effigy from an elm tree-soon there would be “liberty trees” and “liberty poles” in every town. -"Under the boughs of the original liberty tree in Bostin in 1765, patriots galling themselves "The Sons of Liberty" gatahered to protest the imposition of the Stamp Act. In the years that followed, almost every American town had a liberty tree - A living symbol of the American Freedom of Speech and Assembly. -"The original Liberty Tree, a stately elm, was a rallying point for pre-revolutionary activities. The open space under its' branches was called "Liberty Hall" and a flag pole was erected through its' branches with a hoisted flag the symbol for action. -"Countless inflammatory cartoons and verses were nailed to its' trunk and many Tories hung in effigy from its' branches. Perhaps its' proudest moment was the repeal of the Stamp Act when innumerable lanterns blazed among its' branches for all to see."
  • -Stamp Act repealed in 1766 due to pressure on Parliament by British merchants-Parliament stated that it could make any laws to control the colonies “in all cases whatsoever”
  • -Parliament stated that it could make laws to control the colonists “in all cases whatsoever” -Colonists celebrated the repeal of the Stamp Act and tried to ignore the Declaratory Act -The great tug of war between Parliament and the colonies had begun
  • -After uproar over Stamp Act Britain hopes to avoid future conflict but still need money to pay for troops in America & Quartering Act not working-NY ass. refused to pay to house troops
  • -1767 Townshend Acts-NY to be made example of & taxes on imports (glass, lead, paint, paper, & tea) -external tax-collected before goods enter colonies -might anger colonists less than direct taxes of Stamp Act (1)New Yorkers angry that assembly suspended-right to self-government (2)people throughout colonies upset by new taxes-no taxation w/o representation
  • -British customs officials use blank search warrants to enter homes & businesses to search for smuggled goods-many feel writs violate natural rights -James Otis hired by Boston merchants to challenge writs in court–“a man’s house is his castle”
  • -Sons announce another boycott-merchants (under pressure from Sons) sign new non-importation agreements -Daughters of Liberty-women’s group supported boycott by making “American products” (homespun cloth & herbal tea)-trade w/ Britain fell sharply -Mass assembly sends circular letter to other assemblies asking for suggestions of ways to oppose Townshend Acts
  • -Fearing loss of control British move 4,000 armed troops into Boston & tension fills streets-Sam & Sons stir up resentment against British -see story
  • -Paul Revere engraved scene that stirred up public reaction -entire incident became tool for anti-British propaganda
  • -Adams was criticized for taking case-he supported colonial cause but wanted to show that colonists followed rule of law
  • -Crisis began to die down-Sam Adams wanted to make sure people did not forget cause of liberty-Groups of colonists responsible for sending messages to one another about issues
  • -1773 Tea Act-Tea was very popular in the colonies but much was smuggled from Holland -Cut tax on imported tea & gave East India Co control over American tea trade-tea would arrive in colonies only on their ships and be sold by its merchants directly to colonists without paying the taxes colonial merchants had to pay -lowers price of tea even cheaper than smuggled tea-would have cost colonial tea merchants(smugglers) a lot of money
  • -Protests against Tea Act taking place all over the colonies-colonists refused to buy tea–sent shiploads of tea back to Britain - Polly letter
  • -In Boston Governor Hutchinson refuses to sent the tea back-Sons of Liberty, disguised as Indians dump the tea in the harbor – twice Dec 1773 & March 1774 – costing the British about $3 million in modern money
  • R2r2

    1. 1. 6.1 Tighter British Control
    2. 2. North America, 1763
    3. 3. King George III
    4. 4. When the French and Indian War ended in North America Britain had two big problems 1. War debt-they need more revenue out of the colonies 2. Indian unrest on the frontier <ul><li>When the French and Indian War ended Britain imposed new laws and restrictions on the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Salutary Neglect- </li></ul><ul><li>The colonies had been allowed to develop largely on their own </li></ul>
    5. 5. Pontiac’s rebellion -In the summer of 1763 Native groups attacked British settlers and forts in the west <ul><li>King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763 which forbade the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian mountains </li></ul>
    6. 6. The British Parliament passed the Quartering Act as a cost saving measure.. <ul><li>It required the colonies to house, or quarter, British soldiers and provide them with supplies </li></ul><ul><li>To keep peace with the Native Britain decided to keep 10,000 soldiers in the colonies </li></ul>
    7. 7. In 1764 the Parliament passed the Sugar Act which taxed sugar, molasses and other products shipped to the colonies <ul><li>In the past the king had asked the colonial assemblies to pass taxes to support military actions in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>This time Parliament taxed colonial trade directly to raise money for the war debt </li></ul>
    8. 8. Colonists angry because: <ul><li>Did not think they should be taxed to pay Britain’s debt </li></ul><ul><li>Strict enforcement of import duties would cost colonial merchants a lot of money (smuggling was more profitable) </li></ul><ul><li>“ No taxation without representation!” - Colonial leaders, such as James Otis, claimed that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies because the colonies were not represented in Parliament </li></ul>
    9. 9. In 1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act . It required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid
    10. 11. The Stamp Act Congress was a meeting held in New York City in October, 1765 <ul><li>Colonial leaders met to discuss their concerns </li></ul><ul><li>First time the colonies met to consider acting together in protest </li></ul>
    11. 12. The colonies protested the Stamp Act <ul><li>The Stamp Act Congress drew up a petition to the king which declared that the right to tax the colonies belonged to the colonial assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial merchants organized a boycott (refusal to buy) of British goods </li></ul><ul><li>Some colonists formed secret societies to oppose British policies such as the Sons of Liberty </li></ul>
    12. 13. Tarring and Feathering a Tory <ul><li>group of agitators </li></ul><ul><li>Not all of their protests were peaceful </li></ul>
    13. 14. Sam Adams was the leader of the Sons of Liberty.
    14. 15. The Stamp Act was repealed (taken back) in 1766 due to pressure on Parliament by British merchants hurt by the boycott
    15. 16. At the same time Parliament repealed the Stamp Act they passed the Declaratory Act stating that they had supreme authority to govern the colonies. <ul><li>The colonists celebrated the repeal of the Stamp Act and ignored the Declaratory Act </li></ul><ul><li>The great tug of war between Parliament and the colonies had begun </li></ul>
    16. 17. 6.2 Colonial Resistance Grows
    17. 18. The Townshend Acts , 1767 <ul><li>Suspended New York’s assembly until New Yorkers agreed to provide housing for troops, to comply with the Quartering Act </li></ul><ul><li>Placed duties ( import taxes ) on imports such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament hoped that a tax on trade, collected before goods entered the colonies, might anger colonists less than the direct tax of the Stamp Act </li></ul>Charles Townshend Chancellor of the Exchequer (Treasurer)
    18. 19. Writs of Assistance would be used to enforce the new tax laws. <ul><li>They were blank search warrants to enter homes and businesses to search for smuggled goods </li></ul><ul><li>Many felt the writs violated natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>James Otis - “A man’s home is his castle” </li></ul>
    19. 20. To protest the Townshend Acts .. <ul><li>Sons of Liberty announce another boycott - Colonial merchants under “pressure” from the Sons sign non-importation agreements </li></ul><ul><li>The Daughters of Liberty, a woman’s group, organizes to support the boycott by making “American” products </li></ul><ul><li>The Massachusetts assembly sends a circular letter to other assemblies asking for suggestions of ways to oppose the Townshend Acts </li></ul>
    20. 21. Fearing loss of control the British move 4,000 armed troops into Boston and tension fills the streets
    21. 22. The tension explodes when 5 people are killed in the Boston Massacre.
    22. 23. John Adams defended the redcoats that were arrested. <ul><li>Wanted to show that the colonists followed the rule of law </li></ul>
    23. 24. On the same day of the Boston Massacre Parliament had proposed the repeal of all the Townshend Acts except for the tax on tea. <ul><li>Crisis began to die down </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott of British tea continues </li></ul>
    24. 25. Sam Adams establishes the Committees of Correspondence to exchange letters about colonial affairs and issues. <ul><li>He wanted to make sure people did not forget the cause of liberty </li></ul>
    25. 26. <ul><li>Parliament passed the Tea Act (1773) which cut the tax on imported tea and gave the British East India company a monopoly on the American tea trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Tea would arrive in the colonies only on their ships and be sold by its merchants directly to colonists without paying the taxes colonial merchants had to pay </li></ul><ul><li>Bad for the patriots because.. </li></ul><ul><li>It lowered the price of tea even below the cost of smuggled tea and that would break the boycott. </li></ul><ul><li>It would have cost the colonial tea merchants (smugglers) a lot of money. </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>Protests against Tea Act are taking place all over the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sons of Liberty are sending shiploads of tea back to Britain with threats. </li></ul><ul><li>In Boston Governor Hutchinson refuses to send the tea back </li></ul>
    27. 28. The Sons of Liberty organized the Boston Tea Party .
    28. 29. After the Tea Party Britain wanted.. <ul><li>Repayment </li></ul><ul><li>The men who destroyed the tea to be brought to trial </li></ul>

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