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Sensor networks

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    Sensor networks Sensor networks Presentation Transcript

    • Smart Cities Wireless sensor networks Marc Pous, Researcher Jornades Abertis, BDigital, 2011
        • Motivation
        • Sensor networks
        • Applications and companies
        • Future challenges
      of 45
        • Motivation
        • Elements of a sensor network
        • Trends in sensor networks
        • Overview challenges
        • Sensor networks
        • Applications and companies
        • Future challenges
      of 45
    • Source: Fabien Girardin and Josep Blat of 45
      • In 2008, 50% of the world population lived in cities.
      • By 2012, M2M communication will be 20% of the non-video Internet traffic.
      • IPv6
        • Passive  Interactive
        • Deferred  Real-time
        • Object  Service
      Trends in sensor networks of 45
      • Energy harvesting
      • Hardware constraints
      • Security and privacy
      • Interoperability (data and communications)
      Overview challenges of 45
    • Sensor networks of 45
        • Motivation
        • Sensor networks
          • Sensor node architecture
          • Sensor networks topologies
          • Sensor networks communication technologies
          • Sensor networks routing techniques
          • Sensor networks data
        • Applications and companies
        • Future challenges
      of 45
        • A sensor network is a system of one or more sensors that detect, collect and possibly respond to things or events.
        • Large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it.
        • Inter-connected sensor nodes exchanging sensed data by wired or wireless processing.
      Sensor network architecture of 45
      • A sensor node integrates one or more sensors or actuators , a processor , a communication unit , a power supply and management unit.
      Sensor node architecture Source: Wireless Sensor Networks by Thomas Watteyene of 45
      • Motes
          • A very low cost low power computer
          • Nanotechnology
          • A Radio Link to the outside world
          • Are the building blocks of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)
        • The most popular motes probably are:
          • Mica2
          • MicaZ
          • TelosB
      Sensor node architecture of 45
      • Operating systems
      Sensor node architecture of 45 Operating system Sensor node supported platform TinyOS Btnode, Imote, Iris, Mica, Mica2, MicaZ, SenseNode, TelosB, T-Mote Sky, Shimmer Contiki T-Mote Sky, TelosB, MSP430 MCU Mantis OS Mica2, MicaZ, Nymph, TelosB SOS T-Mote Sky, Mica2, MicaZ, TelosB, Cricket Microsoft .NET Micro Imote 2.0
      • Network routing is the process of selecting a path for the relaying of a message from a source device to the intended destination.
      • WSN topology
          • Star topology
          • Tree topology
          • Mesh topology
      Sensor networks topologies of 45
    • Sensor networks routing techniques
      • Routing protocols
          • Flat routing
          • Hierachical routing
          • Geographic routing
          • Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)
            • Ad-hoc On- demand Distance Vector (AODV)
          • IETF Routing Over Low power and Lossy Networks (ROLL)
            • IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (RPL)
      of 45
    • Sensor networks communication technologies of 45 Bluetooth ZigBee 6LoWPAN Range 10-100 m 10-75 m 10-75 m Owner Bluetooth SIG ZigBee Alliance IETF Application sectors
      • Mobile device interconnectivity
      • PC peripheral connectivity
      • file transfer (OBEX)
      • remote control
      • health care
      • Sensor networks
      • access control
      • home automation
      • Sensor networks
      • Access control
      • home automation
    • Sensor networks communication technologies
      • Communication technologies interoperability
        • Profiles
          • ZigBee
            • Elster Demonstrates ZigBee Interoperability with Smart Energy profile
          • Bluetooth Low Energy
        • Trends
          • Protocol translation gateways
          • Benefits of IPv6
            • The Z-Wave Alliance announced the Z/IP program to drive convergence of Z-Wave and TCP/IP (2007)
            • The ZigBee Alliance and IPSO Alliance Collaborate on ZigBee IP and ZigBee Smart Energy 2.0 (2009-2010)
      of 45
      • Web of Things
      Sensor networks data Source: Vlad Trifa and Dominique Guinard of 45
      • XML
        • Binary XML (BXML)
        • Efficient XML Interchange (EXI)
        • Extended Environments Markup Language (EEML)
          • Describes sensors data collected in a structured form
        • SensorML
          • Provides metadata describing sensors, sensor platforms, sensor tasking interfaces as sensor generated data
      • Harmonization of Sensor Standards WG
        • Sensor ontology
          • including IEEE 1451, ANSI N42.42 and CBRN data model, among others
      Sensor networks data of 45
      • Pachube
      Sensor networks data Source: Pachube of 45
    • Applications and companies involved in sensor networks of 45
        • Motivation
        • Sensor networks
        • Applications and companies
          • Energy monitoring
          • Logistics
          • Environmental monitoring
          • Public spaces management
          • Intelligent buildings
          • Traffic control and public transportation
          • Health and personal assistance care monitoring
          • Industrial processes
        • Future challenges
      of 45
    • Applications of sensor networks 1/8
      • Energy monitoring
      of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Smart metering
      • Electricity
      • Gas
      • Water
          • Landis Gyr (CH), Itron (UK), Echelon (US), Coronis/Elster (FR, US), Millenial Net (US), Libelium (ES), Sentilla (US), Ember (US), Sensus (US )
      • American model vs European model
      • ZigBee
      • PLC
      Pipe leakage detection and tank or silos level management
      • Oil
      • Water
          • Landis Gyr (CH), Vögtlin (CH), Honeywell (US), Coronis/Elster (FR, US), Sensus (US)
      • BP North Sea platform 2004
      • ZigBee
      • Coronis / Elster
        • Coronis is the creator of Wavenis®
        • Major markets:
          • smart metering, home comfort, alarms, home healthcare, industrial automation, centralized building management
        • 5M of Wavenis-enabled products deployed worldwide in 2010
      Companies in sensor networks of 45
    • Applications of sensor networks 2/8
      • Logistics
      of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Control of the state of the merchandise
      • Temperature
      • Humidity
      • etc.
      • Vibration
      • Position (GPS)
          • Crossbow (US), Tiny Node (CH), Libelium (ES), WorldSensing (ES)
      Localization of merchandise and transportation tracking
      • GeoPosition
      • Barcodes/RFID
          • Digi (US), Libelium (ES), GMV (ES), Ubisense
      • Harbors container management
      • RFID
      • ZigBee
      • Digi International
        • Founded in 1985, in United States.
        • Major markets:
          • Monitoring and management of renewable energy
          • Wireless tank monitoring and management
          • Tracking and monitoring of mobile assets
      Companies in sensor networks of 45
      • Environmental monitoring
      Applications of sensor networks 3/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Weather stations
      • Temperature
      • Humidity
      • Atmospheric pressure
      • Light intensity
      • CO2 detector
          • Crossbow (US), Arch Rock (Cisco), Urbiotica (ES)
      • Emissions from farms, chemical and industrial processes
      • Forest fires
      Agriculture
      • Soil moisture
      • Fruit diameter
      • Leaf wetness
          • Crossbow (US), E-Senza (UK), Libelium (ES), IRIS (ES)
      • Vineyards
      Marine
      • Temperature
      • Presence of bacteries
      • Sea level
          • MantraCourt (UK), Honeywell (US)
      • Crossbow
        • Created in 1995, in California
        • Major markets:
          • Environmental systems and agriculture
          • Logistics
          • Monitors energy
      Companies in sensor networks of XX
      • Public spaces management
      Applications of sensor networks 4/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Structural monitoring
      • Vibrations
      • Displacement detection
      • Temperature
          • MantraCourt (UK)
      • San Francisco bridge
      Garbage collection
      • Container emptiness
      • GeoPosition
          • WorldSensing (ES)
      • Route planner
      Street light systems
      • Presence detection
      • Energy consumption
          • Philips (NE), Echelon (US)
      • Echelon
        • Created in 1988, in United States
        • Major markets:
          • Building automation (LonWorks)
          • Street lighting
          • Industrial automation
          • Transportation automation
      Companies in sensor networks of XX
      • Intelligent buildings
      Applications of sensor networks 5/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Home automation
      • Temperature
      • Light detector
      • Presence detectors
      • Energy consumption
          • General Electrics (US), Control4 (US), Greenwave (DK), Hai (US), Echelon (US)
      Building management
      • Access controls
      • HVAC systems
          • Scheneider (GE), Siemens (GE), Philips (NE), enOcean (GE)
      • EnOcean
        • Created in 2001, in Germany
        • Sensor modules from EnOcean harvest tiny amounts of energy from their surroundings, enabling them to register detected values and transmit them wirelessly.
        • Major markets:
          • Building automation
          • Home automation
        • Torre Espacio de Madrid
          • 4,200 light and blind switches
          • http://www.enocean.com/en/torre-espacio-madrid-spain-2007/
      Companies in sensor networks of 45
      • Transportation
      Applications of sensor networks 6/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Traffic monitoring
      • Cameras
      • GeoPosition
      • Speed
          • BitCarrier (ES), WorldSensing (ES), Sensys Networks (US), Nivis (US), Smartgrains (FR), Echelon (US)
      • Traffic jams management
            • Cameras, inductive loops, GPS, Bluetooth detectors, MEMS
      Toll payment
      • RFID (presence)
          • Urbiotica (ES)
      • Teletac
      Smart parking
      • Presence detector
          • Streetline networks (US), World Sensing (ES), Urbiotica (ES)
      • Inductive loops
      • Parking payment through mobile phone
      • Streetline Networks
        • Created in California
        • Major markets:
          • Parking monitoring and management
          • Traffic monitoring
      Companies in sensor networks of 45
      • Health
      Applications of sensor networks 7/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Healthcare
      • Blood’s pressure
      • Temperature
      • Sugar in blood
      • etc.
          • Philipps (HO), Coronis (FR), Sensinode (FI)
      • Body sensor network
      Sports and fitness (wellness)
      • Geoposition
      • Speed
      • Calories
      • etc.
          • Dynastream Innovations (CA), Nordic Semiconductor (NO)
      • ANT
      • Nike+
        • Personal care and assistance
      • Gyroscope
      • Accelerometer
          • Sensing & Control (ES)
      • Falling detector
      • Dynastream Innovations
        • Created in 1998, is based in Canada.
        • World leader in the research of inertial and wireless technology. Integrators of ANT technology into sensors.
          • Nike products
            • ANT was born out of the need to develop the very lowest available power solution for Nike’s foot pod to watch communication.
      Companies in sensor networks of 45
      • Industrial monitoring
      Applications of sensor networks 8/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Process monitoring
      • Temperature
      • pressure
      • contact closure
      • valve positioning
      • gas detection
      • corrosion detection
      • Optical detector
          • Dust Networks (US), CrossBow (US), SENSICAST(US), Arch Rock (Cisco), E-Senza (GE), Nivis (US), Honeywell (US)
      • Quality of service
      • Time Synchronized Mesh Protocol (TSMP)
      • WirelessHART
      • ISA100.11a
      • Xmesh
      • Sensinet
      Security in processes
      • Camera
      • Gas detector
          • Honeywell (US) , Gastronics (US)
      • Honeywell
        • Created in 1906, in United States
        • Major markets:
          • Metering sensors and Industrial processes
      Companies in sensor networks of 45
    • of 45 Nordic Semiconductors, Atmel Corp EnOcean Dust networks Libelium World Sensing, Sensing & Control, Urbiòtica, Streetline Crossbow Arch Rock (Cisco) Texas Instruments, Freescale Coronis/Elster Digi International
    • Future challenges in sensor networks of 45
        • Motivation
        • Sensor networks
        • Applications and companies
        • Future challenges
          • Efficient energy harvesting
          • Security and privacy
          • Hardware constraints
          • Interoperability
      of 45
      • Efficient energy harvesting
        • Lack of power during some time
        • Consume extremely low power
      Future challenges of 45
      • Security and privacy
        • Security
        • Privacy
        • Dynamic and scalable sensor networks
      Future challenges of 45
      • Hardware constraints
        • Trends to nanotechnology
        • Performance
        • Low production cost
        • Repair
        • Monitoring and real-time control
      Future challenges of 45
      • Interoperability
        • Standardization
        • IP-based sensor networks and the Internet of Things
      Future challenges of 45
    • Moltes gràcies! [email_address] Questions? [email_address]