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Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
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Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

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  • 1. Gene Expression in Eukaryotes M.Prasad Naidu MSc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D,.
  • 2. Outline  Central dogma in Eukaryotes  Nature of Genes in Eukaryotes  Initiation and Elongation of Transcription  RNA Processing
  • 3. Coding and Non-coding Sequences In bacteria, the RNA made is translated to a protein In eukaryotic cells, the primary transcript is made of coding sequences called exons and non-coding sequences called introns It is the exons that make up the mRNA that gets translated to a protein
  • 4. Eukaryotic Transcription Transcription occurs in the nucleus in eukaryotes, nucleoid in bacteria Translation occurs on ribosomes in the cytoplasm mRNA is transported out of nucleus through the nuclear pores
  • 5. In Eukaryotes (cells where the DNA is sequestered in a separate nucleus) the exons must be spliced (many eukaryotes genes contain no introns! Particularly true in ´lower´ organisms). mRNA (messenger RNA) contains the assembled copy of the gene. The mRNA acts as a messenger to carry the information stored in the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm where the ribosomes can make it into protein. Eukaryotic Central Dogma
  • 6. ~6 to 12% of human DNA encodes proteins (higher fraction in nematode) ~90% of human DNA is non-coding ~10% of human DNA codes for UTR Eukaryotic Genome - Facts
  • 7. Untranslated regions (UTRs) • Introns (can be genes within introns of another gene!) •Intergenic regions: - Repetitive elements - Pseudogenes (dead genes that may (or may not) have been retroposed back in the genome as a single-exon “gene” Non-Coding Eukaryotic DNA
  • 8. Eukaryotic Nuclear Genes Genes transcribed by RNA Pol II •Upstream Enhancer elements. •Upstream Promoter elements. •GC box (-90nt) (20bp), CAAT box (-75 nt) (22bp) •TATA promoter (-30 nt - 70%, 15 nt consensus (Bucher et al., 1990) •Transcription initiation. •Transcript region, interrupted by introns. Translation Initiation (Kozak signal - 12 bp consensus - 6 bp prior to initiation codon) •polyA signal (AATAAA, 99%)
  • 9. •Transcript region is interrupted by introns Each intron (on DNA):  starts with a donor site consensus (G100T100A62A68G84T63..) – GU on RNA  has a branch site near 3’ end of intron (one not very conserved consensus UACUAAC)  ends with an acceptor site consensus. (12Py..NC65A100G100) Introns ……AG GUAAGU ………A ……(Py) …..NCAG GU Donor 5’ splice site Acceptor 3’ splice site
  • 10. The exons of the transcript region are composed of:  5’ UTR with a mean length of 769 bp  AUG (or other start codon)  Remainder of coding region  Stop Codon  3’ UTR with a mean length of 457 bp Exons
  • 11. RNA polymerase I- makes precursors for ribosomal RNAs (except for smallest subunit) RNA polymerase II- mRNA and snRNAs (involved in RNA processing) RNA polymerase III- variety of RNAs: smallest rRNA subunit, tRNA precursors Each uses a different promoter (DNA sequences that direct polymerase to begin tran- scribing there) Promoters are “upstream” from coding sequence Eukaryotic RNA polymerases
  • 12. Polymerases also use transcription factors Bind in a specified order, either to promoter or each other RNA polymerase II must be phosphorylated before it can start synthesizing RNA Sequences of Eukaryotic promoter
  • 13. Initiation in Eukaryotes TRANSCRIPTION RNA PROCESSING TRANSLATION DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Polypeptide Eukaryotic promoters T A T A AA A A T A T T T T TATA box Start point Template DNA strand 5 3 3 5 Several transcription factors Additional transcription factors Transcription factors 5 3 3 5 1 2 3 Promoter 5 3 3 55 RNA polymerase II Transcription factors RNA transcript Transcription initiation complex Several transcription factors must bind to promoter sequences upstream of the gene Then RNA polymerase can bind TATA box
  • 14. Requirements for initiation of Transcription
  • 15. Binding order of Transcription Factors
  • 16. General transcription factors Eukaryotic Transcription initiation TATA binding protein (TBP)/TFIID binds to TATA box (-25)
  • 17. Role of Enhancers in Initiation
  • 18. Overall Transcription Process

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