Unit 6 dna powerpoint(revised2006)


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Unit 6 dna powerpoint(revised2006)

  3. 3. Since we just finished learning about chloroplasts (photosynthesis) and mitochondria (respiration), we are now moving on to another cell organelle: the nucleus .
  4. 4. Some questions to start us off…take a moment to try to answer #1-4 with your table partner How High?! JUMP! It’s the Control Center of the Cell- directs all cells activity Think back to the cell/the city What is the job of the Nucleus?
  5. 5. What’s in the nucleus? THE NUCLEOLUS So then we can say that the Nucleus makes proteins Let’s take a deeper look And what is the job of the nucleolus? To make ribosomes And what do ribosomes do for the cell? They make protein!
  6. 6. Break it Down! <ul><li>The nucleus houses the cells </li></ul><ul><li>information in the form of </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of DNA? </li></ul><ul><li>It stores for the cell </li></ul><ul><li>What does DNA form? </li></ul>DNA hereditary info and makes proteins Chromosomes
  7. 7. DNA has 3 Main Jobs… <ul><li>It stores hereditary information (Genes) </li></ul><ul><li>It begins the process to make proteins for the organism- aka “Protein Synthesis” </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>of new organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>But what do we even need </li></ul><ul><li>protein for? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Good Question! <ul><li>Organisms are constantly making protein. From what you know about protein, why do you think we need to make it all the time ? </li></ul><ul><li>Talk the matter over with your table partner. </li></ul>
  9. 9. We need protein for… <ul><li>Our body tissues- as they get replaced and repaired. Proteins are the stuff we/life is made of. </li></ul><ul><li>To make the enzymes our bodies need for chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and repair. </li></ul>
  10. 10. DNA- What is it? <ul><li>D eoxyribo n ucleic A cid </li></ul><ul><li>Double Stranded and helical (twists around like a spiral staircase) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus- </li></ul><ul><li>“ PONCH” </li></ul><ul><li>(remember that from Big 4 unit?) </li></ul>
  11. 11. DNA’s Structure <ul><li>DNA is made up of NUCLEOTIDES </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides are made up of three components: </li></ul><ul><li>1.A nitrogenous base </li></ul><ul><li>2. A sugar (called deoxyribose) </li></ul><ul><li>3. A phosphate group </li></ul>The structure looks like a ladder. Twisted. The backbone is made up the sugar and phosphate and the rungs are the nitrogen bases.
  12. 12. DNA Structure <ul><li>The pair of nucleotides is held together by a Hydrogen bond (1 pair is like 1 step on a twisted ladder). </li></ul><ul><li>The “backbone” of DNA, or the sides of a ladder are the sugar and phosphate </li></ul>Sugar Sugar Phosphate Group Phosphate Group Nitrogenous Base Nitrogenous Base Held together by a Hydrogen Bond
  13. 13. The 4 Nitrogenous Bases <ul><li>Although all nucleotides in DNA have IDENTICAL Phosphate and Sugar groups, there are 4 different Nitrogenous Base options </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine- A </li></ul><ul><li>Guanine- G </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosine- C </li></ul><ul><li>Thymine- T </li></ul>Called PURINES Called P YRIMIDINES 4
  14. 14. These 4 Bases are Very Picky! <ul><li>Adenine (A) only pairs with Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C) only pairs with Guanine (G) </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, </li></ul><ul><li>A----T </li></ul><ul><li>G----C </li></ul>
  15. 15. Now for a FUN way to remember this… <ul><li>Ants on Toast (A----T) </li></ul><ul><li>And… </li></ul><ul><li>Green Cheese (G----C) </li></ul>
  16. 16. The importance of the nucleotide sequence <ul><li>The sequencing of the nucleotide bases determines the information that is needed to make proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>The combinations of nucleotides is an actual code (message) for different amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you remember? What are amino acids? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Now that you know all about DNA…you need to figure out how it does its job! ALL CELLS CONTINUALLY DIVIDE WHEN THEY DO, THE DNA REPLICATES (COPIES ITSELF) SO THAT EACH NEW CELL HAS A SET OF INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO RUN THE CELLS ACTIVITIES Without the DNA, the cell would not be able to function!
  18. 18. Library Analogy <ul><li>Cedar Rapids, My home town </li></ul><ul><li>One library in a city of 100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Town needed a new library. </li></ul><ul><li>Town was divided by the Cedar River (rivers bio) </li></ul><ul><li>How to go about making two equal library’s? </li></ul><ul><li>Copy all of the materials and separate them into the two new libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>How does each library compare in relationship to the other one? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cedar Rapids
  20. 20. Cedar Rapids Iowa 2008
  21. 21. So, How does DNA Replicate? YOU TELL ME! JOURNAL TITLE “DNA REPLICATION” (after a bit of cutting and learning on your own please write out the answers to the questions on page 3 of your packet. Then write a journal entry describing the detailed process of DNA replication ) DNA SNIPPING ACTIVITY
  22. 22. Enzymes <ul><li>Because enzymes are used in the next activity, you should know what they are- </li></ul><ul><li>Most enzymes end with the letters “ase”. </li></ul><ul><li>An enzyme is a protein that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speeds up a chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reaction! </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Open your journal and write a description of DNA replication when you have completed the DNA replication assignment.
  24. 25. Detailed Steps in DNA Replication <ul><li>Begin with one copy of double stranded DNA (this is your template or parent strand) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Helicase (an enzyme) breaks the hydrogen bonds between the bases (A---T, or C---G). DNA Helicase is the “Unzipper”. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  25. 26. Replication Steps <ul><li>DNA Polymerase , the matchmaker, brings the appropriate DNA nucleotides or bases to the parent strand. It brings the single bases “hanging out” in the nucleus to their mate! </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Ligase, the connector, attaches the sugar of one nucleotide to the phosphate of the next nucleotide. Sugar and phosphate alternate on the backbone. </li></ul>We owe it to DNA Polymerase!
  26. 27. MINI REVIEW <ul><li>Which enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide bases in DNA, so it can separate and replicate? </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Helicase </li></ul><ul><li>Which enzyme is the matchmaker? It helps the extra, unmatched nucleotides in the nucleus find a mate. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Polymerase </li></ul><ul><li>(Think Polly the matchmaker) </li></ul><ul><li>Which enzyme connects the nucleotides together as the strand grows? </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Ligase </li></ul><ul><li>(think ligament- it links) </li></ul>
  27. 28. RANDOM JOKE BREAK Ha Ha Ha… <ul><li>The Wonderful Thing About Tiggers   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Why doesn't Tigger have any friends? </li></ul><ul><li>He plays with Pooh </li></ul>
  28. 29. What do you think would happen if a mistake occurred during DNA replication? Let’s think!
  29. 30. WE WILL GET A MUTATION! Mutations that occur during DNA replication are called… POINT MUTATIONS
  30. 31. POINT MUTATIONS EXAMPLES ARE Base Pair Addition Base Pair Deletion Base Pair Substitution <ul><li>Knowing what you do about DNA structure what do you think causes each of the above mutations. </li></ul>
  31. 32. What causes mutations?
  32. 33. MUTATION CAUSES: Mutagens <ul><li>Natural Causes- mistakes in the DNA </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE CLEANING SUPPLIES YOU USE </li></ul>2. Environmental Factors…Mutagens <ul><li>IN THE TOBACCO THAT PEOPLE USE </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE FOOD YOU EAT </li></ul>3. UV-Rays & X-Rays
  33. 34. How many people do you know who smoke? 1 out of every 3 tobacco users will die from a tobacco related illness. Think for a second and count them .
  34. 35. Tobacco Stinks Sucks Smells And KILLS
  35. 36. In the dentist’s office, why do they place a lead apron over a person’s lap? They want to protect the reproductive organs. If a mutation occurs in the reproductive organs, it may end up disfiguring a future child, or worse.
  36. 37. 4. Heavy Metals <ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Cadmium </li></ul><ul><li>(Not heavy metal like Metallica) </li></ul>MUTATION CAUSES CONT…
  37. 38. 5. UV Rays <ul><li>a. Holes in the ozone layer </li></ul>b. Tanning beds
  38. 39. 6. Nuclear radiation
  39. 40. Things that cause mutations are called Mutagens
  40. 41. Exposure to mutagens can cause mutations in 2 general areas. <ul><li>Mutations in the sex cells, eggs and sperm. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think these mutations might lead to? </li></ul>2. Mutations in the other cells of the body. What do you think these might lead to? BIRTH DEFECTS OR DEATH CANCER
  41. 42. If you do not mind… <ul><li>Please stand up if you or someone in your immediate family has had cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Please stand up if someone you are related to has had cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Please stand up if you know someone personally who has had cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Please stand up if you have a friend who is related to someone who has had cancer. </li></ul>
  42. 43. So what exactly is this disease?
  43. 44. Cancer is a disease where cells begin to divide by mitosis uncontrollably. A mutation(s) can occur in one single cell, and by the process of mitosis it can grow into tens of thousands or more cells in a relatively short period of time.
  44. 45. What forms when a cell has undergone mitosis uncontrollably for a while in one central spot? A Tumor
  45. 46. Cancer Treatments 1. Surgerical removal of cancer
  46. 47. 2. Chemotherapy- Treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells or make them less active. 3. Radiation- uses high-energy waves, such as X-rays (invisible waves that can pass through most parts of the body), to damage and destroy cancer cells.
  47. 48. 4. Another option is a STEM CELL TRANPLANT Radiation and anti-cancer drugs are very good at destroying cancer cells, but unfortunately they also destroy healthy cells. http://www.leapingmedia.com/Media/TransplantAnimation.mov
  48. 49. ADVERTISEMENT! Relay For Life® One day. One night. One community. Your Relay For Life® is about celebration, remembrance, and hope. By participating, you honor cancer survivors, pay tribute to the lives we’ve lost to the disease, and raise money to help fight it – all right here in your community. You won’t want to miss one moment of this life - and community-affirming event! MAY 11- May 12 at GBN
  49. 50. Protein Synthesis <ul><li>What happens after we have made our DNA? What does it do from here? </li></ul><ul><li>RNA copies the gene information from the DNA and brings it to the ribosomes to make proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>So… What is this RNA that we are talking about? </li></ul>
  50. 51. RNA- What is it? <ul><li>R ibo n ucleic A cid </li></ul><ul><li>Single stranded </li></ul><ul><li>Made of nucleotides (which contain a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group) </li></ul>
  51. 52. RNA Structure <ul><li>Contains the sugar Ribose (hints the R in RNA), instead of Deoxyribose that is found in DNA </li></ul><ul><li>As with DNA, there are 4 bases- Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and … URACIL (which one is different?) </li></ul><ul><li>The Uracil takes the place of Thymine, so it pairs with Adenine </li></ul>
  52. 53. WHAT ARE SOME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DNA AND RNA? DNA Has thymine Deoxyribonucleic acid Double Helix RNA Has Uracil Ribonucleic acid Single stranded
  53. 54. A-----U in RNA Ants on Utters (instead of Ants on Toast)! This is utterly ridiculous! Guanine still pairs with Cytosine (Green Cheese)
  54. 55. So this is CRYSTAL CLEAR… <ul><li>DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis are 2 SEPARATE Steps! </li></ul><ul><li>Although Protein Synthesis uses </li></ul><ul><li>DNA to make protein, the </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Replication process is </li></ul><ul><li>completely DIFFERENT . The </li></ul><ul><li>only similarity is that they both </li></ul><ul><li>make more of “something”. </li></ul>
  55. 56. How to get to a Protein <ul><li>STEP 1: Transcription </li></ul><ul><li>RNA copies DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Translation </li></ul><ul><li>RNA makes proteins </li></ul>Of course, there are some steps that help this process along.
  56. 57. These processes taken together… <ul><li>Are called protein synthesis, or gene expression. </li></ul>DNA Transcription RNA Translation Protein
  57. 58. So, How does Protein Synthesis work? YOU TELL ME! (after a bit of cutting and learning on your own please write out a step by step process for how this occurs) MORE SNIPPING ACTIVITY YES AGAIN!
  58. 59. ANIMATIONS http://www.ncc.gmu.edu/dna/ANIMPROT.htm <ul><li>http :// www.execulink.com/~ekimmel/translate.htm </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>VERY GOOD ONE BELOW </li></ul>
  59. 60. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS SUMMARY STEP 1: Transcription WHERE: In the nucleus WHAT: RNA polymerase does its jobs: Splits DNA strand. RNA copies recipe from DNA strand. DNA strand zips up again. mRNA now newly formed prepares to leave the nucleus. STEP 2: Translation WHERE: On the ribosome WHAT: mRNA sits on ribosome with its codons exposed. tRNA anticodons match with the codons bringing with them amino acids. Amino acids link. tRNA go away. Amino acid chain (aka polypeptides) forms protein.
  60. 61. Codon to Protein <ul><li>A codon sequence “stands for” a certain amino acid (the building block of proteins!) </li></ul><ul><li>For example, ACG stands for Threonine (an amino acid) </li></ul><ul><li>When a string of mRNA’s codons are “read” by tRNA’s anticodon, amino acids are put together in the specified order to make a protein! </li></ul>
  61. 62. Chonps Activity <ul><li>Make a funky </li></ul><ul><li>creature!!! </li></ul>