A Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace? EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAIN ? A NECKLACE ?
A Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace? EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAIN THE CARS A NECKLACE EACH PEARL
Now you and your lab partner need to think of at least 1 other analogy for a polymer and its monomers.
Now we are ready to begin our study of...
The Big Four
The Big 4
There are 4 types of biochemical macromolecules
• What does “Bio-Chemical” mean?
Break it down: How do you define bio? How do you define chemical? • Then what is a BIOchemical macromolecule?
Three out of the 4 types of biochemical macromolecules can be found on food nutrition labels…
Look at the label to the left. 3 of the 4 macromolecules can be found in foods.
The 3 biochemical molecules
found on a nutrition label are:
(0 grams in this product) (13 grams in this product) (9 grams in this product) FAT Carbohydrates Protein
What is the fourth type of biochemical macromolecule?
The 4th type of biochemical macromolecules are the NUCLEIC ACIDS
The types of Nucleic Acids
we will study are:
DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid )
RNA (Ribo Nucleic Acid )
“ DNA” is short for D eoxyribo N ucleic A cid
Now you know why they just call it DNA!
When studying these biochemical molecules, we are interested in finding out…..
what they do for living things.
what they generally look like.
what their monomers are.
and how they may help the body gain energy to sustain life.
LET’S BEGIN WITH CARBOHYDRATES
They are the main source for the body to gain energy . They are our fuel!
They also are used for some types of tissues such as the make up the cell wall in plants/fungi which allow them to grow tall, without this carbohydrate, a plant would be a mushy mess
THINK: CARBS= ENERGY and CELL WALLS
WHAT DO THEY DO?
CARBOHYDRATES WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?
They are found in the cells and fluids of both plants and animals. You are familiar with many of the carbohydrates found in the foods you eat.
CARBOHYDRATES MADE UP OF... Carbohydrates are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer of carbohydrates is… GLUCOSE
The shape of a glucose molecule is a hexagonal ring
CARBOHYDRATES AT THE ATOM LEVEL Each carbohydrate is made up of… Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen THINK: “CHO”
Consider the word carbohydrate
If we break the word down it contains both carbon and hydrate. This tells us that the molecules of glucose contain both carbon and water.
One key to identifying carbohydrates is that they all contain a ratio of 2hydrogen atoms to every one oxygen atom. JUST LIKE WATER H 2 O
CARBOHYDRATES TYPES THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES Simple Complex
Simple Sugars are carbohydrates made up of 1 or 2 monomers of glucose.
Simple Sugars COOKIES and CANDY CAKES FRUITS
Complex Carbohydrates… What are they? Complex Carbohydrates are polymers made up of many monomers (simple sugars.)
You are familiar with many complex Carbohydrates found in foods such as: FIBER STARCHES VEGETABLES WHOLE GRAINS PASTAS BREADS
The cell walls of plants and fungi are composed of complex carbohydrate molecules called cellulose in plants and chitin in fungi.
The cellulose molecule is so structurally sound that it allows the plants to be rigid without having a skeletal structure.
Cellulose is the major component in wood. It is fairly stable and takes a lot to break it down.
Look how strong these giant lilly pads are, pretty cool eh?
NOW ONTO PROTEINS
They are the major structural molecules in living things for growth and repair : muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, skin, nails…IN FACT ALL CELL MEMBRANES have protein in them
They make up antibodies in the immune system
They make up enzymes for helping chemical reactions
MORE ON PROTEINS… The following slides give you a little more in depth info on things that are made of proteins…
Muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones Without these particular structural proteins, we would look more like this….
Well, maybe not exactly (giant jelly fish washed up on shore)…
Hair, Skin, and Nails
Microscope View of Skin and Nails This is skin This is a nail
Cell Membrane The cell membrane surrounds everything in a cell so it doesn’t leak out. It is kind of like the balloon in a water balloon. The cell membrane is made mostly of protein AND lipids.
Antibodies are part of the immune system. When something enters the body that isn’t supposed to be there, like certain bacteria, antibodies find the invader and stick themselves onto it. When a white blood cell finds the invader covered with antibodies, it knows it doesn’t belong there and kills it. Antibodies
Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. If you didn’t have enzymes in your stomach to speed up digestion, the food would rot in your stomach because it would take so long! Enzymes
Hormones are chemicals made in glands that are in one place in the body and then put into the blood to be used in another. These are where the hormone producing glands are located in your body. HORMONES
The thyroid is found in the middle of your neck, by your voice box. Here is a picture of those cells secreting the thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone regulates how fast your body uses energy. If you have an over active thyroid, you use energy quickly and tend to be very thin and have a hard time putting on weight. If you have an under active thyroid gland, you use energy very slowly and tend to carry more body fat and have a difficult time losing it. Don’t be quick to think you have a thyroid problem if you are overweight, chances are it’s actually your eating and exercise habits! (The yellow stuff is thyroid hormone)
PROTEINS WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?
In plants - in the cell membranes.
In animal products- in the cell membranes- in the muscles or living things- cows, chicken, fish…
Proteins in foods
Proteins Aside from the protein found in animal sources…protein can also be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts. (it just does not have as many amino acids)
PROTEINS MADE UP OF... Proteins are made of long chains (polymers) made of monomers. All proteins are made of the monomer… AMINO ACID
There are a total of 20 different amino acids, and just like letters in the alphabet can be used to make an infinite amount of different words, the amino acids can be arranged in an infinite amount of different ways to form all the different tissues in living organisms.
The different arrangements of amino acids create a variety of tissues and structures . Amino Acid chain All wound up
PROTEINS AT THE ATOM LEVEL Each protein is made up of… Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur THINK: “CHONS”
LIPIDS ARE NEXT
They are a great source of STORED ENERGY so we have it in the future.
They INSULATE the body to maintain normal body temperature and they CUSHION the internal organs for protection.
They produce hormones for the body called STERIODS
They waterproof surfaces and cells of living organisms some are even called waxes.
Fruits produce a waxy coating to keep from drying out.
The cells in a tulip make a wax which helps coat the leaves.
Ear wax traps dust, sand, and other foreign particles from going deeper into the ear and causing damage.
Beeswax- a structural material to hold honey in the hive
LIPIPS…Some interesting info Steriods... There are many different types of steroids. They are all lipids. Their functions vary. Some common steroids are: SEX STEROIDS ANABOLIC STERIODS CHOLESTEROL Like testosterone and estrogen They increase muscle
LIPIPS…Some interesting info Steriods... Some anabolic steroids are illegal And can be dangerous and very unhealthy NATURAL STERIODS IN OUR BODY INCREASE MUSCLE GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT AND ARE GOOD. THE ILLEGAL ONES THAT ARE SYNTHETIC ARE BAD.
Very Common Effects of Illegal Steroids If used when the person is still growing, they will be shorter as an adult, anabolic steroids will decrease bone growth. Males will experience shrinking of the testicles, and with prolonged use, the steroid will be turned into estrogen in the male body and it will start to lay fatty tissue on the chest, otherwise known as breasts . If genetically predisposed to becoming bald, balding will happen more quickly. If clean needles are not readily available, there is a significantly higher risk of getting AIDS. Future risks of liver cancer & disease. Enlarged heart (one pro athlete’s heart grew to the size of a basketball…obviously he’s dead)
Illegal Steroid Use in Women Some additional effects… Breasts will decrease in size, the opposite of what happens to men. The woman will start to grow facial hair, how quickly depends on her genetic makeup. If she discontinues use, the facial hair will still continue to grow. If she is genetically predisposed to balding, she will start to lose her hair, just as if she was genetically male. Her voice will start to deepen, how quickly depends on her genetics. If she discontinues use, her voice will remain deep.
LIPIDS WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?
In plants- in the seeds,waxes and oils.
In animals- in adipose tissue, connective tissue, in animals
Cell membranes are composed of a double lipid layer that provides a boundary between the cell and the environment.
Lipids are commonly found in foods and an important part of good and unfortunately bad nutrition. MARGARINE OILS BUTTER
LIPIDS MADE UP OF... Lipids are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer of lipids is… Triglycerides and fatty acids
The Shape of a triglyceride is like the letter E This is a triglyceride molecule
LIPIDS AT THE ATOM LEVEL Each carbohydrate is made up of… Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen THINK: “CHO”
OH NO CHO! Lipids like Carbs? You might have noticed that both carbohydrates and lipids have the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. “ CHO” A carbohydrate, has twice as many hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms. EX: C 6 H 12 O 6 (This is a carb= there are double the number of H compared to O) On the other hand, lipids have a lot more than twice the amount hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms. EX: C 27 H 46 O cholesterol
Quick Review Questions What Big 4 molecule stores energy for the future? What are 4 effects of illegal steroid use in men and 3 effects in women? What are 4 things proteins do in your body? What are the functions of lipids? What is the main function of carbohydrates? Try to answer without looking back or using your notes :)
Mini Quiz Examples of the Big 4
Each of the following foods is high in one of the Big 4 organic molecules. Decide which one for each of the following foods.
FINALLY- NUCLEIC ACIDS
NUCLEIC ACIDS TYPES THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA RNA
Is our genetic material. Chromosomes are made of DNA.
Chromosomes contain the “recipes” to make proteins for your body.
Reads the DNA “protein recipes” and makes the proteins for your body.
WHAT DO THEY DO
NUCLEIC ACIDS WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?
Just as they may sound the DNA nucleic acids are found inside the control center of many cells. This location and structure is called a nucleus. The RNA is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells.
NUCLEIC ACIDS MADE UP OF... Nucleic Acids are chains (polymers) made of monomers. Nucleic acids are made up of Nucleotide Chains Which are nitrogen bases…something we will learn more about when we study DNA
The shape of a nucleic acid is: DNA is a double helix RNA is a single strand
Nucleic Acids AT THE ATOM LEVEL Each nucleic acid is made up of… Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen THINK: “PONCH”
ENERGY Three of the BIG 4 provide consumers with energy through the food they eat: BIG 4 MACROMOLECULES Number of Calories it provides Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids
ENERGY Energy that is gained by consuming food is called a CALORIE
Energy that we gain by the consumption of food is measured in Calories . If you drink a glass of skim milk, you will get a gain of 90 Calories of energy for your body.
Energy Gained From Carbohydrates Eating 1 gram of carbohydrate provides your body with 4 Calories.
Energy Gained from Protein Eating 1 gram of protein provides your body with 4 Calories.
Energy Gained from Lipids Eating 1 gram of fat provides your body with 9 Calories. Notice if you eat 1 gram of fat, you are gaining more than twice the amount of Calories than from a gram of carbohydrate or protein!
Nucleic acids The nucleic acids in food are not considered a substance that the body uses to gain energy.
So, you won’t find nucleic acids listed on a nutrition label!
ENERGY So… TEST: Are you smart? If you eat a sandwhich with 46 grams of carbs and 24 grams of protein and 10 grams of fat, how much energy will you gain? 370 BIG 4 MACROMOLECULES Number of Calories it provides Carbohydrates 4 Proteins 4 Lipids 9 Nucleic Acids 0
What elements are found in all of the Big 4 molecules? Which of the Big 4 has different elements and what are they?
Since Carbohydrates and Lipids have the same elements in them, how can you tell the difference?
Would C 26 H 32 O 5 be a carbohydrate or lipid?
Which molecule is in the shape of a hexagon?
Which molecule is in the shape of an E?
A polymer of amino acids makes what molecule?
Which one of the following molecules is a lipid? A carbohydrate? 1.) C 27 H 46 O 2.) C 12 H 24 O 12 Lipid Carbohydrate
What kind of carbohydrate gives you a quick burst of energy?
What kind of carbohydrate gives you long term energy?
You are stranded on a desert island and have found a box of food. Considering you have almost nothing to eat on the island, which of the following would be the best food to have in the box? WHY ?
How many Calories are found in 1 gram of protein?
How many Calories are in 1 gram of nucleic acid?
Final Review Questions Please do not look back at the information in your handout until you have answered all of the following questions. 1. What are 2 examples of simple sugars and 2 examples of complex carbohydrates not mentioned already? 2. What is a polymer? 3. What is a monomer? 4. Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of ________________. 5. Define in your own words: Biochemical Macromolecule 6. Proteins are major structural molecules in living things. List 5 places or things in your body that contain a lot of protein. 7. What are enzymes? What are they made of? 8. What are hormones? 9. What does your thyroid hormone do? 10. Name three types of proteins. 11. What are the functions of lipids? 12. What elements are found in each of the Big 4 molecules? 13. What does DNA do? RNA? 14. How many Calories are found in 1 gram of each of the Big 4 molecules? 15. What are 5 possible effects of illegal steroid use? 16. What are 3 functions of lipids? 17. What is the function of waxes? 18. What are 2 ways simple sugars are different from complex carbohydrates? 19. What are 4 organic macromolecules?