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17352 11ppt 17352 11ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications Chapter Eleven Watching And Listening: Qualitative Research For In-depth Understanding
  • Key Concepts • Primary interest is in people’s subjectivity. • Emphasis on capturing participant viewpoints. • Reporting often uses participant’s language. • Qualitative more than quantitative. • Theories about human communication may emerge from research rather than being a starting point. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Observational Methods Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages In-depth exploration of attitudes and behavior. May be difficult to access participants. Validity. Reliability. Access to participants’ views of phenomena. Research outcomes affected by researcher-participant relationships. Provide insight and explanation. May be time-consuming. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Qualitative & Quantitative Research • Similarities ▫ Begin with qualitative observations ▫ Emphasis on precise reporting. • Differences ▫ Qualitative: reporting in words, understanding in depth, emphasis on participant perspectives, judgmental sampling. ▫ Quantitative: reporting in numbers, understanding in breadth, statistical sampling, generalizing from samples. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Watching and Listening Methods • Interviews • Focus groups • Ethnography • Observational studies • Unobtrusive measures • Conversation analysis • Case studies Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Observational Methods: Basic Assumptions • Individuality and subjectivity of each participant is important. • Participants are assumed to have insights and perspectives the researcher is unaware of. • Interpretation and meaning are more important than information. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Ethnography: Key Ideas • Focus on meaning and interpretation. • Conduct research in participants’ own settings. • Engage directly with participants. • Focus on local, individual, subjective knowledge. • Record participants’ own language, concepts and logic. • Report results as detailed description. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Basic Researcher-Participant Relationships • Complete observer. • Observer as participant. • Participant as observer. • Complete participant. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Terminology • Participant ▫ volunteer in a research project. • Informant ▫ can speak about others as well as themselves. • Respondent ▫ speaks only for himself or herself. • Interviewee ▫ anyone interviewed. • Subject ▫ participant in experimental research. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Interview A series of questions designed to elicit information a researcher is interested in. Questions may be – • Predetermined and specific ▫ for example, a survey questionnaire or • Flexible and open-ended ▫ for example, “Tell me about . . .?” Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Interview: Strategy & Decisions Strategy: ▫ Generally a “master” question and then specific questions to “check it out.” Decisions: ▫ Setting ▫ Sensitivities ▫ Structure ▫ Sequence Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Interview: Decisions - cont. Setting ▫ Participants’ or researcher’s location. Sensitivities ▫ Dress, language, gender, status. Structure ▫ Fully, partially, or unstructured. Sequence ▫ Funnel or inverted funnel. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Interview: Types of Questions • Descriptive ▫ Ask participants to describe. e.g. “What is a typical ____ like, for you? • Structural ▫ Ask participants to explain relationships. e.g. Would you describe X as part of Y? • Contrast ▫ Ask participants to describe similarities, differences or relative importance. e.g. “What is the difference between X and Y? Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Focus Group: Assumptions Group discussion can generate -  More information than interviewing individuals.  Different information than interviewing individuals  A “2+2 = 5” effect  Ideas the researcher may not have considered. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Focus Group: Success • Members - recruited for similar knowledge but divergent views of the topic. • Objectives - clear. • Atmosphere - relaxed. • Discussion - free-wheeling. • Moderator: ▫ listens ▫ maintains focus ▫ refrains from discussion ▫ ensures every member participates. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Analyzing Qualitative Data Most analyses use categorization. • Fixed Coding ▫ Assigns units of information to theoretically-determined categories. • Flexible Coding ▫ Allows additional categories to emerge during analysis. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Analyzing Qualitative Data – cont. The Grounded Theory Approach – • Assumes theory will emerge as data analysis proceeds. • Uses the “constant comparative method.” ▫ Test each new statement or idea against initial categories. ▫ Rework categories as data analysis proceeds. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Unobtrusive Measures Observing people without them being aware of the observation. • Why? ▫ To assess differences between what people tell us and what they actually do. • Examples – ▫ Observing crowd behavior at sports events. ▫ Observing social behavior at parties. ▫ Observing group problem solving. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Conversation Analysis • Studies the processes that enable people to converse successfully. • Analyzes transcripts of conversations to determine how people negotiate understanding. • Focuses on social acts more than language. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Case Study Brings all relevant information into a story to help readers learn how organizations or individuals managed a project, problem or crisis. Usually – • uses multiple sources of evidence • focuses on a specific issue • provides in-depth understanding more than generalization or prediction. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Chapter Summary Watching and Listening Methods – • General interest in people’s idiosyncratic, subjective views. • Begin with theory, or allow theory to emerge. • Preference for eliciting people’s views in their own words. • Typically reported in participants’ language. • Observation provides a check on whether people’s words match their behavior. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Vocabulary Review Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  • Web Resources • Forum: Qualitative Social Research - http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs • Qualitative Research Consultants Association http://www.qrca.org • University of Surrey, social research update - http://sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/ Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications