Smart Cities Wireless sensor networks Marc Pous, Researcher Jornades Abertis, BDigital, 2011
<ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications and companies </...
<ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of a sensor network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends in sensor...
Source: Fabien Girardin and Josep Blat  of 45
<ul><li>In 2008, 50% of the world population lived in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2012, M2M communication will be 20% of ...
<ul><li>Energy harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul><ul><li>...
Sensor networks  of 45
<ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor node architecture ...
<ul><ul><li>A sensor network is a system of one or more sensors that detect, collect and possibly respond to things or eve...
<ul><li>A  sensor node  integrates one or more  sensors  or  actuators , a  processor , a  communication unit , a  power  ...
<ul><li>Motes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A very low cost low power computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnol...
<ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul>Sensor node architecture  of 45 Operating system Sensor node supported platform TinyOS...
<ul><li>Network routing is the process of selecting a path for the relaying of a message from a source device to the inten...
Sensor networks routing techniques <ul><li>Routing protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flat routing </li></ul></ul></ul><u...
Sensor networks communication technologies  of 45 Bluetooth ZigBee 6LoWPAN Range 10-100 m 10-75 m 10-75 m Owner Bluetooth ...
Sensor networks communication technologies <ul><li>Communication technologies interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profi...
<ul><li>Web of Things </li></ul>Sensor networks data Source: Vlad Trifa and Dominique Guinard  of 45
<ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary XML (BXML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Pachube </li></ul>Sensor networks data Source: Pachube  of 45
Applications and companies involved in sensor networks  of 45
<ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications and companies </...
Applications of sensor networks  1/8 <ul><li>Energy monitoring </li></ul> of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies ...
<ul><li>Coronis / Elster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronis is the creator of Wavenis® </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets...
Applications of sensor networks  2/8 <ul><li>Logistics </li></ul> of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments...
<ul><li>Digi International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1985, in United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major marke...
<ul><li>Environmental monitoring </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks  3/8  of 45 Application What can be sensed? Com...
<ul><li>Crossbow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created  in 1995, in California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></ul...
<ul><li>Public spaces management </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks  4/8  of 45 Application What can be sensed? Com...
<ul><li>Echelon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1988, in United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></u...
<ul><li>Intelligent buildings </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks  5/8  of 45 Application What can be sensed? Compan...
<ul><li>EnOcean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 2001, in Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor modules from EnOcean h...
<ul><li>Transportation </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks  6/8  of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Com...
<ul><li>Streetline Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></u...
<ul><li>Health </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks  7/8  of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments He...
<ul><li>Dynastream Innovations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1998, is based in Canada. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World...
<ul><li>Industrial monitoring </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks  8/8  of 45 Application What can be sensed? Compan...
<ul><li>Honeywell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1906, in United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li><...
 of 45 Nordic Semiconductors, Atmel Corp EnOcean Dust networks Libelium World Sensing, Sensing & Control, Urbiòtica, Stree...
Future challenges in sensor networks  of 45
<ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications and companies </...
<ul><li>Efficient energy harvesting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of power during some time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consum...
<ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Hardware constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends to nanotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></...
<ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP-based sensor networks and the...
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Sensor networks

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  1. 1. Smart Cities Wireless sensor networks Marc Pous, Researcher Jornades Abertis, BDigital, 2011
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications and companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future challenges </li></ul></ul> of 45
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of a sensor network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends in sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications and companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future challenges </li></ul></ul> of 45
  4. 4. Source: Fabien Girardin and Josep Blat of 45
  5. 5. <ul><li>In 2008, 50% of the world population lived in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2012, M2M communication will be 20% of the non-video Internet traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive  Interactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deferred  Real-time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object  Service </li></ul></ul>Trends in sensor networks of 45
  6. 6. <ul><li>Energy harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability (data and communications) </li></ul>Overview challenges of 45
  7. 7. Sensor networks of 45
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor node architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks topologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks communication technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks routing techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications and companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future challenges </li></ul></ul> of 45
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>A sensor network is a system of one or more sensors that detect, collect and possibly respond to things or events. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-connected sensor nodes exchanging sensed data by wired or wireless processing. </li></ul></ul>Sensor network architecture of 45
  10. 10. <ul><li>A sensor node integrates one or more sensors or actuators , a processor , a communication unit , a power supply and management unit. </li></ul>Sensor node architecture Source: Wireless Sensor Networks by Thomas Watteyene of 45
  11. 11. <ul><li>Motes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A very low cost low power computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Radio Link to the outside world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are the building blocks of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most popular motes probably are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mica2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MicaZ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TelosB </li></ul></ul></ul>Sensor node architecture of 45
  12. 12. <ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul>Sensor node architecture of 45 Operating system Sensor node supported platform TinyOS Btnode, Imote, Iris, Mica, Mica2, MicaZ, SenseNode, TelosB, T-Mote Sky, Shimmer Contiki T-Mote Sky, TelosB, MSP430 MCU Mantis OS Mica2, MicaZ, Nymph, TelosB SOS T-Mote Sky, Mica2, MicaZ, TelosB, Cricket Microsoft .NET Micro Imote 2.0
  13. 13. <ul><li>Network routing is the process of selecting a path for the relaying of a message from a source device to the intended destination. </li></ul><ul><li>WSN topology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Star topology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tree topology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesh topology </li></ul></ul></ul>Sensor networks topologies of 45
  14. 14. Sensor networks routing techniques <ul><li>Routing protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flat routing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierachical routing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic routing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ad-hoc On- demand Distance Vector (AODV) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IETF Routing Over Low power and Lossy Networks (ROLL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (RPL) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul> of 45
  15. 15. Sensor networks communication technologies of 45 Bluetooth ZigBee 6LoWPAN Range 10-100 m 10-75 m 10-75 m Owner Bluetooth SIG ZigBee Alliance IETF Application sectors <ul><li>Mobile device interconnectivity </li></ul><ul><li>PC peripheral connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>file transfer (OBEX) </li></ul><ul><li>remote control </li></ul><ul><li>health care </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>access control </li></ul><ul><li>home automation </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>Access control </li></ul><ul><li>home automation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sensor networks communication technologies <ul><li>Communication technologies interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZigBee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elster Demonstrates ZigBee Interoperability with Smart Energy profile </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth Low Energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol translation gateways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits of IPv6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Z-Wave Alliance announced the Z/IP program to drive convergence of Z-Wave and TCP/IP (2007) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ZigBee Alliance and IPSO Alliance Collaborate on ZigBee IP and ZigBee Smart Energy 2.0 (2009-2010) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul> of 45
  17. 17. <ul><li>Web of Things </li></ul>Sensor networks data Source: Vlad Trifa and Dominique Guinard of 45
  18. 18. <ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary XML (BXML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended Environments Markup Language (EEML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describes sensors data collected in a structured form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SensorML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides metadata describing sensors, sensor platforms, sensor tasking interfaces as sensor generated data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmonization of Sensor Standards WG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>including IEEE 1451, ANSI N42.42 and CBRN data model, among others </li></ul></ul></ul>Sensor networks data of 45
  19. 19. <ul><li>Pachube </li></ul>Sensor networks data Source: Pachube of 45
  20. 20. Applications and companies involved in sensor networks of 45
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications and companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public spaces management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic control and public transportation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health and personal assistance care monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future challenges </li></ul></ul> of 45
  22. 22. Applications of sensor networks 1/8 <ul><li>Energy monitoring </li></ul> of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Smart metering <ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landis Gyr (CH), Itron (UK), Echelon (US), Coronis/Elster (FR, US), Millenial Net (US), Libelium (ES), Sentilla (US), Ember (US), Sensus (US ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>American model vs European model </li></ul><ul><li>ZigBee </li></ul><ul><li>PLC </li></ul>Pipe leakage detection and tank or silos level management <ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landis Gyr (CH), Vögtlin (CH), Honeywell (US), Coronis/Elster (FR, US), Sensus (US) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BP North Sea platform 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>ZigBee </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Coronis / Elster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronis is the creator of Wavenis® </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smart metering, home comfort, alarms, home healthcare, industrial automation, centralized building management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5M of Wavenis-enabled products deployed worldwide in 2010 </li></ul></ul>Companies in sensor networks of 45
  24. 24. Applications of sensor networks 2/8 <ul><li>Logistics </li></ul> of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Control of the state of the merchandise <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Position (GPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crossbow (US), Tiny Node (CH), Libelium (ES), WorldSensing (ES) </li></ul></ul></ul>Localization of merchandise and transportation tracking <ul><li>GeoPosition </li></ul><ul><li>Barcodes/RFID </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digi (US), Libelium (ES), GMV (ES), Ubisense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Harbors container management </li></ul><ul><li>RFID </li></ul><ul><li>ZigBee </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Digi International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1985, in United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and management of renewable energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless tank monitoring and management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking and monitoring of mobile assets </li></ul></ul></ul>Companies in sensor networks of 45
  26. 26. <ul><li>Environmental monitoring </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks 3/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Weather stations <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Light intensity </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 detector </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crossbow (US), Arch Rock (Cisco), Urbiotica (ES) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Emissions from farms, chemical and industrial processes </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fires </li></ul>Agriculture <ul><li>Soil moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf wetness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crossbow (US), E-Senza (UK), Libelium (ES), IRIS (ES) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vineyards </li></ul>Marine <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of bacteries </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MantraCourt (UK), Honeywell (US) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Crossbow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1995, in California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental systems and agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors energy </li></ul></ul></ul>Companies in sensor networks of XX
  28. 28. <ul><li>Public spaces management </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks 4/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Structural monitoring <ul><li>Vibrations </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement detection </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MantraCourt (UK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>San Francisco bridge </li></ul>Garbage collection <ul><li>Container emptiness </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPosition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WorldSensing (ES) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Route planner </li></ul>Street light systems <ul><li>Presence detection </li></ul><ul><li>Energy consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philips (NE), Echelon (US) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Echelon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1988, in United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building automation (LonWorks) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Street lighting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial automation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation automation </li></ul></ul></ul>Companies in sensor networks of XX
  30. 30. <ul><li>Intelligent buildings </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks 5/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Home automation <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Light detector </li></ul><ul><li>Presence detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Energy consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Electrics (US), Control4 (US), Greenwave (DK), Hai (US), Echelon (US) </li></ul></ul></ul>Building management <ul><li>Access controls </li></ul><ul><li>HVAC systems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scheneider (GE), Siemens (GE), Philips (NE), enOcean (GE) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>EnOcean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 2001, in Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor modules from EnOcean harvest tiny amounts of energy from their surroundings, enabling them to register detected values and transmit them wirelessly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building automation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home automation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torre Espacio de Madrid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4,200 light and blind switches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.enocean.com/en/torre-espacio-madrid-spain-2007/ </li></ul></ul></ul>Companies in sensor networks of 45
  32. 32. <ul><li>Transportation </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks 6/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Traffic monitoring <ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPosition </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BitCarrier (ES), WorldSensing (ES), Sensys Networks (US), Nivis (US), Smartgrains (FR), Echelon (US) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Traffic jams management </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras, inductive loops, GPS, Bluetooth detectors, MEMS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Toll payment <ul><li>RFID (presence) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urbiotica (ES) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Teletac </li></ul>Smart parking <ul><li>Presence detector </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Streetline networks (US), World Sensing (ES), Urbiotica (ES) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Inductive loops </li></ul><ul><li>Parking payment through mobile phone </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Streetline Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parking monitoring and management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul>Companies in sensor networks of 45
  34. 34. <ul><li>Health </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks 7/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Healthcare <ul><li>Blood’s pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar in blood </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philipps (HO), Coronis (FR), Sensinode (FI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Body sensor network </li></ul>Sports and fitness (wellness) <ul><li>Geoposition </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Calories </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynastream Innovations (CA), Nordic Semiconductor (NO) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ANT </li></ul><ul><li>Nike+ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal care and assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gyroscope </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerometer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing & Control (ES) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Falling detector </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Dynastream Innovations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1998, is based in Canada. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World leader in the research of inertial and wireless technology. Integrators of ANT technology into sensors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nike products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANT was born out of the need to develop the very lowest available power solution for Nike’s foot pod to watch communication. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Companies in sensor networks of 45
  36. 36. <ul><li>Industrial monitoring </li></ul>Applications of sensor networks 8/8 of 45 Application What can be sensed? Companies Comments Process monitoring <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>pressure </li></ul><ul><li>contact closure </li></ul><ul><li>valve positioning </li></ul><ul><li>gas detection </li></ul><ul><li>corrosion detection </li></ul><ul><li>Optical detector </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dust Networks (US), CrossBow (US), SENSICAST(US), Arch Rock (Cisco), E-Senza (GE), Nivis (US), Honeywell (US) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality of service </li></ul><ul><li>Time Synchronized Mesh Protocol (TSMP) </li></ul><ul><li>WirelessHART </li></ul><ul><li>ISA100.11a </li></ul><ul><li>Xmesh </li></ul><ul><li>Sensinet </li></ul>Security in processes <ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Gas detector </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honeywell (US) , Gastronics (US) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Honeywell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1906, in United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metering sensors and Industrial processes </li></ul></ul></ul>Companies in sensor networks of 45
  38. 38. of 45 Nordic Semiconductors, Atmel Corp EnOcean Dust networks Libelium World Sensing, Sensing & Control, Urbiòtica, Streetline Crossbow Arch Rock (Cisco) Texas Instruments, Freescale Coronis/Elster Digi International
  39. 39. Future challenges in sensor networks of 45
  40. 40. <ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications and companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient energy harvesting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware constraints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul></ul> of 45
  41. 41. <ul><li>Efficient energy harvesting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of power during some time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consume extremely low power </li></ul></ul>Future challenges of 45
  42. 42. <ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic and scalable sensor networks </li></ul></ul>Future challenges of 45
  43. 43. <ul><li>Hardware constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends to nanotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low production cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and real-time control </li></ul></ul>Future challenges of 45
  44. 44. <ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP-based sensor networks and the Internet of Things </li></ul></ul>Future challenges of 45
  45. 45. Moltes gràcies! [email_address] Questions? [email_address]

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