BASIC BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS  AND  BASIC GENETICS
BASIC  BIOLOGICAL  CONCEPTS
CELL <ul><li>A cell is a smallest unit that is capable of performing life function </li></ul>
Cell Theory  <ul><li>All living things are made up of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the smallest working units of all l...
 
TYPES OF CELLS <ul><li>Prokaryotic cell </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic cell </li></ul>
CHARACTERSTICS OF  PROKARYOTIC CELL <ul><li>1.Do not have structures surrounded by membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Few inte...
CHARACTERSTICS OF EUKARYOTIC CELL <ul><li>Contain organelles surrounded by membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most living organi...
 
 
DIFFERENT ORGANELLES OF ANIMAL CELL <ul><li>Ribosome's </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) </li></ul><ul><li>Golg...
BACTERIA <ul><li>Simple structure </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks membrane – bound nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous range of met...
CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF STAINING <ul><li>Bacteria can be divided into  two groups on the basis of gram staining. </...
SHAPES <ul><li>Round shape (cocci) </li></ul><ul><li>Rod shape (bacilli) </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral shape (Spring like) </li...
BACTERIAL DISEASE <ul><li>Diptheria </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Whooping cough </li></ul><ul><li>Teta...
VIRUS <ul><li>Sub-microscopic infectious agent  </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to grow or reproduce outside a hostcell </li></ul...
VIRAL DISEASES <ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Common cold </li></ul><ul><li>Small pox </li></ul><ul><li>Mumps </li></...
FUNGI <ul><li>Eukaryotic organism </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic organisms possessing a chitinous cell wall </li></ul><ul...
DISEASE CAUSED BY FUNGI <ul><li>Athlete's foot </li></ul><ul><li>Head ringworm </li></ul><ul><li>Candidiasis </li></ul>
PROTOZOA <ul><li>One –celled animals </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest of all animals </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them can only be ...
<ul><li>Live in water where it is damp </li></ul><ul><li>Example: paramecium, euglena, amoeba </li></ul><ul><li>Some are h...
DISEASE CAUSED BY PROTOZA <ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Amoebiasis </li></ul>
BASIC CONCEPTS IN  GENETICS
MENDEL’S EXPERIMENT <ul><li>Research was with plants </li></ul><ul><li>Basic underline principle of heredity </li></ul><ul...
TRAITS <ul><li>Flower color is purple or white </li></ul><ul><li>Flower position is axil or terminal  </li></ul><ul><li>St...
Mendel’s second experiment <ul><li>Picked common garden pea plant  </li></ul><ul><li>Pea plant have both male and female r...
<ul><li>Cross pollinating plants that either produce yellow or green pea seeds </li></ul><ul><li>First offspring generatio...
 
 
conclusion <ul><li>inheritance of each trait is determined by ‘units’ or ‘factors’ that are passed on to descendents uncha...
<ul><li>Starting parent plants – homozygous (alleles or form) </li></ul><ul><li>F1 generation – heterozygous (different al...
 
<ul><li>the principle of segregation </li></ul><ul><li>the principle of independent assortment </li></ul>
thank you
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Basic biological concepts & basic genetics

6,387

Published on

1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
6,387
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
41
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Basic biological concepts & basic genetics

  1. 1. BASIC BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND BASIC GENETICS
  2. 2. BASIC BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
  3. 3. CELL <ul><li>A cell is a smallest unit that is capable of performing life function </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are made up of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. </li></ul><ul><li>All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division. </li></ul>
  5. 6. TYPES OF CELLS <ul><li>Prokaryotic cell </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic cell </li></ul>
  6. 7. CHARACTERSTICS OF PROKARYOTIC CELL <ul><li>1.Do not have structures surrounded by membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Few internal structures. </li></ul><ul><li>3. One –celled organism , Bacteria </li></ul>
  7. 8. CHARACTERSTICS OF EUKARYOTIC CELL <ul><li>Contain organelles surrounded by membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS OF TWO TYPES: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cell </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cell </li></ul>
  8. 11. DIFFERENT ORGANELLES OF ANIMAL CELL <ul><li>Ribosome's </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi Apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul>
  9. 12. BACTERIA <ul><li>Simple structure </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks membrane – bound nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous range of metabolic activities </li></ul><ul><li>Few bacteria causes disease </li></ul><ul><li>Usually they contain peptidoglycan </li></ul><ul><li>Gives shape & mechanical strength to the cell </li></ul>
  10. 13. CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF STAINING <ul><li>Bacteria can be divided into two groups on the basis of gram staining. </li></ul><ul><li>Gram positive bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Gram negative bacteria </li></ul>
  11. 14. SHAPES <ul><li>Round shape (cocci) </li></ul><ul><li>Rod shape (bacilli) </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral shape (Spring like) </li></ul>
  12. 15. BACTERIAL DISEASE <ul><li>Diptheria </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Whooping cough </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus </li></ul><ul><li>Cholera </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoid fever </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial Dysentry </li></ul>
  13. 16. VIRUS <ul><li>Sub-microscopic infectious agent </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to grow or reproduce outside a hostcell </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of genetic material (DNA,RNA) </li></ul>
  14. 17. VIRAL DISEASES <ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Common cold </li></ul><ul><li>Small pox </li></ul><ul><li>Mumps </li></ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul><ul><li>German measles </li></ul><ul><li>Poliovirus </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow fever </li></ul>
  15. 18. FUNGI <ul><li>Eukaryotic organism </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic organisms possessing a chitinous cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Some fungal species grow as single cell </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: yeasts, molds, mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: fluffy white patches, reed inflamed skin under patch, severe irritation </li></ul>
  16. 19. DISEASE CAUSED BY FUNGI <ul><li>Athlete's foot </li></ul><ul><li>Head ringworm </li></ul><ul><li>Candidiasis </li></ul>
  17. 20. PROTOZOA <ul><li>One –celled animals </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest of all animals </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them can only be seen under a microscope </li></ul><ul><li>They do breathe, move, reproduce like multi celled animals </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Live in water where it is damp </li></ul><ul><li>Example: paramecium, euglena, amoeba </li></ul><ul><li>Some are harmful to man ,cause serious diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful because they eat harmful bacteria and are food for fish and other animal </li></ul><ul><li>Also called fission </li></ul>
  19. 22. DISEASE CAUSED BY PROTOZA <ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Amoebiasis </li></ul>
  20. 23. BASIC CONCEPTS IN GENETICS
  21. 24. MENDEL’S EXPERIMENT <ul><li>Research was with plants </li></ul><ul><li>Basic underline principle of heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Also applicable to human beings and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Performed experiment on common pea plant </li></ul><ul><li>Certain traits show up in the offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Observed seven traits </li></ul><ul><li>Apparently occur in one of the two form </li></ul>
  22. 25. TRAITS <ul><li>Flower color is purple or white </li></ul><ul><li>Flower position is axil or terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Stem length is long or short </li></ul><ul><li>Seed shape is round or wrinkled </li></ul><ul><li>Seed color is yellow or green </li></ul><ul><li>Pod shape is inflated or constricted </li></ul><ul><li>Pod color is yellow or green </li></ul>
  23. 26. Mendel’s second experiment <ul><li>Picked common garden pea plant </li></ul><ul><li>Pea plant have both male and female reproductive organs </li></ul><ul><li>Can be self pollinated </li></ul><ul><li>Cross pollinated </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Cross pollinating plants that either produce yellow or green pea seeds </li></ul><ul><li>First offspring generation (f1) always has yellow seeds </li></ul><ul><li>F2 generation has 3:1 ratio of yellow to green </li></ul><ul><li>3:1 ratio occur in the later generations as well </li></ul><ul><li>Realized that this was the key to under -standing the basic mechanism of inheritance </li></ul>
  25. 30. conclusion <ul><li>inheritance of each trait is determined by ‘units’ or ‘factors’ that are passed on to descendents unchanged (genes) </li></ul><ul><li>An individual inherits one such unit from each parent for each trait </li></ul><ul><li>Trait may not show up in an individual but can still be passed on to the next generation </li></ul>
  26. 31. <ul><li>Starting parent plants – homozygous (alleles or form) </li></ul><ul><li>F1 generation – heterozygous (different alleles) </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul>
  27. 33. <ul><li>the principle of segregation </li></ul><ul><li>the principle of independent assortment </li></ul>
  28. 34. thank you
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×