Peter NorthouseBox 1.1 In Northouse book explains the evolution ofleadership.Leadership is a process whereby an individualinfluences a group of individuals to achieve acommon goal.Assigned vs. emergent leadership- some people areleaders because they are assigned the job ofleading. Others are leaders because of the waymembers respond to them.
Formal PowerCoerciveCoercive power is conveyed through fear of losing one’s job, being demoted,receiving a poor performance review, having prime projects taken away, etc.This power is gotten through threatening others. For example, the VP of Saleswho threatens sales folks to meet their goals or get replaced.
RewardReward power is conveyed through rewarding individuals forcompliance with one’s wishes. This may be done throughgiving bonuses, raises, a promotion, extra time off from work,etc. For example, the supervisor who provides employeescomp time when they meet an objective she sets for aproject.
LegitimateLegitimate power comes from having a position of power inan organization, such as being the boss or a key member of aleadership team. This power comes when employees in theorganization recognize the authority of the individual. Forexample, the CEO who determines the overall direction ofthe company and the resource needs of the company.
Personal PowerExpertExpert power comes from one’s experiences, skills or knowledge. Aswe gain experience in particular areas, and become thought leadersin those areas, we begin to gather expert power that can be utilizedto get others to help us meet our goals. For example, the ProjectManager who is an expert at solving particularly challengingproblems to ensure a project stays on track.
ReferentReferent power comes from being trusted andrespected. We can gain referent power when others trustwhat we do and respect us for how we handle situations. Forexample, the Human Resource Associate who is known forensuring employees are treated fairly and coming to therescue of those who are not.
References:Northouse, P. (2013). Leadership. (Sixthed.). Los Angeles, Ca.: Sage.