The russian revolution

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The russian revolution

  1. 2. The Russian Revolution
  2. 3. Contributing Factors to Revolution
  3. 4. CAUSES <ul><li>THE IMPACT OF WAR </li></ul><ul><li>1904-1905: Russo-Japanese war (loss to Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>1914-1917: The Great War </li></ul><ul><li>(increasing defeats by Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>The state fails in its most important function </li></ul><ul><li>Popular support for reform </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for revolution </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>What’s wrong with the system? </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Backwardness: Russia has not modernized </li></ul><ul><li>The economy is underdeveloped </li></ul><ul><li>The political system is old, rigid and corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Society is torn by tensions and conflicts </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Since 1905: contest between reform and revolution </li></ul><ul><li>The inadequacy of reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tsar is reactionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nobility is stuck in the old order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The capitalist class is too dependent on the state, too afraid to show initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reforms don’t prevent revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution drives reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political (liberalization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic (development of capitalism) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. What is Communism? <ul><li>Economic and political theory developed by German theorists </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Marx and Frederich Engels </li></ul><ul><li>“ From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.” </li></ul><ul><li>Most problems in society are due to the unequal distribution of wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>The distinctions between the rich and poor of society must be eliminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the rich will never give up their goods or status voluntarily, a rebellion of the poor - the working class - is necessary. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Russian Communists <ul><li>Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party (Bolsheviks) </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin: Russia as the weakest link in the world capitalist system </li></ul><ul><li>Russian capitalism cannot benefit the people </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Russia may have to move directly to socialism </li></ul><ul><li>OVERTHROW OF THE RULING CLASSES </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a state run by workers and peasants </li></ul><ul><li>This will be followed by other revolutions WORLDWIDE </li></ul>
  8. 9. Bolshevik Leadership <ul><li>Vladimir Illyich Ulyanov (Lenin) </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars </li></ul><ul><li>Administered by Soviets : Councils formed by workers and soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Councils came together to form the Russian Soviet Congress. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Imperial Russia becomes the SOVIET UNION <ul><li>How is this Republic organized? </li></ul><ul><li>As a revolutionary dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>What it does: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decree on Peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decree on Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker control of industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The inevitability of a civil war </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old ruling classes fight back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opponents of dictatorship (including many leftists) resist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign powers get involved (including Canada) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. What’s the Effect on World War I? <ul><li>Russians withdraw from war . Separate peace signed with Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) gives up large amounts of Russian territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Since World Revolution is one of their goals, Bolsheviks don’t care. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans shift troops to Western Front. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>The Civil War (1918-1920): Reds vs. Whites </li></ul><ul><li>Why the Bolsheviks won: </li></ul><ul><li>Their policy goals received wide support in society </li></ul><ul><li>Their dictatorship was strong enough </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Red Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cheka (secret police, later the KGB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mass base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a result of foreign intervention in the Civil War, Soviet leaders deeply mistrust Britain, America, and France. </li></ul>

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