Building blocks of life
• In our last two units you were
introduced to the cycles of matter
in the environment.
• Do you r...
The cycles are needed for life
because they contain the
elements of life.
• These cycles use certain
components/elements n...
Relationship to Rivers
• You may recall some of the cycles in nature were
carbon dioxide, water, phosphates and nitrates.
...
Too many nitrates and
phosphates = Eutrophication
Cultural Eutrophication
• Run off of excess
fertilizers/animal
waste (high in
phosphates and
nitrates) change the
balance ...
Relationship to Rivers cont.
• All living organisms, whether river organisms
or not, contain the common macromolecules of
...
Before you can understand the topics inBefore you can understand the topics in
this unit there are some key vocabularythis...
Oooooh, BIG ScaRy Science word!
What do these words mean?
A molecule is a collection of 2 or
more atoms chemically combined
that have a unique set of
properties.
So What Is A
Macromolecule?
You should be able to define it on your own !You should be able to define it on your own !
Next Word…..
Polygons
Polygamy
Polyester
What does
“Mono”
mean?
A PolymerA Polymer
Here are some analogies to better
understand what polymers and monomers
are….
EXAMPLE of
POLYMER
MONOME...
A PolymerA Polymer
Here are some analogies to better
understand what polymers and monomers
are….
EXAMPLE of
POLYMER
MONOME...
Now you and your lab partner
need to think of at least 1 other
analogy for a polymer and its
monomers.
The Big 4
There are 4 types of biochemical macromolecules
•What does “Bio-Chemical” mean?
Break it down: How do you define...
Three out of the 4 types of
biochemical macromolecules
can be found on food
nutrition labels…
Look at the label to the left. 3
of the 4 macromolecules can
be found in foods.
The 3 biochemical molecules
found on a nut...
The 4th type of biochemical
macromolecules are the
NUCLEIC ACIDS
The types of Nucleic Acids
we will study are:
–DNA (Deoxy...
“DNA” is short for
DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
• Now you know why they just
call it DNA!
When studying these biochemical
molecules, we are interested in
finding out…..
• what they do for living things.
• what th...
LET’S BEGIN WITH
CARBOHYDRATES
They are the main source for the body to gain
energy. They are our fuel!
They also are us...
CARBOHYDRATES
•They are found in the cells andThey are found in the cells and
fluids of both plants andfluids of both plan...
CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are chainsCarbohydrates are chains
(polymers) made of monomers.(polymers) made of monomers.
Th...
The shape of a glucose
molecule is a hexagonal ring
CARBOHYDRATES
Each carbohydrate is made upEach carbohydrate is made up
of…of…
THINK: CHO“ ”THINK: CHO“ ”
Consider the word carbohydrate
• If we break the word down it contains both
carbon and hydrate. This tells us that the
mol...
CARBOHYDRATES
THERE ARE 2 TYPES OFTHERE ARE 2 TYPES OF
CARBOHYDRATESCARBOHYDRATES
SimpleSimple ComplexComplex
Simple Sugars are carbohydrates
made up of 1 or 2 monomers of
glucose.
Simple Sugars
Complex
Carbohydrates…
What are they?
Complex Carbohydrates areComplex Carbohydrates are
polymerspolymers made up of manym...
You are familiar with many complex
Carbohydrates found in foods such as:
The cell walls of plants and fungi are composed of
complex carbohydrate molecules called cellulose
in plants and chitin in...
The cellulose molecule is so structurally sound that it
allows the plants to be rigid without having a
skeletal structure.
Cellulose is the major component in
wood. It is fairly stable and takes a lot to
break it down.
Look how strong these giant lilly
pads are, pretty cool eh?
NOW ONTO PROTEINS
T hey are the m ajor structural m olecules in living
things for growth and repair : m uscles, ligam ent...
MORE ON PROTEINS…
T he following slidesT he following slides
give you a little m ore ingive you a little m ore in
depth in...
Muscles, ligaments,
tendons, and bones
Without these
particular structural
proteins, we would
look more like this….
Well, maybe not exactly (giant jelly fish washed up onWell, maybe not exactly (giant jelly fish washed up on
shore)…shore)…
Hair, Skin, and Nails
Microscope View of
Skin and Nails
This is skin This is a nail
Cell Membrane
The cell membrane surrounds everything in a cell so it doesn’t
leak out. It is kind of like the balloon in a...
Antibodies are part of the immune system. When
something enters the body that isn’t supposed to be
there, like certain bac...
Enzymes are proteins that speed
up chemical reactions. If you
didn’t have enzymes in your
stomach to speed up digestion, t...
Hormones are chemicals made in glands that
are in one place in the body and then put
into the blood to be used in another....
The thyroid is found in the middle of your neck, by your voice box.
Here is a picture of those cells secreting the thyroid...
PROTEINS
•In plants - in the cellIn plants - in the cell
membranes.membranes.
•In animal products- in theIn animal product...
Proteins in foods
Proteins
Aside from the protein foundAside from the protein found
in animal sources protein…in animal sources protein…
can...
PROTEINS
P roteins are m ade of longP roteins are m ade of long
chains (polym ers) m ade ofchains (polym ers) m ade of
m o...
There are a total of 20 different
amino acids, and just like letters in
the alphabet can be used to make an
infinite amoun...
The different arrangements of amino acids create
a variety of tissues and structures.
Amin
o
Acid
chain
All
woun
PROTEINS
E ach protein is m ade up of…E ach protein is m ade up of…
T H IN K : C H O N S“ ”T H IN K : C H O N S“ ”
LIPIDS ARE NEXT
T hey are a great source of S T O R E D E N E R G Y so
we have it in the future.
T hey IN S U LA T E the...
LIPIPS…Some interesting info
•Fruits produce a waxy coating to
keep from drying out.
• The cells in a tulip make a wax
whi...
LIPIPS…Some interesting info
There are many different types ofThere are many different types of
steroids. They are all lip...
LIPIPS…Some interesting info
S om e anabolicS om e anabolic
steroids aresteroids are
illegalillegal
And can be dangerous a...
Very Common Effects of Illegal SteroidsVery Common Effects of Illegal Steroids
If used when the person is still growing, t...
Illegal Steroid Use in Women
Some additional effects…
reasts will decrease in size, the opposite of what happens to men.
T...
LIPIDS
•In plants- in the seeds, waxesIn plants- in the seeds, waxes
and oils.and oils.
•In anim als- in adipose tissue,In...
Cell membranes are composed of a double
lipid layer that provides a boundary between
the cell and the environment.
Lipids are commonly found in foods and an important
part of good and unfortunately bad nutrition.
LIPIDS
Lipids are chains (polym ers)Lipids are chains (polym ers)
m ade of m onom ers. T he m ostm ade of m onom ers. T he...
The Shape of a triglyceride is like
the letter
E
This is a triglyceride molecule
LIPIDS
E ach carbohydrate is m ade upE ach carbohydrate is m ade up
of…of…
T H IN K : C H O“ ”T H IN K : C H O“ ”
OH NO CHO!
Lipids like Carbs?
You might have noticed that both carbohydrates and lipids have the
elements Carbon, Hydrogen...
Quick Review Questions
What Big 4 molecule stores energy for the future?
What are 4 effects of illegal steroid use in men ...
Mini Quiz
Examples of the Big 4
• Each of the following foods is high in
one of the Big 4 organic molecules.
Decide which ...
FINALLY- NUCLEIC ACIDS
NUCLEIC ACIDS
T H E R E A R E 2 T Y P E S O FT H E R E A R E 2 T Y P E S O F
N U C LE IC A C ID SN U C LE IC A C ID S
D N ...
Nucleic Acids
1) DNA
• Is our genetic material. Chromosomes are
made of DNA.
• Chromosomes contain the “recipes” to
make p...
NUCLEIC ACIDS
•Just as they may sound the DNA nucleic acids areJust as they may sound the DNA nucleic acids are
found insi...
NUCLEIC ACIDS
NUCLEIC ACIDS
Nucleic Acids are chainsNucleic Acids are chains
(polymers) made of monomers.(polymers) made of monomers.
Nu...
The shape of a nucleic acid is:
Nucleic Acids
Each nucleic acid is made upEach nucleic acid is made up
of…of…
THINK: PONCH“ ”THINK: PONCH“ ”
ENERGY
Three of the BIG 4 provideThree of the BIG 4 provide
consumers with energy through theconsumers with energy through...
ENERGY
Energy that is gained byEnergy that is gained by
consuming food is called aconsuming food is called a
Energy that we gain by the
consumption of food is measured
in Calories.
If you drink a glass of skim milk, you
will get a ...
Energy Gained From
Carbohydrates
Eating 1 gram of carbohydrate provides
your body with 4 Calories.
Energy Gained from Lipids
Eating 1 gram of fat provides your body with
9 Calories.
Notice if you eat 1 gram of fat, you ar...
Nucleic acids
The nucleic acids in food are not
considered a substance that the body
uses to gain energy.
So, you won’t find
nucleic acids listed on a
nutrition label!
ENERGY
So…So…
BIG 4
MACROMOLECULES
Number of Calories it
provides
Carbohydrates 4
Proteins 4
Lipids 9
Nucleic Acids 0
TEST...
• What elements are found in all of the Big 4
molecules? Which of the Big 4 has different
elements and what are they?
• Si...
Which one of the following
molecules is a lipid?
A carbohydrate?
1.) C27H46O
2.) C12H24O12
LipidLipid
CarbohydrateCarbohyd...
• What kind of carbohydrate gives you a quick burst of
energy?
• What kind of carbohydrate gives you long term energy?
• Y...
Final Review Questions
Please do not look back at the information in your handout until you
have answered all of the follo...
New and improved big 4
New and improved big 4
New and improved big 4
New and improved big 4
New and improved big 4
New and improved big 4
New and improved big 4
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New and improved big 4

  1. 1. Building blocks of life • In our last two units you were introduced to the cycles of matter in the environment. • Do you remember some of them? • List those you can remember.
  2. 2. The cycles are needed for life because they contain the elements of life. • These cycles use certain components/elements needed to build living organisms. • In this unit we will examine role these elements play in all living organisms.
  3. 3. Relationship to Rivers • You may recall some of the cycles in nature were carbon dioxide, water, phosphates and nitrates. • One of our water quality expert groups shared the data and importance of nitrates and phosphates to a balanced and healthy river with respect to water quality. • You will see that this unit examines where water, carbon dioxide and the nutrients of phosphates and nitrates fit into the molecules of living organisms.
  4. 4. Too many nitrates and phosphates = Eutrophication
  5. 5. Cultural Eutrophication • Run off of excess fertilizers/animal waste (high in phosphates and nitrates) change the balance of the nutrients in the water causing explosive plant and algae growth.
  6. 6. Relationship to Rivers cont. • All living organisms, whether river organisms or not, contain the common macromolecules of life (We’ll call them the big 4) • They are used as energy sources, nutrients for building tissues and living material, as well as helping the organism remain healthy and in passing on information for future generations to use. • In this short but important unit we will explore these macromolecules, their roles and functions with living organisms.
  7. 7. Before you can understand the topics inBefore you can understand the topics in this unit there are some key vocabularythis unit there are some key vocabulary terms you need to know.terms you need to know. MacromoleculeMacromolecule PolymerPolymer MonomerMonomer
  8. 8. Oooooh, BIG ScaRy Science word!
  9. 9. What do these words mean?
  10. 10. A molecule is a collection of 2 or more atoms chemically combined that have a unique set of properties.
  11. 11. So What Is A Macromolecule? You should be able to define it on your own !You should be able to define it on your own !
  12. 12. Next Word…..
  13. 13. Polygons Polygamy Polyester
  14. 14. What does “Mono” mean?
  15. 15. A PolymerA Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAIN ? A NECKLACE ? If the train is the whole polymer, what would be theIf the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If thesmall groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers thatnecklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that
  16. 16. A PolymerA Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAIN THE CARS A NECKLACE EACH PEARL If the train is the whole polymer, what would be theIf the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If thesmall groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers thatnecklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that
  17. 17. Now you and your lab partner need to think of at least 1 other analogy for a polymer and its monomers.
  18. 18. The Big 4 There are 4 types of biochemical macromolecules •What does “Bio-Chemical” mean? Break it down: How do you define bio? How do you define chemical? •Then what is a BIOchemical macromolecule?
  19. 19. Three out of the 4 types of biochemical macromolecules can be found on food nutrition labels…
  20. 20. Look at the label to the left. 3 of the 4 macromolecules can be found in foods. The 3 biochemical molecules found on a nutrition label are: 1____________________ 2____________________ 3____________________ (0 grams in this product) (13 grams in this product) (9 grams in this product)
  21. 21. The 4th type of biochemical macromolecules are the NUCLEIC ACIDS The types of Nucleic Acids we will study are: –DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) –RNA (RiboNucleic Acid)
  22. 22. “DNA” is short for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid • Now you know why they just call it DNA!
  23. 23. When studying these biochemical molecules, we are interested in finding out….. • what they do for living things. • what they generally look like. • what their monomers are. • and how they may help the body gain energy to sustain life.
  24. 24. LET’S BEGIN WITH CARBOHYDRATES They are the main source for the body to gain energy. They are our fuel! They also are used for some types of tissues such as the make up the cell wall in plants/fungi which allow them to grow tall, without this carbohydrate, a plant would be a mushy mess THINK: CARBS= ENERGY and CELL WALLS
  25. 25. CARBOHYDRATES •They are found in the cells andThey are found in the cells and fluids of both plants andfluids of both plants and animals. You are familiar withanimals. You are familiar with many of the carbohydratesmany of the carbohydrates found in the foods you eat.found in the foods you eat.
  26. 26. CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are chainsCarbohydrates are chains (polymers) made of monomers.(polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer ofThe most common monomer of carbohydrates is…carbohydrates is…
  27. 27. The shape of a glucose molecule is a hexagonal ring
  28. 28. CARBOHYDRATES Each carbohydrate is made upEach carbohydrate is made up of…of… THINK: CHO“ ”THINK: CHO“ ”
  29. 29. Consider the word carbohydrate • If we break the word down it contains both carbon and hydrate. This tells us that the molecules of glucose contain both carbon and water. • One key to identifying carbohydrates is that they all contain a ratio of 2hydrogen atoms to every one oxygen atom. JUST LIKE WATER H2O
  30. 30. CARBOHYDRATES THERE ARE 2 TYPES OFTHERE ARE 2 TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATESCARBOHYDRATES SimpleSimple ComplexComplex
  31. 31. Simple Sugars are carbohydrates made up of 1 or 2 monomers of glucose.
  32. 32. Simple Sugars
  33. 33. Complex Carbohydrates… What are they? Complex Carbohydrates areComplex Carbohydrates are polymerspolymers made up of manymade up of many monomers (simple sugars.)monomers (simple sugars.)
  34. 34. You are familiar with many complex Carbohydrates found in foods such as:
  35. 35. The cell walls of plants and fungi are composed of complex carbohydrate molecules called cellulose in plants and chitin in fungi.
  36. 36. The cellulose molecule is so structurally sound that it allows the plants to be rigid without having a skeletal structure.
  37. 37. Cellulose is the major component in wood. It is fairly stable and takes a lot to break it down.
  38. 38. Look how strong these giant lilly pads are, pretty cool eh?
  39. 39. NOW ONTO PROTEINS T hey are the m ajor structural m olecules in living things for growth and repair : m uscles, ligam ents, tendons, bones, hair, skin, nails IN F A C T A LL… C E LL M E M B R A N E S have protein in them T hey m ake up antibodies in the im m une system T hey m ake up enzym es for helping chem ical reactions T hey m akeup non-steriod horm ones which T H IN K : P roteins= M em branes, E nzym es, A ntibodies, N on-steriod horm ones, S tructural m olecules, M -E -A -“
  40. 40. MORE ON PROTEINS… T he following slidesT he following slides give you a little m ore ingive you a little m ore in depth info on things thatdepth info on things that are made of proteins…are made of proteins…
  41. 41. Muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones Without these particular structural proteins, we would look more like this….
  42. 42. Well, maybe not exactly (giant jelly fish washed up onWell, maybe not exactly (giant jelly fish washed up on shore)…shore)…
  43. 43. Hair, Skin, and Nails
  44. 44. Microscope View of Skin and Nails This is skin This is a nail
  45. 45. Cell Membrane The cell membrane surrounds everything in a cell so it doesn’t leak out. It is kind of like the balloon in a water balloon. The cell membrane is made mostly of protein AND lipids.
  46. 46. Antibodies are part of the immune system. When something enters the body that isn’t supposed to be there, like certain bacteria, antibodies find the invader and stick themselves onto it. When a white blood cell finds the invader covered with antibodies, it knows it doesn’t belong there and kills it.
  47. 47. Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. If you didn’t have enzymes in your stomach to speed up digestion, the food would rot in your stomach because it would take so long!
  48. 48. Hormones are chemicals made in glands that are in one place in the body and then put into the blood to be used in another. These are where the hormone producing glands are located in your body.
  49. 49. The thyroid is found in the middle of your neck, by your voice box. Here is a picture of those cells secreting the thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone regulates how fast your body uses energy. If you have an over active thyroid, you use energy quickly and tend to be very thin and have a hard time putting on weight. If you have an under active thyroid gland, you use energy very slowly and tend to carry more body fat and have a difficult time losing it. Don’t be quick to think you have a thyroid problem if you are overweight, chances are it’s actually your eating and exercise habits! (The yellow stuff is thyroid hormone)
  50. 50. PROTEINS •In plants - in the cellIn plants - in the cell membranes.membranes. •In animal products- in theIn animal products- in the cell membranes- in thecell membranes- in the muscles or living things-muscles or living things- cows, chicken, fish…cows, chicken, fish…
  51. 51. Proteins in foods
  52. 52. Proteins Aside from the protein foundAside from the protein found in animal sources protein…in animal sources protein… can also be found in fruits,can also be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts.vegetables, grains, and nuts. (it just does not have as many amino acids)(it just does not have as many amino acids)
  53. 53. PROTEINS P roteins are m ade of longP roteins are m ade of long chains (polym ers) m ade ofchains (polym ers) m ade of m onom ers. A ll proteins arem onom ers. A ll proteins are m ade of the m onom er…m ade of the m onom er…
  54. 54. There are a total of 20 different amino acids, and just like letters in the alphabet can be used to make an infinite amount of different words, the amino acids can be arranged in an infinite amount of different ways to form all the different tissues in living organisms.
  55. 55. The different arrangements of amino acids create a variety of tissues and structures. Amin o Acid chain All woun
  56. 56. PROTEINS E ach protein is m ade up of…E ach protein is m ade up of… T H IN K : C H O N S“ ”T H IN K : C H O N S“ ”
  57. 57. LIPIDS ARE NEXT T hey are a great source of S T O R E D E N E R G Y so we have it in the future. T hey IN S U LA T E the body to m aintain norm al body tem perature and they C U S H IO N the internal organs for protection. T hey produce horm ones for the body called S T E R IO D S T hey waterproof surfaces and cells of living organism s som e are even called waxes. T H IN K : W aterproof, Insulate, S teriods, E nergy, C ushion W -I-S -E - C… “ ”
  58. 58. LIPIPS…Some interesting info •Fruits produce a waxy coating to keep from drying out. • The cells in a tulip make a wax which helps coat the leaves. •Ear wax traps dust, sand, and other foreign particles from going deeper into the ear and causing damage. •Beeswax- a structural material to hold honey in the hive
  59. 59. LIPIPS…Some interesting info There are many different types ofThere are many different types of steroids. They are all lipids.steroids. They are all lipids. Their functions vary. Some commonTheir functions vary. Some common steroids are:steroids are: SEX STEROIDSSEX STEROIDS ANABOLIC STERIODSANABOLIC STERIODS CHOLESTEROLCHOLESTEROL Like testosterone andLike testosterone and estrogenestrogen They increaseThey increase musclemuscle
  60. 60. LIPIPS…Some interesting info S om e anabolicS om e anabolic steroids aresteroids are illegalillegal And can be dangerous and NATURAL STERIODS IN OUR BODYNATURAL STERIODS IN OUR BODY INCREASE MUSCLE GROWTH ANDINCREASE MUSCLE GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT AND AREBONE DEVELOPMENT AND ARE GOOD. THE ILLEGAL ONES THATGOOD. THE ILLEGAL ONES THAT ARE SYNTHETIC ARE BAD.ARE SYNTHETIC ARE BAD.
  61. 61. Very Common Effects of Illegal SteroidsVery Common Effects of Illegal Steroids If used when the person is still growing, they will be shorter as an adult, anabolic steroids will decrease bone growth. Males will experience shrinking of the testicles, and with prolonge use, the steroid will be turned into estrogen in the male body and will start to lay fatty tissue on the chest, otherwise known as breas If genetically predisposed to becoming bald, balding will happen more quickly. If clean needles are not readily available, there is a significantly higher risk of getting AIDS. Future risks of liver cancer & disease. Enlarged heart (one pro athlete’s heart grew to the size of a basketball…obviously he’s dead)
  62. 62. Illegal Steroid Use in Women Some additional effects… reasts will decrease in size, the opposite of what happens to men. The woman will start to grow facial hair, how quickly depends on her genetic makeup. If she discontinues use, the facial hair will still continue to grow. If she is genetically predisposed to balding, she will start to lose her hair, just as if she was genetically male. Her voice will start to deepen, how quickly depends on her genetics. If she discontinues use, her voice will remain deep.
  63. 63. LIPIDS •In plants- in the seeds, waxesIn plants- in the seeds, waxes and oils.and oils. •In anim als- in adipose tissue,In anim als- in adipose tissue, connective tissue, in anim alsconnective tissue, in anim als -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------- •Lipids m ake up the cellLipids m ake up the cell
  64. 64. Cell membranes are composed of a double lipid layer that provides a boundary between the cell and the environment.
  65. 65. Lipids are commonly found in foods and an important part of good and unfortunately bad nutrition.
  66. 66. LIPIDS Lipids are chains (polym ers)Lipids are chains (polym ers) m ade of m onom ers. T he m ostm ade of m onom ers. T he m ost com m on m onom er of lipids is…com m on m onom er of lipids is…
  67. 67. The Shape of a triglyceride is like the letter E This is a triglyceride molecule
  68. 68. LIPIDS E ach carbohydrate is m ade upE ach carbohydrate is m ade up of…of… T H IN K : C H O“ ”T H IN K : C H O“ ”
  69. 69. OH NO CHO! Lipids like Carbs? You might have noticed that both carbohydrates and lipids have the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. “CHO” A carbohydrate, has twice as many hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms. EX: C6H12O6 (This is a carb= there are double the number of H compared to O) On the other hand, lipids have a lot more than twice the amount hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms. EX: C27H46O cholesterol
  70. 70. Quick Review Questions What Big 4 molecule stores energy for the future? What are 4 effects of illegal steroid use in men and 3 effects in women? What are 4 things proteins do in your body? What are the functions of lipids? What is the main function of carbohydrates?
  71. 71. Mini Quiz Examples of the Big 4 • Each of the following foods is high in one of the Big 4 organic molecules. Decide which one for each of the following foods. –Corn Oil –Lean Ham –Bread –Fish
  72. 72. FINALLY- NUCLEIC ACIDS
  73. 73. NUCLEIC ACIDS T H E R E A R E 2 T Y P E S O FT H E R E A R E 2 T Y P E S O F N U C LE IC A C ID SN U C LE IC A C ID S D N AD N A R N AR N A
  74. 74. Nucleic Acids 1) DNA • Is our genetic material. Chromosomes are made of DNA. • Chromosomes contain the “recipes” to make proteins for your body. 1) RNA • Reads the DNA “protein recipes” and makes the proteins for your body.
  75. 75. NUCLEIC ACIDS •Just as they may sound the DNA nucleic acids areJust as they may sound the DNA nucleic acids are found inside the control center of many cells.found inside the control center of many cells. This location and structure is called a nucleus.This location and structure is called a nucleus. The RNA is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm ofThe RNA is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells.cells.
  76. 76. NUCLEIC ACIDS
  77. 77. NUCLEIC ACIDS Nucleic Acids are chainsNucleic Acids are chains (polymers) made of monomers.(polymers) made of monomers. Nucleic acids are made up ofNucleic acids are made up of Which areWhich are nitrogennitrogen bases…bases… something we will learn moresomething we will learn more about when we study DNAabout when we study DNA
  78. 78. The shape of a nucleic acid is:
  79. 79. Nucleic Acids Each nucleic acid is made upEach nucleic acid is made up of…of… THINK: PONCH“ ”THINK: PONCH“ ”
  80. 80. ENERGY Three of the BIG 4 provideThree of the BIG 4 provide consumers with energy through theconsumers with energy through the food they eat:food they eat: BIG 4 MACROMOLECULES Number of Calories it provides Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids
  81. 81. ENERGY Energy that is gained byEnergy that is gained by consuming food is called aconsuming food is called a
  82. 82. Energy that we gain by the consumption of food is measured in Calories. If you drink a glass of skim milk, you will get a gain of 90 Calories of energy for your body.
  83. 83. Energy Gained From Carbohydrates Eating 1 gram of carbohydrate provides your body with 4 Calories.
  84. 84. Energy Gained from Lipids Eating 1 gram of fat provides your body with 9 Calories. Notice if you eat 1 gram of fat, you are gaining more than twice the amount of Calories than from a gram of carbohydrate or protein!
  85. 85. Nucleic acids The nucleic acids in food are not considered a substance that the body uses to gain energy.
  86. 86. So, you won’t find nucleic acids listed on a nutrition label!
  87. 87. ENERGY So…So… BIG 4 MACROMOLECULES Number of Calories it provides Carbohydrates 4 Proteins 4 Lipids 9 Nucleic Acids 0 TEST:TEST: Are you smart? If you eat a sandwhich with 46 grams of carbs and 24 grams of protein and 10 grams of fat, how much energy will you gain?
  88. 88. • What elements are found in all of the Big 4 molecules? Which of the Big 4 has different elements and what are they? • Since Carbohydrates and Lipids have the same elements in them, how can you tell the difference? • Would C26H32O5be a carbohydrate or lipid? • Which molecule is in the shape of a hexagon? • Which molecule is in the shape of an E? • A polymer of amino acids makes what molecule?
  89. 89. Which one of the following molecules is a lipid? A carbohydrate? 1.) C27H46O 2.) C12H24O12 LipidLipid CarbohydrateCarbohydrate
  90. 90. • What kind of carbohydrate gives you a quick burst of energy? • What kind of carbohydrate gives you long term energy? • You are stranded on a desert island and have found a box of food. Considering you have almost nothing to eat on the island, which of the following would be the best food to have in the box? WHY? – Crackers – Butter – Steak • How many Calories are found in 1 gram of protein? • How many Calories are in 1 gram of nucleic acid?
  91. 91. Final Review Questions Please do not look back at the information in your handout until you have answered all of the following questions. 1. What are 2 examples of simple sugars and 2 examples of complex carbohydrates not mentioned already? 2. What is a polymer? 3. What is a monomer? 4. Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of ________________. 5. Define in your own words: Biochemical Macromolecule 6. Proteins are major structural molecules in living things. List 5 places or things in your body that contain a lot of protein. 7. What are enzymes? What are they made of? 8. What are hormones? 9. What does your thyroid hormone do? 10. Name three types of proteins. 11. What are the functions of lipids? 12. What elements are found in each of the Big 4 molecules? 13. What does DNA do? RNA? 14. How many Calories are found in 1 gram of each of the Big 4 molecules? 15. What are 5 possible effects of illegal steroid use? 16. What are 3 functions of lipids? 17. What is the function of waxes? 18. What are 2 ways simple sugars are different from complex carbohydrates? 19. What are 4 organic macromolecules?

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