20th Century Art Part 1

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Ending of 19th to WWII

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20th Century Art Part 1

  1. 1. 20 th Century
  2. 2. Imitation vs. Interpretation <ul><li>• INTERPRETATION - media and technique used to express the artist’s personal interpretation of their idea(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• line, shape, form, texture, color and technique are now equal or more important than the image/subject matter. This is the new attitude DURING the MODERN ERA </li></ul></ul>• IMITATION - media and technique used for MIMETIC purposes: the pursuit of realism • line, shape, form, texture, color and technique support the image. The image/subject matter is first and foremost. This is the prevailing attitude BEFORE the MODERN ERA
  3. 3. a • vänte-gärde´ , n. [Fr., lit., advance guard.] the leaders in new or unconventional movements, esp. in the arts; vanguard avante-garde
  4. 4. abstract ab´stract , v.t. ; abstracted, pt. , pp. ; abstracting, ppr . [L. abstractus , dragged away, pp. of abstrahere , to draw from or separate.] 1. To draw from, or to separate; as, to abstract a criticism from one’s own bias. 2. To separate (ideas) by the operation of the mind; to think of (a quality) apart from any particular instance or material object that has it.
  5. 5. By the end of the 1800’s... • Petroleum replaces coal • steel replaces iron • gasoline powered internal combustion engines • gas powered automobiles • gas powered - heavier than air flying machines • the assembly line
  6. 6. By the end of the 1800’s... the wonders of electricity • Edison’s light bulb • Tesla’s electrical transmission system (alternating current) • Bell’s telephone • Marconi’s wireless (radio)
  7. 7. Edweard MUYBRIDGE Photographic Studies of Movement Palo Alto 1878-79
  8. 8. Étienne-Jules MAREY Photographic Studies of Movement late 1880’s
  9. 9. The rise of the AVANTE GARDE • INDUSTRIALIZATION and CAPITALISM fuel the growth of urban populations • TREMENDOUS GROWTH of the MIDDLE CLASS THE RISE OF: • MASS PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION • MASS MEDIA (NEWSPAPERS / MAGAZINES) • “ COMMERCIAL” ART: (GRAPHIC ARTS - PRINT & PUBLICATION) • POPULAR ART - POSTERS, POSTCARDS, etc… • ADVERTISING ART
  10. 10. The rise of the AVANTE GARDE • INDUSTRIALIZATION and CAPITALISM fuel the growth of urban populations • TREMENDOUS GROWTH of the MIDDLE CLASS • in PARIS, a growing market for art outstrips the ACADEMY’S ability to supply the demand THE RISE OF: • INDEPENDENT ART DEALERS / GALLERIES • ARTIST ORGANIZED EXHIBITIONS • THE ART CRITIC
  11. 11. IMPRESSIONISM sought to describe the way the eye perceives light 1860’s - 80’s THE BEGINNINGS of MODERNISM DEGAS MONET RENOIR
  12. 12. POST IMPRESSIONISTS (1880’s - early 1900’s) sought to use color and line to describe their emotional responses to the scene before them VAN GOGH 1853-1890 CEZANNE 1839-1906 GAUGUIN 1848-1903 THE FOUNDATIONS OF 20th CENTURY PAINTING Between 1901-06, several comprehensive van Gogh, Gauguin & Cezanne exhibitions held in Paris and Germany
  13. 13. Henri ROUSSEAU Sleeping Gypsy 1897 • self taught painter, admired by PICASSO THE TURN OF THE CENTURY • a preview of the coming century
  14. 14. THE 20th CENTURY Edvard MUNCH The Scream 1893 fin de siecle
  15. 15. LES FAUVES “ THE WILD BEASTS” 1905 PARIS The beginning of 20th Century EXPRESSIONISM
  16. 16. LES FAUVES Henri MATISSE THE WILD BEASTS 20th CENTURY EXPRESSIONISM • leader of this loosely knit group • experimentation and exploration
  17. 17. Andre DERAIN LES FAUVES - FAUVISM THE WILD BEASTS 20th CENTURY EXPRESSIONISM • wild “VIOLENT” colors • distortion of forms and perspective
  18. 18. LES FAUVES - FAUVISM THE WILD BEASTS VLAMNICK 20th CENTURY EXPRESSIONISM
  19. 19. EXPRESSIONISM • emotional • unrestrained color • bold distortions • takes root in GERMANY Wassily KANDINSKY Ernst Ludwig KIRCHNER • URBAN ANGST • PURE PAINTING
  20. 20. CUBISM ABSTRACTION THE 20TH CENTURY
  21. 21. Pablo PICASSO ABSTRACTION CUBISM Les Demoiselles d’Avignon 1906 • deconstruction of the notion of beauty • fractured & redefined pictorial space • redefined painting: rejects the idea of BEAUTY as the goal of art THE 20TH CENTURY
  22. 22. Pablo PICASSO Georges BRAQUE MORE CONCEPTUAL THAN PERCEPTUAL ANALYTIC CUBISM • a cerebral interpretation of nature • an analytical abstraction ABSTRACTION THE 20TH CENTURY
  23. 23. Synthetic Cubism Collage of elements Picasso Braque THE 20TH CENTURY • abstraction through synthesis of disparate elements ABSTRACTION
  24. 24. CUBISM … an evolution of a style Juan GRIS Robert DELAUNAY Sonya DELAUNAY THE 20TH CENTURY • widespread influence of CUBISM • evolves into many variations • introduction of strong color ABSTRACTION
  25. 25. FUTURISM ABSTRACTION THE 20TH CENTURY
  26. 26. Marcel DUCHAMP Nude Descending a Staircase Futurism - Movement - Speed Futurist Manifesto 1909 - Anarchy, Violence THE 20TH CENTURY ABSTRACTION
  27. 27. FUTURISM Umberto BOCCIONI • frenzied, frenetic, fractured • celebrates industrialized urban life THE 20TH CENTURY ABSTRACTION • revels in the promise of industry & technology • incorporates CUBISM
  28. 28. Futurism Ferdinand LEGER • the new urban WORLD • industrial UTOPIA THE 20TH CENTURY • optimism and faith in a better future through technology ABSTRACTION FUTURISM glorifies and celebrates:
  29. 29. These Questions will appear on the November 2 nd quiz The Synthetic Cubist artwork expressed abstraction through a combination of different materials and elements. What form or technique was a result of this? Which one of these elements was not a concern to the Futurist? What does Les Fauves mean?
  30. 30. WORLD WAR I 1914 - 1917 THE MACHINE GUN THE 20TH CENTURY
  31. 31. WORLD WAR I • THE GREAT WAR “ The war to end all wars” … the dreams & promises of an industrialized UTOPIA are shattered … a glimpse of the future THE 20TH CENTURY
  32. 32. 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I FRANCE (PARIS), ITALY - DADA, SURREALISM GERMANY (BERLIN) - GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM RUSSIA - SUPREMATISM, CONSTRUCTIVISM HOLLAND - DE STIJL (The STYLE) GERMANY - the BAUHAUS
  33. 33. da da DA DA da AFTER THE GREAT WAR…
  34. 34. • DA: YES in RUMANIAN • the French word for “HOBBY HORSE” • a child’s first few words DADA 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
  35. 35. Hugo BALL Dada Poem 1917 MAN RAY Cadeau (the Gift) 1958 (replica of 1921 original) Francis Picabia Portrait of Cezanne 1920 • a subversive movement: ANTI -EVERYTHING • attacked the notions held by BOURGEOIS society • celebrates & elevates absurdity da da
  36. 36. DADA Raoul HAUSMANN The Art Critic 1919-20 COLLAGE • favorite of the DADAISTS • cut outs from mass media: newspapers & magazines 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
  37. 37. Marcel DUCHAMP The Fountain 1917 (aka: R. Mutt) 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I “ READYMADES” ...SHOCK, PUZZLE & TEASE da da
  38. 38. da da 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I DUCHAMP’S “READYMADES” Bicycle wheel 1913 In Advance of a Broken Arm 1915 challenges every artistic notion of the value of artistic skill L.H.O.O.Q. 1919
  39. 39. SURREALISM FANTASY THE 20TH CENTURY
  40. 40. SURREALISM 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • DADA falls apart • an outgrowth of DADA • fantastic landscapes and environments of the mind Giorgio de CHIRICO
  41. 41. Sigmund FREUD • father of PSYCHOANALYSIS • investigations into the SUBCONSCIOUS MIND
  42. 42. Rene MAGRITTE SURREALISM 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • new visions of the “INTERNAL WORLD” • dream - like images • explorations into the UNCONSCIOUS MIND
  43. 43. SURREALISM Salvador DALI 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • nightmarish visions • consummate technician
  44. 44. GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM EXPRESSIONISM THE 20TH CENTURY
  45. 45. GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I Ernst Ludwig KIRCHNER URBAN ANGST • GERMANY: 1920’s -30’s (between WWI & WWII) • GERMANY in turmoil • bankrupt economy • chaos & anarchy
  46. 46. GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM Max BECKMAN 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • an angry, cruel world
  47. 47. GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM Max BECKMAN 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • bold colors, crude, angular strokes • content is pessimistic, chaotic, angry • crowded, jumbled, confused
  48. 48. The Dadaist were famous for what type of art form? What group explored the unconscious mind? What art group reacted the the urban angst? What elements were not a concern to the Futurist?
  49. 49. the RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 1917 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
  50. 50. the RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 1917 “ BREAD, PEACE and LAND” The FALL of the LAST MAJOR AUTOCRATIC MONARCHY in EUROPE THE RISE OF SOCIALISM 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
  51. 51. SOCIALISM so cial•ism, n. 1. The theory or system of the ownership and operation of the means of production and distribution by the society or community rather than by private individuals, with all the members of the society or community sharing the work and the products
  52. 52. COMMUNISM com mu•nism, n. (Fr. communisme, from L. communis , common) 1. An economic theory or system of the ownership of all the property by the community of society sharing in the work and the products
  53. 53. 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I Vladimir Illyich LENIN U.S.S.R. U nited S oviet S ocialist R epublic 1917
  54. 54. Kasimir MALEVICH … BEFORE the RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • influenced by CUBISM & FUTURISM
  55. 55. SUPREMATISM ABSTRACTION THE 20TH CENTURY
  56. 56. 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I SUPREMATISM … a new art for the new WORKER’S UTOPIA • LINE, SHAPE and COLOR distilled to its PURE essence Kasimir MALEVICH • rejects all the “OLD” / creation of a NEW AESTHETIC
  57. 57. SUPREMATISM MALEVICH 1915 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I RUSSIA
  58. 58. CONSTRUCTIVISM ABSTRACTION THE 20TH CENTURY
  59. 59. 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I CONSTRUCTIVISM • incorporates MALEVICH’S ideas - PROMOTION of SOCIALLIST VALUES • visual foundation of today’s GRAPHIC DESIGN AESTHETICS Lazar Markovich LISSITZKY 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
  60. 60. 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I Alexander RODCHENKO Novyi Lef (Left Front of the Arts) Poster of LENIN: BREAD, PEACE , LAND CONSTRUCTIVISM
  61. 61. DE STIJL (the Style) ABSTRACTION THE 20TH CENTURY
  62. 62. DE STIJL Piet MONDRIAN (The STYLE) … after WORLD WAR I 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
  63. 63. DE STIJL (The STYLE) Theo van DOESBURG Piet MONDRIAN 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
  64. 64. BAUHAUS 1919-1933 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I The ART SCHOOL of MODERNIST RENDS
  65. 65. 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I THE BAUHAUS
  66. 66. 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I into WORLD WAR II 1938
  67. 67. WORLD WAR II Guernica, Picasso 1937

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