Basic biological concepts & basic genetics
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Basic biological concepts & basic genetics

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Basic biological concepts & basic genetics Basic biological concepts & basic genetics Presentation Transcript

  • BASIC BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND BASIC GENETICS
  • BASIC BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
  • CELL
    • A cell is a smallest unit that is capable of performing life function
  • Cell Theory
    • All living things are made up of cell
    • Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.
    • All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.
  •  
  • TYPES OF CELLS
    • Prokaryotic cell
    • Eukaryotic cell
  • CHARACTERSTICS OF PROKARYOTIC CELL
    • 1.Do not have structures surrounded by membranes.
    • 2.Few internal structures.
    • 3. One –celled organism , Bacteria
  • CHARACTERSTICS OF EUKARYOTIC CELL
    • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes.
    • Most living organisms.
    • IT IS OF TWO TYPES:
    • Animal cell
    • Plant cell
  •  
  •  
  • DIFFERENT ORGANELLES OF ANIMAL CELL
    • Ribosome's
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Lysosomes
    • Mitochondria
    • Cytoplasm
    • Nucleus
    • Cell Membrane
  • BACTERIA
    • Simple structure
    • Lacks membrane – bound nucleus
    • Enormous range of metabolic activities
    • Few bacteria causes disease
    • Usually they contain peptidoglycan
    • Gives shape & mechanical strength to the cell
  • CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF STAINING
    • Bacteria can be divided into two groups on the basis of gram staining.
    • Gram positive bacteria
    • Gram negative bacteria
  • SHAPES
    • Round shape (cocci)
    • Rod shape (bacilli)
    • Spiral shape (Spring like)
  • BACTERIAL DISEASE
    • Diptheria
    • Tuberculosis
    • Whooping cough
    • Tetanus
    • Cholera
    • Typhoid fever
    • Bacterial Dysentry
  • VIRUS
    • Sub-microscopic infectious agent
    • Unable to grow or reproduce outside a hostcell
    • Consist of genetic material (DNA,RNA)
  • VIRAL DISEASES
    • Influenza
    • Common cold
    • Small pox
    • Mumps
    • Measles
    • German measles
    • Poliovirus
    • Yellow fever
  • FUNGI
    • Eukaryotic organism
    • Heterotrophic organisms possessing a chitinous cell wall
    • Some fungal species grow as single cell
    • Examples: yeasts, molds, mushrooms
    • Symptoms: fluffy white patches, reed inflamed skin under patch, severe irritation
  • DISEASE CAUSED BY FUNGI
    • Athlete's foot
    • Head ringworm
    • Candidiasis
  • PROTOZOA
    • One –celled animals
    • Smallest of all animals
    • Most of them can only be seen under a microscope
    • They do breathe, move, reproduce like multi celled animals
    • Live in water where it is damp
    • Example: paramecium, euglena, amoeba
    • Some are harmful to man ,cause serious diseases
    • Helpful because they eat harmful bacteria and are food for fish and other animal
    • Also called fission
  • DISEASE CAUSED BY PROTOZA
    • Malaria
    • Amoebiasis
  • BASIC CONCEPTS IN GENETICS
  • MENDEL’S EXPERIMENT
    • Research was with plants
    • Basic underline principle of heredity
    • Also applicable to human beings and animals
    • Performed experiment on common pea plant
    • Certain traits show up in the offspring
    • Observed seven traits
    • Apparently occur in one of the two form
  • TRAITS
    • Flower color is purple or white
    • Flower position is axil or terminal
    • Stem length is long or short
    • Seed shape is round or wrinkled
    • Seed color is yellow or green
    • Pod shape is inflated or constricted
    • Pod color is yellow or green
  • Mendel’s second experiment
    • Picked common garden pea plant
    • Pea plant have both male and female reproductive organs
    • Can be self pollinated
    • Cross pollinated
    • Cross pollinating plants that either produce yellow or green pea seeds
    • First offspring generation (f1) always has yellow seeds
    • F2 generation has 3:1 ratio of yellow to green
    • 3:1 ratio occur in the later generations as well
    • Realized that this was the key to under -standing the basic mechanism of inheritance
  •  
  •  
  • conclusion
    • inheritance of each trait is determined by ‘units’ or ‘factors’ that are passed on to descendents unchanged (genes)
    • An individual inherits one such unit from each parent for each trait
    • Trait may not show up in an individual but can still be passed on to the next generation
    • Starting parent plants – homozygous (alleles or form)
    • F1 generation – heterozygous (different alleles)
    • Genotype
    • Phenotype
  •  
    • the principle of segregation
    • the principle of independent assortment
  • thank you