Cultures of North Ameirica

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Chapter 2 of Out of Many

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Cultures of North Ameirica

  1. 1. THE CULTURES OF COLONIAL NORTH AMERICA Chapter 5
  2. 2. Indian America <ul><li>Indian Population still the majority </li></ul><ul><li>Increased activity in the fur trade </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on European Goods </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Adapt/Change as necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of firearms, metal tools, log homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become a vital link in the economy </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Indian America <ul><li>Played colonial powers against each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic Iroquois: Allegiance to French, but trade with British colonist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Concern: Population growth of British Colonies and their push westward </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures in close contact – population drops over 50% </li></ul>
  4. 4. Indian America & The Horse <ul><li>Adopted from the Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>They Become: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient hunters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a more productive economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those using the horse would become the dominant culture (Plains Indians) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a Nomadic Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creation of the Colonial Era </li></ul>
  5. 5. Spanish Borderlands - Florida <ul><li>Mexico City – Most sophisticated City </li></ul><ul><li>Indians provided a buffer zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant change in the British Frontier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few Changes in Spanish Frontier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Florida: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fierce fighting w/ Indians and British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only settlements – St. Augustine, Pensacola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced into a cooperative alliance </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Spanish Borderlands – New Mexico <ul><li>Isolated from New Spain (Mexico) </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by Pueblos and Mestizos </li></ul><ul><li>Mercantilism – not in their favor </li></ul>
  7. 7. Spanish Concerns <ul><li>French : expansion down the Mississippi River </li></ul><ul><li>Establish presidios/Franciscan Missions </li></ul><ul><li>Use Indians as Buffer </li></ul><ul><li>Russia: Expansion on West Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion in lower California and move north </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of Native population (key) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not forced to join mission – but could not leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent means to keep them/put down uprisings </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Missions – Effect on Indians <ul><li>Resistance met with violence </li></ul><ul><li>Enticed to come with food, clothing, tools </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance – San Diego Uprising </li></ul><ul><li>Usually overworked, poor nutrition, overcrowding, disease </li></ul><ul><li>High death rates, low birth rates </li></ul><ul><li>California Population drops by 75% </li></ul>

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