Design Thinking for Quality Systems (with Notes)

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A primer on Design Thinking and how it can be used in regulated industries to design Quality Systems.

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Design Thinking for Quality Systems (with Notes)

  1. 1. Optimizing Quality Systems with Design Thinking Michael Plishka, ZenStorming Solutions, LLC 1
  2. 2. Who Designs? “Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones.” -Herb Simon 2 The good news is that it means that much of what we do in corporations is actually design. Whether we make products, provide services or develop quality systems, we're already in the business of Design. The bad news is that often we don't design well. It's like we know the words to a language but we haven't gotten all the grammar down yet. The goal is to become design literate.
  3. 3. Design is More Than Style... “Good design is a catalyst for creating total experiences that transcend functional benefits alone and delight consumers. It is a catalyst for moving a business from being technology- centered or product-myopic to one that is more consumer- experience-centered” -A.G. Lafley, CEO of P&G 3 By becoming design literate we become more effective at changing and modifying systems and products to bring value. “Good design is a catalyst for creating total experiences that transcend functional benefits alone. It is a catalyst for moving a business from being technology-centered or product-myopic to one that is more consumer-experience-centered” That consumer can be outside the company or within the company walls.
  4. 4. A Detailed Design Process Model... Define Research Ideate Prototype Choose Implement Learn 4 One model for the design process follows these essential steps, though there can often be feedback loops within it. Define is the stage in which we state that something needs to be done. Research is the process of learning what the current situation is – where the issues are. Ideate is the process of brainstorming solutions. Prototyping is the process of trying out the best of the ideas. We then Choose the best solution and Implement it. As time progresses we assess the system, we Learn and start the process over again.
  5. 5. A Simplified Model of Design Thinking From: Evolution of the Mind: A Case for Design Literacy by Chris Pacione; XVII.2 - March / April, 2010 5 This model provides additional insights into DT. Usually understanding is thought of as the result of observation. This is true, but understanding also comes from the process of making something, testing it and seeing what happens. We understand by looking and by doing/making.
  6. 6. Learning by Observing AND Making... 6 Image Courtesy of the BBC Remember, we're all designers so this process shouldn't be foreign to us. Think back to when you were making sandcastles using a bucket. At first you put sand in the bucket and turned it over. It came together but not that great. So you compacted the sand into the bucket and then turned it over. Better, but still not the best. You remember the time you put your hand into the moist sand at the edge of the sandbox and how it took an impression of your hand. You scoop the moist sand into the bucket, pat it down, turn it over, and voila! You built a thing of beauty out of sand!
  7. 7. Design Thinking is About Beauty... “Remember that beauty breeds loyalty when it comes to organizational systems.” -Scott Belsky, Author and Founder of Behance.com Beauty = Elegant, Pleasing Loyalty = Faithfulness= Compliance! 7 Yes, beauty. Why the emphasis on beauty? Because, as Scott Belsky points out, beautiful systems breed loyalty and loyalty equals faithfulness to the system, which equals compliance! We want our systems to be compliant, we want people to want to follow them.
  8. 8. What Are Some Traits of a Beautiful System? It makes sense It has balance It has form It is clear It is useful 8 So what are some traits of a beautiful system? This is just a partial list, and I'm sure you could come up with other definitions. It makes sense, it has balance, it has form, is clear and it's useful. These are just a few traits, but we all know that ...
  9. 9. Subjectiveness of Beauty... 9 Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Or in the case of system design, beauty is in the eyes of every person in each department who is touched by the system. So the challenge becomes, how do we meet everyone's needs? How do we design and develop systems that everyone, including regulatory bodies like the FDA, see as beautiful?
  10. 10. The Beginnings of a Beautiful System... It's human centered – not system centered. A beautiful system exists for you, not vice-versa. It starts with the premise of asking, “What is possible?” It asks “Why are we doing this?” It is an extension of your brand, it reflects who you are and what you do. It fosters conversation and conversation leads to understanding of yourselves, your customers, your systems and your goals. 10 We start with a focus on people. At its core, a properly designed system will be human centered – not system centered. A beautiful system exists for you, not vice-versa. How many times have we felt at the mercy of our systems? (That's a sure sign that things aren't right). And, when the system stresses people, there's a temptation towards non-compliance. So, start with the premise of asking, “What is possible?” not “we need to fix xyz.” To answer that question look to the people, the culture, and the technology available. Ask, “why are we doing this?” The system is an extension of your brand, it reflects who you are and what you do. The output of your system should reflect who you are as a company. The system fosters conversation and conversation leads to understanding of yourselves, your customers, your systems and your goals.
  11. 11. The Beginnings of a Beautiful System... It's human centered – not system centered. A beautiful Design Thinking system exists for you, not vice- versa. isn't about It starts with the premise of asking, “What is possible?” solving problems It asks “Why are we doing as much as it is this?” It is an extension of your brand, about exploring it reflects who you are and what you do. possible It fosters conversation and conversation leads to solutions understanding of yourselves, your customers, your systems and your goals. 11 Design thinking is less about solving problems and more about exploring possible solutions. It's about coming together to make dreams reality, to inspire and build to meet the needs of everyone that the system will touch, including regulatory bodies. It's not about one person or one group's idea of a system foisted upon the entire company. So what tools are needed? Let's return to our diagram from earlier.
  12. 12. What Basic Skills Are Needed? From: Evolution of the Mind: A Case for Design Literacy by Chris Pacione; XVII.2 - March / April, 2010 12 For purposes of designing systems, I've highlighted some of the key tools that could be used. On the Look side we have things like interviews, task analyses, questionnaires and usability testing. On the Make side we have things like storyboarding, ideation, prototyping, persona development, sketching, and stakeholder mapping. While these specific tools are extremely helpful at helping us understand what our system needs to be, we can further simplify this approach and boil the design of systems down two fundamental skills: By using these two skills, you will be well on your way to being design literate and using design thinking. They are:
  13. 13. What TWO Basic Skills Needed for Designing Quality Systems? 13 Image Sources: http://blogs.intland.com/main/entry/15 and M.C. Escher Collaboration and Drawing Collaboration is essential to making sure that all the pieces of the puzzle in the system are looked at. A puzzle that's missing pieces is interesting in that by nature it draws attention to those pieces that are missing. With systems, auditors and those that use your systems, find the gaps with little effort. Each person expects a certain picture and pain, friction, frustration are all indicators of missing pieces in the puzzle. Without all the pieces in the puzzle present, the system, and your people, suffer. It is absolutely essential that representatives from every group being touched by the system be a part of the process of developing the system. Their input needs to be taken seriously. Systems should not be cobbled together by one person who floats it out to everyone. For it to be designed it needs to be a collaborative effort. Drawing is essential to diagramming and communication. We don't have to be able to sketch like Leonardo da Vinci, but we need to feel comfortable with making pictures, with making our problems and solutions visible to others. Our brains engage with pictures differently than they do words. Look at the two pictures on this slide, They're provocative. They mean more than words.. Simple Pictures, even stick figures, will often convey problems more effectively than a 10 page report. Tools like Visio are great, but if we really want the magic to happen, we need to feel comfortable with markers and pencils in our hands. I can't stress how much more powerful design can be when everyone is collaborating on a giant piece of paper or a white board as opposed to reading emails..
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  18. 18. What's the Difference? Reg Strategy Reqmt's System Use System Dev Roll-out Typical Process Design Thinking Process 23 How is this different from what is usually done? The typical process on the upper left starts with the statement of what the regulatory strategy is. The requirements are determined and a system is created, written and disseminated. While there is some interaction during the process development phase between departments, it is not always intentional and collaborative. When processes are finally penned they are rolled out, used and perhaps modified at yearly or semi-annual reviews. The Design Thinking process, on the other hand, brings advantages through more robust needs determination, accelerated learning using visualization, hands on experimenting, and quick prototyping.
  19. 19. How Does it Map? The Define and Research Phases Include: Constraints Set by Regulatory Bodies Understanding Needs of Various Departments Empathy for Those in Various Depts. The Ideate, Prototype and Choose Phases Include: Synthesis of Define and Research Phases Hands on Collaboration and Development Small Scale Testing/Dry Runs of Various Solutions Group Ownership of Processes Design Thinking Process 24 In other words, as opposed to the typical process that includes requirements and perhaps some of the various needs, Design Thinking will include an empathic appreciation of what various departments and team members go through. In addition, the process will contain multiple iterations and testing of processes in a collaborative manner before roll out takes place. This creates communal ownership and agreement of the usability of the system. The result is a beautiful, more elegant, and useful system. This system will be more useful immediately at launch and usually there will be fewer changes after launch.
  20. 20. through doing. Processes then become living, vibrant and interactive; beautiful, useful and perhaps even innovative.
  21. 21. Contact Information Michael Plishka ZenStorming Solutions, LLC PO Box 6158 Lindenhurst, IL 60046 michael@zenstorming.com 1-866-801-6737 Skype: callmeplish Twitter: @Plish 26

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