APA 6th Ed Tutorial v10

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This is a tutorial on the basics of APA 6th edition writing style.

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APA 6th Ed Tutorial v10

  1. 1. APA 6th Edition Tutorial © Michelle Post, Ph.D. (Reviewer) Version 10 of the Tutorial First Created April 29, 2010, Last Updated September 25, 2013 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v101
  2. 2. Disclaimer 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v102 This APA 6th Edition (3rd printing) tutorial, is only meant to be an overview of many of the key areas of the APA Style Manual. It is not to be viewed as an all inclusive tutorial. The best way to learn APA 6th edition is to buy the book and use it – a lot. Dr. Michelle Post
  3. 3. More APA Tutorials by Dr. Michelle Post 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v103  APA 6th Edition v10 - http://www.slideshare.net/mpostphd/apa- 6th-edition-tutorial  MS Word Advanced Editing for APA 6th Edition forWord, 2003, 2007, and 2010 - http://www.slideshare.net/mpostphd/ms- word-advanced-editing-for-apa-v1  APA and MS Word 2007: Creating an APA Template - http://www.slideshare.net/mpostphd/creating-a-word-2007- apa-template  QuickSheet:APA 6th Basic Formatting - http://www.slideshare.net/mpostphd/apa-6th-edition-the-basic- mechanics  QuickSheet:APA Resources - http://www.slideshare.net/mpostphd/aparesources
  4. 4. Summary 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v104  What is APA?  Major Changes in APA 6th – Partial List  What is Plagiarism?  What is Self-Plagiarism?  Direct Quotation versus Paraphrasing  Definition of Empirical Research  Recognizing Empirical Research
  5. 5. Summary, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v105  Basic Formatting –The Paper  Page Size  Margins  Line Spacing  FontType  Font Size  Alignment  Paragraph and Indentation  Basic Formatting – Headings  Basic Formatting - Lists
  6. 6. Summary, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v106 Basic Formatting – Mechanics  Spacing after a punctuation mark  Spacing after a period  Period  Comma  Semi-colon  Colon  Dash  Quotation marks  Double or Single Quotation Marks  Parentheses  Hyphenation  Words Beginning a Sentence  Major Words inTitles and Headings  Proper Nouns and Trade Names  Use of Italics  Use of Abbreviations  Numbers
  7. 7. Summary, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v107  Basic Formatting:Tables  Basic Formatting: Figures  Basic Formatting: Citations  Basic Formatting: References  Basic Formatting:Appendix
  8. 8. Summary, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v108  Basic Formatting –Title Page  Title  Author’s Name  Institutional Affiliation  Author Note  Running head  Page Number  Basic Formatting - Abstract  Footnotes and Endnotes
  9. 9. Summary, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v109  Order of Manuscript  APAWeb Resources  APA Software  APAVideoTutorials  PlagiarismTools  Tips on UsingWord 2003 orWord 2007  References  Additional APA Resources by Dr. Post  Who is Dr. Post?
  10. 10. What is APA? 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1010  American Psychological Association  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  1929  Writing Style or “Standard of Procedure”  “The rules of APA Style are drawn from an extensive body of psychological literature, from editors and authors experienced in scholarly writing, and from recognized authorities on publication practices” (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 3).
  11. 11. Major Changes in APA 6th – Partial List 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1011  Addition of “self-plagiarism” (p. 16)  Ethical compliance checklist (p. 20)  Abstract contents described (p. 25)  Description of introduction content (p. 27)  Sample papers with key rules of APA style (p. 41)  Change inTitle Page (p. 23, 229)  Change in Headings (p. 62)
  12. 12. Major Changes in APA 6th, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1012  Bulleted lists & Number lists (p. 64)  Use brackets to avoid nested parentheses (p. 94)  Appendixes now is Appendices (p. 96)  Numbers—use a word rather than a numeral to express a number below 10 when grouped with a number above 10 (p. 111)  Encouraged to use page or paragraph number for paraphrased material (p.171)  Table of basic citation styles (p. 177)  Reference list (p. 181)
  13. 13. Major Changes in APA 6th, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1013  Electronic sources in reference list include digital object identifiers (DOI), where available. If no DOI, provide the url to the journal’s homepage (p. 187)  Examples for blogs, message boards, email (p. 214)  Publisher information in book references now includes the state for all cities (p. 186)  Several other changes were made in Chapter 3: Writing Style, Chapter 4: Mechanics of Style, Chapter 5: Displaying Results, Chapter 6: Crediting Sources, and Chapter 8: Publication Process.
  14. 14. What is Plagiarism? 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1014  Plagiarism: APA states, (as cited in APA Ethics Codes Standard, 8.11, Plagiarism) “Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they give credit where credit is due.”
  15. 15. What is Self-Plagiarism? 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1015  Self-plagiarism: “Just as researchers do not present the work of others as their own (plagiarism), they do not present their own previously published work as new scholarship (self-plagiarism)” (APA, 2010, p. 16).  NOTE: A few exceptions do exist, see Chapter 1: Section 1.10 – Self-plagiarism, for the exceptions.
  16. 16. Direct Quotation versus Paraphrasing 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1016  Direct Quotation:The exact words of another.The exact words are enclosed with double quotes at the beginning and end of the direct quotation, followed by the citation in parenthesis and concluded with a period (APA, 2010).  NOTE:This rule applies only for direct quotations of 39 words or less.  Paraphrasing: “Summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words of another author, you need to credit the source in the text” (APA, 2010, p. 15).
  17. 17. Definition of Empirical Research 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1017  Empirical research uses data derived from actual observation or experimentation.  Three major types of journal articles are reports of empirical studies, review articles, and theoretical articles.  Reports of empirical studies are articles summarizing original research.  Review articles are further examinations of research that has already been published.  Theoretical articles are written to advance theory and they may include both empirical research and review of research in order to elaborate the theoretical position. Geisel Library. (2010).Definition: Empirical research. Retrieved from http://www.anselm.edu/library/empirical.html
  18. 18. Recognizing Empirical Research 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1018  Language If an article is empirical, it will include terms such as:  measurement  psychological aspects  reports  research statistics  usage  Length of Article Empirical research articles are usually substantial (more than 1 or 2 pages) and include a bibliography or cited references section (usually at the end of the article).  Type of Publication Empirical research articles are published in scholarly or academic journals.These publications are also sometimes referred to as "peer- reviewed," or "refereed" publications. Geisel Library. (2010).Recognizing empirical research. Retrieved from http://www.anselm.edu/library/empirical.html
  19. 19. Basic Formatting: The Paper 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1019 Basic Formatting –The Paper APA 6th Edition Location Page Size: 8.5” x 11” Margins: 1” on all sides Chapter 8: Section 8.03 – Margins (p. 229) Line Spacing: Double spaced for whole document Chapter 8: Section 8.03 – Line spacing (p. 229) FontType: Times New Roman (serif typeface) Chapter 8: Section 8.03 –Typeface (p. 228) Font Size: 12 pt Chapter 8: Section 8.03 – Typeface (p. 228) Alignment: Flush-left style (right margin is uneven) Chapter 8: Section 8.03 – Line length and alignment (p. 229) Paragraph and indentation: Indent the first line of every paragraph and footnote. Use the tab key, which should be set at five to seven spaces or a ½” Chapter 8: Section 8.03 – Paragraph and indentation (p. 229) Length: The optimal length to effectively communicate the primary ideas. RULE:“less is more” Chapter 3: Section 3.01 – Length (p. 61) Writing Style: Clear communication that uses continuity in presentation of ideas, smoothness of expression, tone, economy of expression, precision and clarity, and linguistic devices. Chapter 3: Sections 3.05 – 3.10 (pp. 65 – 70) Voice: Third person point of view and active voice Chapter 3: Section 3.09 – Precision and Clarity: Attribution (pp. 69 -70) Chapter 3: Section 3.18 –Verbs (p. 77)
  20. 20. Basic Formatting: Headings 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1020 Basic Formatting – Headings APA 6th Edition Location Heading 1: Centered, boldface, uppercase and lowercase heading Example Heading One Chapter 3: Section 3.03 – Levels of Heading (pp. 63 - 64) Chapter 2: Figure 2.1 – Sample Papers (p. 44) Heading 2: Flush left, boldface, uppercase and lowercase heading Example HeadingTwo Chapter 3: Section 3.03 – Levels of Heading (pp. 63 - 64) Chapter 2: Figure 2.1 – Sample Papers (p. 44) Heading 3: Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period Example heading three. NOTE:The text begins one space after the header and on the same line.This goes for Heading 4 and 5 too. Chapter 3: Section 3.03 – Levels of Heading (pp. 63 - 64) Chapter 2: Figure 2.1 – Sample Papers (p. 45) Heading 4: Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period Example heading four. Chapter 3: Section 3.03 – Levels of Heading (pp. 63 - 64) Chapter 2: Figure 2.3 – Sample Papers (p. 58) Heading 5: Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period Example heading five. Chapter 3: Section 3.03 – Levels of Heading (pp. 63 - 64) NOTE:The indentation is equal to the paragraph indentation (5-7 spaces or a ½” – use the word-processing tab function) NOTE:The text of the paper begins on Page 3 with the same title that is located on the title page.There is no “Introduction.” The first part of the manuscript is assumed to be the introduction. (APA, 2010, p. 63)
  21. 21. Basic Formatting: Lists 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1021 Basic Formatting – Lists (Bullet & Number) APA 6th Edition Location Numbered List: Itemized conclusion, steps in a procedure, or importance of rank use a numbered list that is identified by an Arabic numeral followed by a period --- not enclosed in parenthesis NOTE: “Separate sentences in a series are also identified by an Arabic numeral followed by a period; the first word is capitalized, and the sentence ends with a period or correct punctuation” (APA, 2010, p. 63). Chapter 3: Section 3.04 – Seriation (pp. 63 – 64) Bullet List: Bullet lists can be used if the list does not contain ranking importance. NOTE: “Symbols such as small squares, circles, and so forth, may be used in creating a bulleted list” (APA, 2010, p. 64). Chapter 3: Section 3.04 – Seriation (p. 64) Within a paragraph or sentence: Identify the elements in a series with lowercase letters in parentheses (e.g., (a), (b), and so forth) Chapter 3: Section 3.04 – Seriation (p. 64) Within a sentence: use commas to separate three or more elements that do not have internal commas, (e.g., . . . three choices were (a) apple, (b) orange, and (c) pear. Chapter 3: Section 3.04 – Seriation (p. 64) Within a sentence: use semicolons to separate three or more elements that have internal commas (e.g.,“We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored lower than 20%; (b) moderate scorers, who scored . . .” (APA, 2010, p. 64. NOTE: Numbered lists and bullet lists match the paragraph indentation of 5-7 spaces or ½”. Both list types match the same font type and size as the manuscript [paper]. Chapter 2: Figure 2.3 – Sample Paper (p. 57)
  22. 22. Basic Formatting: The Mechanics 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1022 Basic Formatting –The Mechanics APA 6th Edition Location Spacing After Punctuation Marks: “Insert one space after: commas, colons, semicolons, periods that separate parts of a reference citation; and periods of the initials in personal names” (APA, 2010, p. 88). Chapter 4: Section 4.01 – Spacing After Punctuation Marks (pp. 87 – 88) Spacing After a Period: “Spacing twice after punctuation marks at the end of a sentence aids readers of draft manuscripts” (APA, 2010, p. 88). Chapter 4: Section 4.01 – Spacing After Punctuation Marks (p. 88) NOTE: “The only mention of spacing after end punctuation in the Publication Manual is the one you described on p. 88. The wording was modified between the first and subsequent printings to emphasize that this is a recommendation and not a strict rule. Printed final versions typically have one space following end punctuation.As you noted, “draft” manuscripts are the exception, should one choose to follow the recommendation.This is implied but not stated outright.” (APA Style Expert, personal communication, February 17, 2010). Period: Are used for: end a complete sentence, initials of names, abbreviation for United States when used as an adjective, identity concealing labels, Latin abbreviations, and reference abbreviations. Chapter 4: Section 4.02 – Period (p. 88)
  23. 23. Basic Formatting: The Mechanics, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1023 Basic Formatting –The Mechanics APA 6th Edition Location Comma: Are used between elements in a series of three or more (e.g., a, b, and c), to set off a nonessential or restrictive clause, separate two independent clauses, set off the year in exact dates, set off year in parenthetical reference citations, separate groups of three digits in most numbers, between two parts of compound predicate and parts of measurement. Chapter 4: Section 4.03 – Comma (p. 88 - 89) Semicolon:Are used to separate two independent clauses that are NOT joined by a conjunction, and elements in a series that contain commas. Chapter 4: Section 4.04 – Semicolon (p. 88 - 89) Colon: Are used between complete clauses where each part could stand as an independent sentence, in ratios and proportions, and in references between place or publication and publisher. Chapter 4: Section 4.05 – Colon (p. 89)
  24. 24. Basic Formatting: The Mechanics, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1024 Basic Formatting –The Mechanics, Ctnd. APA 6th Edition Location Dash: Use it to indicate only a sudden interruption in the continuity of a sentence, but do not over use it. Chapter 4: Section 4.06 – Dash (p. 90) Quotation Marks: Use these double quotation marks to introduce a word or phrase; to set off the title of an article or chapter in a periodical or book when the title is mentioned in text; and to reproduce material from a test item (APA, 2010, p. 91) Chapter 4: Section 4.07 – Quotation Marks (pp. 91 – 92) Double or Single Quotation Marks: Use double quotation marks to enclose quotations in text and use single quotation marks within double quotation makes to set off material that in the original source. (APA, 2010, p. 91) Chapter 4: Section 4.08 – Double or Single Quotation Marks (p. 92) Block Quotations (40 words or more): do not use double quotes for directly copied text. Chapter 4: Section 4.08 – Double or Single Quotation Marks (p. 92) Double or Single Quotation Marks with other punctuation: “Place periods and commas within closing single or double quotation marks. Place other punctuation marks inside quotation marks only when they are part of the quoted material” (APA, 2010, p. 92). Chapter 4: Section 4.08 – Double or Single Quotation Marks (p. 92)
  25. 25. Basic Formatting: The Mechanics, Ctnd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1025 Basic Formatting –The Mechanics, Ctnd. APA 6th Edition Location Parentheses: Are used to set off independent elements, set off reference citations in text; introduce an abbreviation; enclose the citation or page number of a direct quotation; and more. Chapter 4: Section 4.09 – Parentheses (pp. 93 – 94) Hyphenation: Please refer to the APA 6th edition manual for all the general principles on hyphenation. Chapter 4: Section 4.13 – Hyphenation (pp. 97 – 100) Words Beginning a Sentence: Capitalize first word in a sentence and first word after a colon that begins a complete sentence. Chapter 4: Section 4.14 – Words Beginning a Sentence (p. 101) Major Words inTitles and Headings: Capitalize major words in title of book and articles within the body of the paper; capitalize major words in article headings and subheadings; capitalize major words in table title and figure legends; and capitalize references to titles of sections within the same article. NOTE: Capitalize only the first word of the title of a book or article in the reference list. Chapter 4: Section 4.15 - Major Words in Titles and Headings (pp. 101 – 102) Proper Nouns andTrade Names: Capitalize proper nouns, adjectives and words used as proper nouns; names of university specific departments; and trade and brand names of drugs, equipment and food (APA, 2010, p. 102). Chapter 4: Section 4.16 - Proper Nouns and Trade Names (pp. 102 – 103)
  26. 26. Basic Formatting: The Mechanics, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1026 Basic Formatting –The Mechanics, Ctnd. APA 6th Edition Location Use of Italics: First rule – use italics infrequently. Use italics for titles of books, periodicals, films, videos,TV shows and microfilm publications; introduction of a new, technical or key term or label; a letter, word, or phrase cited as a linguistic example; and periodical volume numbers in reference lists. Chapter 4: Section 4.21 – Use of Italics (pp. 104 – 106) Use of Abbreviations: Please refer to the APA 6th edition manual for all the principles of abbreviations. Chapter 4: Section 4.22 – Use of Abbreviations (pp. 106 – 111) Numbers: Use words to express a number at the beginning of a sentence, title or text heading; and use words to express numbers from 1 – 10. Chapter 4: Sections 4.31 & 4.32 (pp. 111 – 113)
  27. 27. Basic Formatting: Tables 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1027 Basic Formatting –Tables APA 6th Edition Location Table and Figure Numbers: Number all tables and figures with Arabic numerals in order of how they appear (e.g.,Table 1). NOTE: For Appendices that have tables denote those table names with capital letters and Arabic numerals (e.g.,Table A1). Chapter 5: Section 5.05 –Table and Figure Numbers (p. 127) Table Layout: For all the full layout of a table along with all the specific components please refer toTable 5.1 Basic Components of aTable on p. 129 of APA 6th edition, 3rd printing. Chapter 5: Section 5.08 –Table Layout (p. 128 – 130) TableTitles: Brief, clear, explanatory title and easily inferred by the reader and flushed left above the table. Chapter 5: Section 5.12 –Table Titles (p. 133) Table Headings: “Headings establish our organization of the date and identify the columns of data beneath them” (APA, 2010, p. 133). Chapter 5: Section 5.13 –Table Headings (p. 133) NOTE: Refer to Chapter 5: Section 5.19 –Table Checklist (p. 150), to determine if the data is presented effectively. NOTE: When creating tables in APA do not use full borders.There are no vertical lines in an APA formatted table and only horizontal lines above and below the table heading and ending of the table.
  28. 28. Basic Formatting: Figures 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1028 Basic Formatting – Figures APA 6th Edition Location Types of Figures: Graphs, charts, maps, drawings and photographs. Chapter 5: Section 5.21 – Types of Figures (p. 151) Standards for Figures: Simplicity, clarity, continuity and informative. Chapter 5: Section 5.21 – Standards for Figures (p. 152) Table and Figure Numbers: Number all tables and figures with Arabic numerals in order of how they appear (e.g., Figure 1).The label and the title appear on the same line below the figure, flush-left. Cite the source below the label and the title. Chapter 5: Section 5.05 – Table and Figure Numbers (p. 127) Chapter 5: Section 5.30 – Figure Checklist (p. 167) NOTE: Only use a figure if it provides informative value to the paper. NOTE: Refer to Chapter 5: Section 5.30 – Figure Checklist (p. 167) to ensure that the figure is appropriate and adheres to APA formatting conventions.
  29. 29. Basic Formatting: Citations 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1029 Basic Formatting – Citations APA 6th Edition Location When to Cite:“Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work” (APA, 2010, p. 169). Chapter 6:When to Cite (p. 169) Number of Citations in a Paper: Rule of thumb – cite one to two resources per key point Chapter 6:When to Cite (p. 169) Direct Quotation of Sources: When quoting, always provide the author’s last name, year and specific page number (written as p. for single and pp. for double) or paragraph (written as para. )if no page number exist in the text with a matching reference in the reference list. NOTE: You cannot list a citation without a matching reference and vice versa. (See Chapter 6 – Citing References in Text, p. 174) Chapter 6: Section 6.03 – Direct Quotation of Sources (pp. 170 – 171) NOTE: “Reference lists are not required for major classical works, such as ancient Greek and Roman works or classical religious works” (APA, 2010, p. 179). “Page 179 of the 6th edition of the Publications Manual states that because parts of classical works are numbered systematically across all editions, you would use these numbers instead of page numbers when referring to specific parts of a classical source. It gives the following example: 1 Cor. 13:1 (Revised StandardVersion). (APA Style Expert, personal communication, March 29, 2010)
  30. 30. Basic Formatting: Citations, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1030 Basic Formatting – Citations, Cntd. APA 6th Edition Location Block Quote: Is a direct quotation that is 40 words or more. It is written as a paragraph that is indented to match the paragraph indentation. It does not contain double quotes before or after the quoted material.The citation goes outside of the block quote. Chapter 6: Section 6.03 – Direct Quotation of Sources (p. 171) Paraphrasing of Sources: When paraphrasing a source always provide the author’s last name and year. However, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number. Chapter 6: Section 6.04 – Paraphrasing Material (p. 171) Basic Formatting Guidelines:  One author paraphrase: (Last name, date) One author direct quote: (Last name, date, p. or para. #) Two or more authors paraphrase: (Last name & Last name, date) Two or more authors paraphrase: (Last name & Last name, date, p. or para. #) Chapter 6: Citing References in Text (p. 174 – 179) NOTE: For full details of the various types of citations refer to Chapter 6: Sections 6.03 – 6.09 (pp. 170 – 173). NOTE: “No, you would not give the URL in the text citation, just as you would not have to give the publishing information for a printed book that you were citing.You would only give the author and publication date in the text.” (APA Style Expert, personal communication, March 30, 2010) NOTE: For full details of the various types of citations refer to Chapter 6: Sections 6.11 – 6.21 (pp. 174 – 179).
  31. 31. Basic Formatting: References 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1031 Basic Formatting – References APA 6th Edition Location Order of Reference List: Arrange the entries of the reference list by alphabetical order by last name, followed by initials. If the author has two or more listings, list by publication date from earliest to latest. Chapter 6: Section 6.25 – Order of References in the Reference List (p. 181) General Formatting: A reference should contain the author name, date of publication, title of the work, and publication data; see Chapter 6 – Sections 6.27 – 6.31 (p. 184 – 189) Chapter 6: Reference Components (p. 183) Author and Editor Information: Invert author’s names, give last names and initials for first seven authors. Eight or more authors, include the first six author’s names followed by three ellipsis points and add the last author’s name. If authors have the same last name and first initial, type the full first name in brackets. If an author’s first name is hyphenated, keep the hyphen and include periods after each initial of the hyphenated name. Use commas to separate authors, to separate surnames, initials, and suffix. Spell out the full name of a group. If authors are listed with the word “with” include them in the reference in parentheses. If no author’s name exist for a reference, move the title of the author position. Chapter 6: Section 6.27 – Author and Editor Information (p. 184) NOTE: If the references with the same authors published in the same year are identified as articles in a series, order the references in the series order, not alphabetically by title. Place lowercase letters --- a, b, c, and so forth – immediately after the year, within the parentheses (e.g., 2001a, 2001b). (APA, 2010, p. 182) NOTE: For examples of all reference types see Chapter 7: Reference Examples (pp. 193 – 224) in the APA 6th edition, third printing.
  32. 32. Basic Formatting: References, Ctnd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1032 Basic Formatting – References, Cntd. APA 6th Edition Location Editors: For an edited book, place the editor’s names in the author position and enclose the abbreviation “Ed.” or “Eds.” in parentheses after the last editor’s name.A period follows the abbreviation and after the last parenthesis. In a reference to a chapter in an edited book, invert the chapter authors’ names as stated for an author’s name, but you do not invert the book editors names. The name of the book editor should be preceded by the word “In”. Provide initials and surnames of all editors. No editor, simply include the word “In” before the book title. Chapter 6: Section 6.27 – Author and Editor Information (p. 184) Publication Date: PublicationYear – (year). Magazines, Newsletters and Newspapers – (Year, Month Day). Papers and Posters Presented: (Year, Month). Not yet published articles – (in press). No date available – (n.d.). Several volumes in a work – (Year –Year). Archival Sources – (ca.). A period follows all dates. Chapter 6: Section 6.28 – Publication Date(p. 185) NOTE: Thanks for your question. This is an issue we handle on a case-by- case basis. If there is no date on the article itself, the default is to use “n.d.” for no date; this is true in both 5th and 6th edition Publication Manuals. This issue has been addressed in this blog post as well: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/01/the-generic-reference-when.html I would use “n.d.” for the most part, unless you think it is evident from the particular site that the copyright date is an accurate representation of when the content was actually published. Hope this helps! APA Style Expert American Psychological Association (APA Style Expert, personal communication, April 14, 2010)
  33. 33. Basic Formatting: References, Ctnd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1033 Basic Formatting – References, Cntd. APA 6th Edition Location Title: Article or chapter title: Capitalize on the first word of the title and of the subtitle, and any proper names or nouns. Do not italicize the title or place quotation marks around the title.The title ends with a period. Periodical title: Journals, newsletters, and magazines – Give the periodical title in full, in uppercase and lowercase letters. Italicize the name of the periodical. Nonperiodical title: Books and reports – Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle and any proper names and nouns. Enclose additional information given on the publication for its identification and retrieval (e.g., edition, report number, volume number) in parentheses immediately after the title.A period is not used between the title and the additional information and it is not italicized. Chapter 6: Section 6.29 Title (pp. 185 – 186)
  34. 34. Basic Formatting: References, Ctnd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1034 Basic Formatting – References, Cntd. APA 6th Edition Location Publication Information: Periodicals:Journals,newsletters,magazines – Give the volume number after the periodical title and italicize it, but do not use “Vol.” before the number. Include the journal issue number (if available) along with the volume number in parentheses directly after the volume number, but DO NOT italicize it. Finish with a period. Nonperiodicals:Books and reports – Give the location (city and state or if outside the U.S., city and country) where the publisher is located as noted on the title page of the publication. If the publisher is a university and its name contains the city do not repeat in the publisher location.The states are abbreviated in the publisher information and are followed by a colon. Provide the publisher name in as brief a form as is intelligible.The words Publisher, Co., or Inc. can be omitted from the publisher location. For more than one publisher to a book, list the first one.When the author is the publisher use “Author” to indicate the publisher and end the publisher information with a period. Chapter 6: Section 6.30 – Publication Information (p. 186)
  35. 35. Basic Formatting: References, Ctnd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1035 Basic Formatting – References, Cntd. APA 6th Edition Location Electronic Sources and Locator Information Basic Rules: Use the same formatting as other references, (authors’ names, publication date, and title) Use the full URL of the EXACT location of the electronic source (e.g., http://www.apa.org/monitor/oct00/workplace.html). The URL is NOT followed by a period to end the reference. It is not required to include a retrieval date due to the fact that the URL of an electronic source may change. If the electronic source has a digital object identifier (DOI) include that in the reference with the format: doi:xxxxxxx If a DOI has been assigned, there is no need for any further retrieval information. It is not necessary to include database information from database aggregators such as EBSCO, OVID, or ProQuest. Try to always cite the final version of electronic sources. Chapter 6: Section 6.31 – Electronic Sources and Location Information (pp. 187 – 192) NOTE:“The preference is to use the DOI rather than a URL as the locator for articles retrieved online. However,“if no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal or of the book or report publisher. If you are accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL” (APA Publication Manual, pp. 191-192). An article and flow chart illustrating the decision process for citing online articles is available on our APA Style blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/09/a-doi- and-url-flowchart.html .” (APA Style Expert, personal communication, March 16, 2011)
  36. 36. Basic Formatting: Appendix 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1036 Basic Formatting – Appendix APA 6th Edition Location In General: “An appendix is appropriate for materials that are relatively brief and that are easily presented in print format” (APA , 2010, p. 39). Chapter 2: Section 2.13 – Appendices and Supplemental Materials (p. 38 – 40) Paper only has one Appendix: If the paper only has one appendix it is labeled just with the title Appendix. Chapter 2: Section 2.13 – Appendices and Supplemental Materials (p. 39) Paper has more than one Appendix: If the paper has more than one appendix, label each one with a capital letter (e.g., Appendix A,Appendix B, etc.) and in order of how it is mentioned in the main text. NOTE: “Each appendix must have a title. In the text, refer to appendices by their labels” (APA, 2010, p. 39). Chapter 2: Section 2.13 – Appendices and Supplemental Materials (p. 39) Basic Formatting: An appendix may include headings and subheadings, tables, figures and displayed equations. Tables, figures and displayed equations should match the appendix name (e.g.,Table A1, Figure A1, etc.). In a single appendix, tables, figures and displayed equations should be labeled with an “A” to identify them from the same elements in the content of the paper. Begin each appendix on a separate page. Center the word Appendix and the identifying capital letters (e.g.,A, B., etc.) at the top of the page. Center the title of the appendix, and use uppercase and lowercase letters. Begin the text of the appendix flush left, followed by indented paragraphs. Chapter 2: Section 2.13 – Appendices and Supplemental Materials (p. 39)
  37. 37. Basic Formatting: Title Page 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1037 Basic Formatting –Title Page APA 6th Edition Location Title: No more then 12 words, mixed case, centered NOTE: Title is located on the title page (upper half of page) and on the first page of the paper (first line) Chapter 2: Section 2.01 –Title (p. 23) NOTE: “Regarding your question, all words that are four or more letters long (regardless of part of speech) should have the first letter capitalized. All verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns (regardless of length) should be capitalized.” (K. Till, personal communication,April 2, 2010) Author’s Name: First Name, Middle Initial(s) and Last name, centered NOTE: Omit all titles (e.g., Dr., Professor) and degrees (e.g., PhD, PsyD, EdD) Chapter 2: Section 2.02 – Author’s Name (p. 23) Institutional affiliation:Location where research was conducted (e.g., University name or college name) NOTE: When no institutional affiliation, list city and state of residence Chapter 2: Section 2.02 – Institutional affiliation (p. 23) Author Note: 1st Paragraph: Complete departmental affiliation 2nd Paragraph: Changes of affiliation (if any) 3rd Paragraph:Acknowledgments 4th Paragraph: Person to contact (mailing address, e- mail) NOTE: The Author Note is a required with the exception of theses and dissertations Chapter 2: Section 2.03 – Author Note (pp. 24 - 25)
  38. 38. Basic Formatting: Title Page, Ctnd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1038 Basic Formatting –Title Page, Cntd. APA 6th Edition Location Running head: Abbreviated title that is printed at the top of the pages; Maximum 50 characters, counting letters, punctuation, and spaces between words; flush left in all uppercase letters at the top of the title page and all subsequent pages NOTE: The words “Running head:” only appears on the title page and is in mixed case Chapter 8: Section 8.03 – Order of manuscript pages: title page (p. 229) Chapter 2: Figure 2.1 – Sample Paper (p. 41) APA Blog Post on the Running head: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/05/mysteries-of- the-running-head-explained.html Page number: Pages are numbered consecutively beginning with title page; use the automatic functions of your word-processing program to generate page numbers NOTE: page numbers appear on the same line as the running head but is flushed right TIP: It is easier to create the 2nd page header before creating the 1st page header usingWord’s automatic function Chapter 8: Section 8.03 – Page numbers and running heads (p. 230) Chapter 2: Figure 2.1 – Sample Paper (p. 41)
  39. 39. Basic Formatting: The Abstract 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1039 Basic Formatting –The Abstract APA 6th Edition Location Description:Brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article, accurate, nonevaluative, coherent and readable, and concise Chapter 2: Section 2.04 – Abstract (pp. 25 – 27) Word limit:150 – 250 words Chapter 2: Section 2.04 – Abstract (p. 27) Location:New page (page 2) Chapter 2: Section 2.04 – Abstract (p. 27) Title: Abstract should appear in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered at the top of the page Chapter 2: Section 2.04 – Abstract (p. 27) Running head: Identified with only the title from the running head or abbreviated title flushed right in the header Chapter 2: Section 2.04 – Abstract (p. 27) Page number: Opposite of the abbreviated title and should be numbered as page 2 flushed right Chapter 2: Section 2.04 – Abstract (p. 27) Line spacing: Double spaced Chapter 2: Figure 2.1 – Sample Paper (p. 41) Paragraph and indentation:NONE Chapter 2: Figure 2.1 – Sample Paper (p. 41) Alignment:Left (ragged right margin) Chapter 2: Figure 2.1 – Sample Paper (p. 41)
  40. 40. Footnotes and Endnotes 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1040  “APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document,APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.  When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses. Scientists examined—over several years1—the fossilized remains of the wooly- wooly yak.2 (These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum.3)  All footnotes should appear on the final page of your document (usually this is after the References page). Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page. Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote.Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules. Double-space throughout.” 1 While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this document does not focus on this particular species. Purdue Online Writing Lab. (1995 – 2010).APA: Footnotes and endnotes. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/04/
  41. 41. Order of Manuscript 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1041  Title Page  5 components (title, running head, author byline, institutional affiliation, author note)  Abstract  Separate page (page 2)  Text  Separate page (page 3)  References  Separate page  Tables  Separate page  Figures  Separate page  Appendices  Separate page APA Manual: (Chapter 8: Section 8.03 – Order of Manuscript pages (pp. 229 – 230)
  42. 42. APA Web Resources 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1042  The Best APA Cheat Sheets on the Web: http://studenthacks.org/2007/05/08/apa- cheat-sheet/  APA Style Help: http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx  APA Style Blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/  How to Cite Twitter and Facebook, Part I &II: Reference List Entries and In-Text Citations:  http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/how-to-cite-twitter-and-facebook-part-i.html  http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/how-to-cite-twitter-and-facebook-part-ii.html  How to Cite a Speech in APA Style: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/how- to-cite-a-speech-in-apa-style.html  APA Style for Citing Interviews: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/apa-style- for-citing-interviews.html  How Do I Cite a Kindle?: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/09/how-do-i-cite-a- kindle.html  Use of First Person in APA Style: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/09/use-of- first-person-in-apa-style.html
  43. 43. APA Web Resources, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1043  Purdue Owl – APA Style: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/  Son of Citation Machine: http://citationmachine.net/  TheWriting Center: http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocAPA.html  APA Style Resources: http://www.psychwww.com/resource/apacrib.htm  APA Citation Style: http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citapa.htm  APA Reference Style: http://linguistics.byu.edu/faculty/henrichsenl/apa/apa01.html  APA Style Essentials: http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.aspx?doc_id=796  APA Interactive Tutorial: http://www.kevinschoepp.ca/APAtutorial/links.htm
  44. 44. APA Software 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1044  Perrla: http://www.perrla.com/Default.aspx  StyleEase: http://www.styleease.com/index.html  Reference Point: http://www.referencepointsoftware.com/  APAWizard: http://www.apaformatwizard.com/?gclid=COKHzqrmypM CFQS7sgoduToIiA  ScholarWord: http://scholarword.com/  Southern Ocean Software: http://www.southernoceansoftware.com/apamacros/index .html  EasyPaper: http://www.eazypaper.com/  NotaBene: http://www.notabene.com/
  45. 45. APA Video Tutorials 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1045  Setting upWord 2007 for APA - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwte1ntB2gA  Setting upWord 2010 for APA - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUjhwGmhDrI  APA Format Citations-Sixth (6th) Edition - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbUoNa5tyY
  46. 46. Plagiarism Tools 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1046  PlagiarismToday: http://www.plagiarismtoday.com/  Plagiarized: http://www.plagiarized.com/  Master Lists of Tools: http://www.shambles.net/pages/staff/ptools/  The Plagiarism Resource Site: http://plagiarism.phys.virginia.edu/  Eve2: http://www.canexus.com/eve/index.shtml  Turnitin: http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html
  47. 47. Plagiarism Tools, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1047  SafeAssign: http://www.mydropbox.com/  Check for Plagiarism: http://www.checkforplagiarism.net/signup-now.html  The 20 Best Free Anti-PlagiarismTools: http://www.blogherald.com/2007/06/25/the-20-best-free- anti-plagiarism-tools/  Viper: http://www.scanmyessay.com/  Plagiarism Detect: http://www.plagiarismdetect.com/  Plagium: http://www.plagium.com/
  48. 48. Plagiarism Tools, Cntd. 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1048  Doc Cop: http://www.doccop.com/index.html?nc=24755214  Article Checker: http://www.articlechecker.com/  CopyScape: http://www.copyscape.com/  DupliChecker: http://www.duplichecker.com/  Plagiarism: http://www.plagiarism.org/  iThenticate: http://www.ithenticate.com/
  49. 49. Tips on Using Word 2003, 2007, & 2010 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1049  Use Word’s Proof Reading Option to setup rules for grammar and style check for APA specific requirements  Comma always before the and  Punctuation always inside the double quotes  One space after a period  And more  Create a template with the basic formatting requirements  Use Word 2007 & 2010’s APA Style function  Create tables with full borders to make ease of designing, inputting and presenting data, and then remove the full borders and add only the horizontal lines required by APA before submitting.  Use Word’s Page Layout Function > Header Different First Page to create the header the “Running head:” header on the title page and the second header on the page 2 without the words “Running head:”
  50. 50. References 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1050 American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Andrews, K., & Adragna, S. (n.d.). APA:Transition to 6th Edition. Author. Geisel Library. (2010). Definition: Empirical research. Retrieved from http://www.anselm.edu/library/empirical.html Geisel Library. (2010). Recognizing empirical research. Retrieved from http://www.anselm.edu/library/empirical.html Purdue OnlineWriting Lab. (1995 – 2010). APA: Footnotes and endnotes. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/04/
  51. 51. Additional APA Resources by Dr. Post 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1051 Look for ALL of Dr. Post’s APA Resources at Slideshare.net/mpostphd Tutorials  DrPost APA 6th Ed MS Word 2007TemplateTutorial v1  DrPost APA 6th Ed - MS Word Advanced Editing v1 QuickSheets  DrPost Quick Sheet - APA 6th Ed Resources v2  DrPost Quick Sheet - APA 6th Ed Basic Formatting v1
  52. 52. Michelle Post, Ph.D., MBA, CSMS, A+ 9/25/2013© Michelle Post, Ph.D. - v1052

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