Instructional Analysis - Prior Knowledge• Readers activate what they currently understand or misunderstand about the topic and use this knowledge before, during, and after the activity to clarify misconceptions and understand the text.• KWHL Chart – Used by teachers / students to assess what information needs to be covered and how. KNOW WHAT HOW LEARN
Activate / Assessing Prior Knowledge• At the early stages of teaching students the strategy of making connections to their prior knowledge, the teacher models "thinking aloud.“• Making the Connections• Assessment Graphic Organizers – Concept Maps• Student Response Journals / Online Discussions
Declarative Knowledge• Declarative knowledge is knowing "that" (e.g., that Washington D.C. is the capital of America),• Procedural knowledge is knowing "how" (e.g., how to drive a car). http://emccabene.tripod.com/strategy/declarative.htm
Declarative knowledge is further divided into:• Episodic knowledge: memory for "episodes" (i.e., the context of where, when, who with etc); usually measured by accuracy measures, has autobiographical reference.• Semantic knowledge: Memory for knowledge of the world, facts, meaning of words, etc. (e.g., knowing that the first month of the year is April (alphabetically) but January (chronologically).
Declarative Knowledge• . There is a fundamental difference between declarative and procedural knowledge. Declarative knowledge refers to factual knowledge and information that a person knows. Procedural knowledge, on the other hand, is knowing how to perform certain activities (Bruning, 46). According to John Anderson of Carnegie- Mellon University, all knowledge starts out as declarative information and procedural knowledge is acquired through inferences from already existing knowledge. (Payson) This is not to say that all procedural knowledge is "higher-order" knowledge. It is often done without any attention to what we are doing or why we are doing it, or automatized. (Bruning, 47) An example would be driving a car.• http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/sbarnett/edpsy399/decla rative.html
Procedural knowledge• Putting those facts into practice helped me gain the skills to transform a series of declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge. The skills I acquired couldnt be learned simply by being told. I gained the skills only after actively putting them into practice and being monitored by a coach who was constantly providing feedback.• http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/sbarnett/edpsy399/d eclarative.html
Interdisciplinary Connections• Interdisciplinary learning is one of many ways to learn over the course of a curriculum. When educators consider their curricular objectives and students needs, they may choose interdisciplinary learning to deliver part or all of the content they will present. This method can help bring students to a new awareness of the meaningful connections that exist among the disciplines. For example, a teacher might choose to design an interdisciplinary unit entitled "Reality and Illusion" and use the phrase "seeing is believing" as an organizing center1. Students would then spend the next several weeks exploring topics covering a range of disciplines, such as optical illusions, patterns, probability, and folklore and other literature. The following essay question could be given as a culminating assessment of their learning:• http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/interdisciplinary /index.html
Interdisciplinary Learning• Interdisciplinary learning is an educational process in which two or more subject areas are integrated with the goal of fostering enhanced learning in each subject area. Implementing an interdisciplinary learning program brings teachers together to create exciting learning experiences for students as well as discovering new ways of delivering the curriculum. The concept of interdisciplinary learning acknowledges the integrity and uniqueness of each subject area, yet recognizes the interrelationships of one subject to another. http://users.rowan.edu/~cone/interdisciplinarymodels.html• A curriculum that is interdisciplinary presents content, skills and thinking processes, and assessments through exploring connections among the disciplines.• Interdisciplinary connections between Evolution, Music, Language, And Reading The Science of Why Using Music to Teach Children Works. ‘Connections Between Speech and Song’
Common Misunderstandings or Misconceptions:• What is it about the subject area that is most commonly mistaken in thought or action?• If the teacher is aware of such issues, they can be managed in a non-threatening manner before they become a problem
Purposes of Objectives• By knowing where you intend to go, you increase the chances of you and the learner ending up there• Guides the teacher relative to the planning of instruction, delivery of instruction and evaluation of student achievement.• Guides the learner; helps him/her focus and set priorities• Allows for analysis in terms of the levels of teaching and learning http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/FD/writingobjectives. pdf
Learning Objectives:• A statement in specific and measurable terms that describes what the learner will know or be able to do as a result of engaging in a learning activity.• Example: – Students will list three characteristics that make the family medicine physician distinctive from other specialists in the health care system. http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/FD/writingobjectives. pdf
A learning objective or behavioral objective:Much more specific than a goal. According to Mager, the ideal learning objective has 3 parts:• 1. A ‘measurable’ verb• 2. The important condition (if any) under which the performance is to occur and• 3. The criterion of acceptable performance.• Frequently you will not see the criterion or the condition specified if they are obvious. However, sometimes the adding the condition(s) and/or the criterion add much clarity to a learning objective http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/FD/writingobjectives.p df
Guide for Writing Learning Objecives• Select a verb for performing the task. Determine if the verb you have chosen best describes the type of behavior that the learners need to display after training (see Blooms Taxonomy or the People, Data, and Things Checklist)• Under what conditions must the task be performed?• Determine to what standards the task must be performed.• http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/templates/o bjectivetool.html
Learner Analysis• When designing instructional opportunities, the designer often assumes that everyone learns the way he or she does. Unfortunately that could never be farther from the truth.• For the program to be effective, it must be stimulating to the targeted audience. How can that be accomplished? The construction of an audience profile with the use of questionnaires can be a valuable start.• The key to instructional design is to work around the participants rather than the content. It is very important to not develop a program based on the characteristics you hope your audience will have.• You must be realistic, the audience may come to you with a wider variety of interests and knowledge. This may seem overwhelming and confusing for a program designer, but with careful preparation and open mindedness, a successful project can result.
Assessments: Formative• Formative Assessments: PRACTICE: Formative Assessment is part of the instructional process. When incorporated into classroom practice, it provides the information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening. In this sense, formative assessment informs both teachers and students about student understanding at a point when timely adjustments can be made.
Assessments: SummativeThe key is to think of summative assessment as a means togauge, at a particular point in time, student learning relative tocontent standards.Although the information that is gleaned from this type ofassessment is important, it can only help in evaluating certainaspects of the learning process. Because they are spread outand occur after instruction every few weeks, months, or once ayear, summative assessments are tools to help evaluate theeffectiveness of programs, school improvement goals, alignmentof curriculum, or student placement in specific programs.Types of Summative Assessments• State assessments• District benchmark or interim assessments• End-of-unit or chapter tests• End-of-term or semester exams• Scores that are used for accountability for schools (AYP) and students (report card grades).
Instructional Strategies:Glossary of Instructional Strategies• http://www.beesburg.com/edtools/glossary.html• Current number of strategies and methods Listed: 1271How will you introduce the lesson?How will you teach concepts during the lesson?How will you conclude the lesson?
Learning Activities: (Describe with details what students will be doing throughout the lesson. Remember the PPt., and WebQuest• During the introduction of the lesson, students will: 1. 2. 3.• During the lesson, students will (Mention WebQuest) 1. 2. 3.• At the conclusion of the lesson, students will: 1. 2. 3.