Classification of Immunity


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Classification of Immunity

  1. 1. M.PRASAD NAIDU Msc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D Research scholar. 1
  2. 2. outline• Immunity 1.introduction 2.types of immunity innate immunity acquired immunity natural immunity artificial immunity 30 March 2014 2
  3. 3. IMMUNITY • The term immunity refers to the resistance exhibited by the host towards infection caused by micro organisms and their products(toxins). • This is based on the property of self and non self recognition. That means immunity is carried out by the process of recognition and disposal of non self or materials that enter the body. • Immune response is the reaction of the body against any foreign antigen. • But protection against infection disease is only a part of it. 30 March 2014 3
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  5. 5. Innate immunity • It is comes because of genetic and constitutional make up. • It has no relation ship with previous bacterial infection and immunisation. • It acts as first line of deffence agenest infections, micro organisms, their products before they cause disease. 30 March 2014 5
  6. 6. • The various non specific diffenc mechanisms are present. 1.anatomical and physical barriers. 2.physiological and chemical barriers. 3.biological barriers. 4.general barriers. 30 March 2014 6
  7. 7. Physiological and chemical barriers • The barriers prevent the entry of pathogens to resist infection. • These include Ex; skin, mucous membrane, coughing and sneezing, etc. 30 March 2014 7
  8. 8. skin 30 March 2014 8
  9. 9. Mucous membrane 30 March 2014 9 The respiratory , GIT etc. lined by mucous membrane It blocks the micro organisms because of its sticky nature. coughing and sneezing the mechanical actions may help in driving out the foreign particles that enter the digestive and respiratory
  10. 10. Physiological and chemical barriers • Human milk: this is very rich in anti bacterial substances. Ex:IgA, lacto feritin, neuraminic acid etc. they fight against E.coli and stephylococci. • Secrition of the digestiv tract: stomach as microbicidal effect. This is due to the presence of Hcl in the gastric juice. This Hcl is secreted by oxyntic cell lining stomach. • Nasal secretion and saliva: • Inter ferans: • Compliment: 30 March 2014 10
  11. 11. Biological barriers • These includes mono nuclear phagocytic system which was originally called reticulo endothelial system(RES). • Biological barriers include endocytosis. • Endocytosis: it is the process in which cells absorb materials from the out side of the environment by engulfing them with their cell membrane. Types: the absorbing of material from the out side of the environment of cell is comanly divided in to 2 types. 1.Phagocytasis. 2.pinocytosis 30 March 2014 11
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  13. 13. General barriers • age: the very young and very old are most susceptable to infections. Ex: 1. fetus is protected by placental barriers. old stage people have reduce or loss the host defences. • Racial immunity: • Individual immunity: 30 March 2014 13
  14. 14. Acquired immunity • The acquiring of immunity from out side source is known as acquired immunity. • It is result of action of 2 major groups of cells. 1.lymphocytes 2.antigen presenting cells This immunity is initiated by the recognition of a foreign antigen and the response to this recognition. It is highly adaptive and has 4importent features. 1.antigen specificity. 2.diversity. 3.immunological memory. 4.recognition self from non-self. 30 March 2014 14
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  16. 16. Active immunity • It is the production of immunity against particular organisms after exposure. • Natural active immunity: This immunity develops by natural processes like infections. Ex:the infection like small pox are cured by the active function of the immune system. • Artificial active immunity: here instead of natural infections. Infection is created artificially by using various types of vaccines. Ex: polio vaccine, cholera vaccine etc. 30 March 2014 16
  17. 17. Action of lymphocytes and Apcs • Lymphocytes: they poses antigen binding cell surface receptors. • Antigen presenting cells: they have class-2 MHC on their surface and they present anti gens to lymphocytes. • This immune response is of 2 types 1.humoral immune response 2.cell mediated immune response. 30 March 2014 17
  18. 18. Passive immunity• Acquiring of the antibodies passively from an immunized donor to a non-immunized recipient is noun as passive immunity. natural passive immunity: it occurs when anti bodies are transferred from the donar to the recipient in a natural manner. Ex: Transfer of anti bodies from the mother to the feotus through the placenta (IgGAntibodies) artificial passive immunity: the transfer anti bodies and sensitised lymphocytes from immunized donar to the non- immunized recipient artificially. Ex:antibodies produce in the horse serum and GMOS(genitically modified organisms). 30 March 2014 18
  19. 19. THANK YOU 30 March 2014 19