474 political tolerance (13) upPresentation Transcript
Mark PeffleyPS 474
Poll: NYVoters OpposedToMosque Near Ground Zero 63 percent of NewYork (state)voters surveyed oppose theproject, with 27 percentsupporting it. A CNN/Opinion Research pollfound that nearly 70 percent ofAmericans opposed the mosqueplan, while 29 percent approved.▪ Nearly two-thirds of voters, 64percent, say the developers have aconstitutional right to build themosque. 28% say they do not.
Political tolerance defined: a willingness to allow theexpression of ideas and interests one opposes. Tolerance involves “putting up” with things we don’tlike—forbearance. Not the PTA or opposition party, butgroups we really don’t like. Grant offensive groups basic civil liberties in the Bill ofRights. The U.S. Constitution is very protective of politicalspeech and assembly. Not the same as social tolerance, which is liking agroup.The question is whether we extend basic civilliberties to groups we don’t like. Political intolerance can lead to repression: If the public doesn’t support civil liberties for the groupsit doesn’t like, elites have an incentive to restrict civilliberties and repress some groups.
Slippage between Mass support for general principles ofcivil liberties ("I believe in [free speech/letting anyone run for office/allowing anyoneto give a speech], no matter what their views are“) versus specificapplications -- applying them to unpopular groups Samuel Stouffer, 1954 survey during the McCarthy era Measures of political tolerance: Stouffer’s “fixed-groupversus “least-liked” measure Individual sources of political intolerance Macro-sources of political intolerance
Percentage TolerantTolerance toward admitted communist Elites Mass PublicSpeech (allowed to make speech in your community?) 51% 29%Book in Library (not remove book from library?) 42 28Teach in college (not fired from teaching in college?) 11 6%Tolerance toward suspected communist (swears not comm)Speech 66% 39%Book in library 88 71Teach in college 81 69Tolerance toward atheist (man is angst all churches & relig)*Speech 64% 37%Book in library 64% 35%Teach in college 25 12Admitted Communist:SUPPOSE HE IS A CLERK IN A STORE. SHOULD HE BE FIRED OR NOT? 27%SUPPOSE HE IS A RADIO SINGER. SHOULD HE BE FIRED OR NOT? 31SHOULD AN ADMITTED COMMUNIST BE PUT IN JAIL, OR NOT? 40SHOULD HE HAVE HIS AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP TAKEN AWAY? (No) 15%General Principle:I believe in [free speech for everyone/letting anyone run foroffice/give a speech] no matter what their views are.Elites Mass Public90% 80%
1954 (Stouffer) 1973 (Nunn, et al)Tolerance towardadmitted communist27% 53%Tolerance towardatheists37% 62%Tolerance towardsocialists58% 72% What if we find liberals are theones who have become moretolerant over time towardcommunists, socialist, atheists,and homosexuals?Should we conclude that liberalsare more politically tolerant thanconservatives?Are we really measuring political“tolerance” if some people dislike thegroup much more than others?Stouffer-type questions measurepol. tolerance toward specificgroups. By this measure pol.tolerance has increased over time.
1) Selecting the Least-Liked Group: 2) Measuring PoliticalTolerance
Note: % pol. tolerant is muchlower using least-likedmeasure than using theStouffer-type measure
Individual Sources of Political Intolerance among MassesCharacteristics Associated with PoliticalTolerance Education Personality characteristics: Dogmatism (closed-mindedness) (Rokeach) There are two kinds of people in this world: those who are for the truth and those who are against it. To compromise with our political opponents is dangerous because it usually leads to the betrayal of our own side. A group which tolerates too many differences of opinion among its own members cannot exist for long. Of all the different philosophies that exist in the world there is probably only one that is correct. Social Conformity vs Autonomy (Feldman)ConformityVersus Autonomy A. We should admire people who go their own way without worrying about what others think. B. People need to learn to fit in and get along with others.Socialization and Child-Rearing Values A. The most important values children should learn are obedience and respect for authority. B. The most important values children should learn are independence and self-reliance.FreedomVersus Fear of Disorder A. It is most important to give people all the freedom they need to express themselves. B. Our society will break down if we allow people to do or say anything they want.Note: Respondents were asked whether they strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the above statements. Survey items were administered randomly.
John Sullivan, et al, 1993;Peffley and Rohrschneider , 2003.
Mature versus emergingdemocracies: politicaltolerance is higher in more stabledemocracies that have persistedover time (political learning) Targeted militarizeddisputes: political tolerancedeclines when states are targetedin a militarized dispute (bunkermentality)