The First British Colonies in the Americas The English had two failed attempts to establish a colony in North America. Not until almost twenty years after the defeat of the Spanish Armada could England begin to create their own permanent colonies in the Americas.
Queen Elizabeth I gave Sir Walter Raleigh the first parcel of land to be settled, Roanoke Island. By 1585 Roanoke was settled. The first English child was born in America, her name was Virginia Dare. By 1586 the settlers had disappeared! England Experiments with Colonizing the New World I want to go back to England
Raleigh lost all of his investment and the English government realized they needed to have companies with large sums of money to create lasting colonies . Two companies were formed in 1606: The Virginia Company of London And The Virginia Company of Plymouth England's First Permanent Settlement FAILS
Mercantilism In the economic theory of Mercantilism, the mother country benefits from the raw materials of the colony. Trade is regulated so that the mother country reaps most of the profits. Raw Materials Manufactured goods
The new King of England, King James I, gave permission for the Virginia Company of London to settle in the Americas. More than 100 colonists sailed across the Atlantic and up the James river until they found a spot to settle. England's First Permanent Settlement Bring me fame and gold!
Jamestown was founded in the area that today we call North Carolina. The fort was created in the middle of a swampy area but they could reach the ships for safety if needed. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/jqtvr.html England's First Permanent Settlement 1607
By 1608, most of the original settlers had died due to the harsh conditions and a disease called malaria. The colonist spent most of their time looking for gold instead of creating the supplies and shelters needed to survive. Moreover, most of the settlers were unskilled adventurers and unable to build a strong settlement.
John Smith takes control of the colony and forces the colonists to work together to gather food and build proper shelter. He establishes martial law and any colonist that doesn’t work can be whipped. By 1609,with Smith’s leadership the colony gets organized. Smith suddenly gets hurt and has to head back to England on the next ship. The colonists are leaderless and their troubles are starting to mount.
In 1610 a harsh winter hits Jamestown Only 60 people survive the “Starving Time.” Colonists were forced to eat rats and snakes. The first recorded execution occurred when it was found that one man had survived the winter by eating his dead wife.
Just when most wanted to return to England 800 more settlers show up with with supplies and a new governor Lord De La Warr. Some settlers who had survived the winter went back to England never to return to Jamestown. We’re Here! We’re Saved
Around the same time a man arrives at Jamestown named John Rolf. He soon discovers a sweeter tasting tobacco and begins to grow it . Soon everyone in Jamestown is growing tobacco and selling it to the English and Dutch ships that visit Jamestown.. 1617 Making a Profit
The people of Jamestown were sick of military rule (started by John Smith) so they decided to set up a new government. They created the House of Burgesses 1619, important leaders from each section of Jamestown could go to the House and voice their opinions. The House of Burgesses was the first Representative assembly in the Americas . A Representative Government is Formed The honorable man from West Jamestown has the floor. I hereby declare that we take all the available lands away from the Native population at once! All in favor say I! I I I I
By 1619 the first servants came to Jamestown; they were both African and English. They were called indentured servants, because, as soon as they worked off the money they owed they could buy their own land and live free. Moreover, a Dutch sailing ship sold four Caribbean slaves to the settlers of Jamestown, Slavery Comes to Jamestown
The local natives known as the Powhatans grew angry as Jamestown settlers started to claim natives lands. To settle the problems a marriage took place Pocahontas married the tobacco guy, John Rolfe and the dispute over land was put off; at least for a while. A Deal is Made Marry my daughter and we’ll have peace!
For a time, the natives and the settlers got along. The natives even showed the people of Jamestown where to fish and how to grow corn. In fact, without the help from the natives, the Jamestown settlement would have failed. The Natives Help Jamestown Let me show you how to grow corn and fish this area.
But as in life, all good things come to an end 1623. The settlers grew too greedy for Native lands and the Powhaton grew angrier. Jamestown was attacked and almost burned to the ground. Hundreds of settlers were killed. The Peace Ends
A Jamestown settler by the name of Nathaniel Bacon thought that taking land from the natives was the best way to become rich. He could grow more tobacco and sell more land to newcomers. The governor Lord Berkeley, disagreed, Bacon reacted by leading a revolt against Jamestown and ran the governor off. Unfortunately for Bacon, he soon died from disease and Jamestown was returned to the governor. The Natives, and Jamestown would survive for a little while longer. 1676 Internal Unrest We’ll see who runs this place!