020 heritage stgo igu


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020 heritage stgo igu

  1. 1. PROCESSES of heritage making in geographical space / coordinadoras Belén Mo Castro Femández, Lucrezia Lopez, María José Piñeira Mantiñán. Santiago de Compostela : Universidade, Servizo de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico, 2010. - 33i p. : il. b. e n. ,24 cm. - (Cursos e congresos daUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela ; 191). - D.L. C I 88 1-201 0. - ISBN 978-84-9887 -391-7 Patrimonio histórico-Congresos. 2. Bens culturais-Protección. I. CastroFernández, Belén M", coord. II. Lopez,Luuezia, coord. TII. Piñeira-Mantiñán, María José, coord. IV. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Servizo de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico, ed. V. Serie 1. 351.852/.854 O Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 2010 Edición Servizo de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico. Campus Vida 15782 Santiago de Compostela u,'r,r,'w.us c. es / publicacions Maquetación e impresión Tórculo Artes Gtá{rcas, S.A. Dep. Legal C 1881-2011) rsBN 978 84-9887-391-7
  2. 2. CONTENTS: 1. SíERI-EN, B. Culrural Geography ¿ncl Cultural Hedtage .11 TOPI( l:CoNTEXTUt_ 2. COPETA, C.; NfARZUI_LI, Re-semanúzation GOMES, A. of F, the .,Via Francigena,, in Apulia ......, .17 American X/nters in Tuscany in the XIX Century............. SUÁREZ PIÑEIRqA. M'. I1"_1:y: Wall of Lugo: The Sociai Use of Cultural Heritage........... GRUX.rq R. Iroli¡Uon .........3() of Landscape and Cultural Heritage in the process of Economic Fertüzarion in Specchia (Iru10................. .. ..: D .. """"'.................,........4e 6. sANTOMrr, MosQUEiLA, 7. The N{aking and Destrucüon of our Heritage: varues and Devalues of curturar Assets.. ....65 ZUSMAN, P. Lanscape, tourism ancl heritage. A criticaj petspective.. 75 TOPIC 2: INSTITUTIONAL 8. 9. PODA, Nf. B. Enjeux de la Patrimonialisation de la Route de l,Esclave dans la Cité Ancienne cie Ouidah @énin).............. 97 M. Histofues de Sucre er D'f¡grgie; Les processus de Re terdtodaLisation et Patrimonialisation dans Le Valdichiana Toscana (Arezzo Italie).............................................111 10. LÓPEZSÁND]]Z. M. N{etaphots in Cuttural Representatrons of Lanclscape: Identity and ldeofo'' ...123 n xtr{RENGq *Ti:::i:-Ohic IAUZE,J. M Le orocessus de patrimonialisation i llle de La Réunion: une démarche institutionnelle problémarque.. ...... 12. NICOLAS, T. Les lieux de mémoire dans les dom insulaires: Un nouvel enjeu patdmonia.l 13. ME,RC]IiR, G, To Vhom does the rX/orlcl Hetitage City belong?..... ..135 ?. 14. SEVTLLAÁrvanEz,1. L'image patrimoniale du litoral cantabrique á travers la cartographie ancienne et la lirtérature de voyages. Le cas cle h ámmone de Llanes áu.r, 1u ,égion des Astudes (Espagne)...... ... ... ....................149 161
  3. 3. TOPIC 3: EPISTEMOLOGICAL 15. CASTRO FERNÁNDEZ, M'. B. Ptocess of Hetitage Making of Galician Memorial S).mbols in the Middie of the XX Centurl'............. .............................2¡-1. 16. SELICATQ F.; MAGGIO, G. The Role of Social Practices in Building up New Institutional Powers and Tetritorial Public Goods. ...............................227 17. LOPEZ, L.; PAZOS, M. The Hedtage Making Process of Santiago de Compostela and its Routes. .............. ............247 18. BANDEIRA, M. Les Cattes Postales lllusttées et la Patdmoniaüsation du Paysage: Vers une Socio-Sémiotique de I'image et de f imaginaire du Territoire Urbain. 19, IAZZAROTTI, ..........259 O. Monumentale ou Patrimoniale: Quelle Mémoire dans l'espace Géographique?....................277 20. BOUISSET, C.; PUYO,J. Y Espaces forestiers: la difficile patrimonialisation d'une ressource économique. L'exemple des fotéts de chéne-iidge en Catalogne Nord................. ...............301 21, BERNAI,B. The Cultural Landscape of the Duero River in Soda as a Paradigm of Pathologic Deviation......... a .............................313
  4. 4. The l{eritage Making Procesl "f Routes de Compostela and its Santiago lD[C Luctezia LoPez ¡l¡ ('omposretr -Univcr.idrde de Sanriago Miguel Pazos Otón IDEGA-Univ"rsiá"t1e 1' rntroduction c1e Santia¡5o de Compostela ' ls never-ending' Heritage Making Process Out starting point is that the produced and ¡' on' of the mecha:n'''o b1 in'ttn 't'11L1-is efforts in in fact"like language'--¡t therefore it requites continuous p' reprodacei' (Gtaharn,2OOO' ';' ord., ,o grant its proper valorisation escape ttom Wodd Hedtage it has to once a site is appointed N{ote over, of a heritage indusuy the commercial product menace of becoming the whichmanagesitasaformofenterainmentaccordingtothecontempofafy cultural identity"' "warden of hi'totit -"-otfu"d purposes' ratherth^;;; past and to past crear rcfercnce to the term ;";;;;" to'1oi"t.n rn fact,tlne cate of them' too' values, thus its '"'ulo"ti'on should take BothforsantiagodeCompostelaandfortheFrenchRoute,theintetnational tecognitionshavenourishedtheawarenessoftheimpottanceoftheHeritage hutlt"'olvecl authotities and heritage -"L"g;;;t"" thn"it llrstly protecdon, 'o diff.r.rrt l..relJ, in fact in foth cases the recognition was institutions of the internadonal one' ;t Uo'op"n" and finally at at national i""tl, h;"; TheGalicianHetitage-Protecdonrer.ealsthatnowadaystheautonomic govefnmentconsidersHeritageutu'"'oo"eincultural'socio-poüticaland economicterms"o'oi"i"ginitiativesaimedatpresetvingitsintegrity' 2. $lHS "valorisatiori" of a Compostela: a never-ending Santiagode the Theprocessofvalorisadonofthehistoricalheritageofsantiagode of "national monuments" of U"gott with the dttlu'utio" and Composteia icngs, of the Fonseca's college or ,nJHo,"i of the cn.r.rori. cathedral, 111 L+t
  5. 5. of other places of the ciq'; followed Hi.rtancal Hentage bv the Declaration as part af the Arti.rtic and in / 942. Thanks to the collaboration among centtal, loca1 and autonomic administration, the Historic Heritage of the citl' rv2" consolidated so that Santiago could be appointed Vorld Hentage S'ite tn December 1985, thus introducing the first meaningful change to its urban image, and reinforcing lts /lrbdn appeal, and, although reügion kept on being important, the image of Santiago began to be a ne,' one. Once become WHS, the Urban Plans kept into consideration the change s occurring in the cit1., elaborating strategies of intervention to preserve the historic city: its architecture and its'functions, espccially the housing ones. Indeecl, this guideline had alreadr, been established b¡' ¡11s lilt.fbr the Prolectian aJ' the Spanislt Historic Centres (25July 1985), which had introduced ne.w pafamcters for the protection of the goods and had transformed the I-rbrn Plen into r normarive insrrumcnt regulating the historic centrcs. from that momcnt on the term rehabilitation indicate d " tlte ruinintant il(ft'.tsr/r) inleruention in aruJer to i'mpraue, adapt, make habitahle and able to receiue ary kind o.f'.fitnclion", (T"-é Fernández, S., 2007, p.77), among which tertiar]- one dominates, in fact the historic centre changed its "lciok". The instruments appLied u,'erc: . the General Pablic Plan oJ' Urban Planning (Plan Ceneral A,Iuniripa/ de Ordenación Urbana 19BB B9), wrth the intention of approving documents fácilitating the building expansion in the citl'and rehabiütating the hrstoric one, ' thc of Pratectian and Rehabilitatian oJ the Histanc Ciry (Plan tr.special rJe Protección.), Rehabilitación de /a Ciadad Histórica; PECH, 1988-94), which Specia/ P/an established the conservation of thc inhabited structure as featute of the patrimonl,. Further more, the preserrration the citv urged a process of the extraordinar¡ Built Patrimony of of recuperating u-hich inr-olved different institutions, among them, there v'as, and stil1is, the Sontiago Ci4, 6ounr,,, created in1992, it connects the three levels of govefnmerit: centtal, tegional and local; later, because of the complexity of such a work, it created a speciaüzed entit),: the Ofice o;f Con.rerttation and Rehabilitafion af the Histaric Ci4, (n 1994), toge ther the two entities worked at the implementation of programs of rehabiLitation of 248
  6. 6. more d)'nnmic' Since then' the the Inhabited Heritage of the citv making it historic citY have deserved efforts carried out for the rehabilitation of the furrher inrernational recognitions: . . , ' ' 1996: thePtize EutoPe Nostta; cobúio of the Histotic Association of centres of ltaly; Pianning of the Eutopean 1997198 the Europ ean Prtze of Town 1.gg6:the prize Commission; 2001 the Prize Tower Guinigi; the UNE'SCO for Good 2002:the Prize I-l.N' habitat Dubai 2002 grvenby practisesfotthe..Protecdonandrehabiütationofthehistoriccitl'andits integration with the neighbout", a signi{rcant role for the The Santiaga Citl Caancilhas inevitabll' played from one the citv promoting measures aimed at granting rehabilitation of 1-randtheconservationof-theBuiltPattimonyandfromtheothethandthe rehabilitation programs regard: respect for the people lir.ing in it. Todav, its a) housing buildings ancl other kind a;f spdces; b) pablic c) sPaces; monataent.r. functions: there people a) The historic citY of Santiago has different har¡e to reason the criteria fot its tehabilitation 'r'c, work and meet. for this atchitecture wrth its functions' -onciliate the resPect of the ortginal housing buildings and other The interest towards rhe tehabilitarion of are policres motir.'ating people to .,inds of buildings is still alive, in fact there the urban rehabilitation of the :¡l-Labilitate their buildings: the Pragrams .ru.rtaining with cconomics ¡. These Programs are rcalized b1 proriding thc owners tooms and of other ,icis for the rehabilrtation of houses, of commetcial :uilclings,aswellaseconomicaidsfortheirmaintenance;andfrnallythereare :iograms for Protected buiiding' on the ftonts of some The following photos refer to posters affixed the one hand the fulfilment ::ildings of the historic centre: thus ptoving on hand the still existing sensrbility the e stablished objectives, and on the other as aiso the slogan intends to undedine: - the inhabitants tor¡,arcls this process, : 'itntiago,pensa,S'antiagorehahiütd',"'fantiagothinks'Santiagarehahilitates"' a /1o
  7. 7. b) As far as public spaces are concerncd, Santiago Citl Councilpromotes inittatives to recuperate and kcep public spaces (surch as strects, squares and parks) in good condition; also in rhis case a photo mav demonsrrare this. c) Finaliv, for lr'hat concerns the monumenl.i, rhe recognition Compostela of Santiago de WHS tmposes a continual monumental integrittr For example, the Catheclral of Santiago undcru.ent some maintenance vu.orks (Photo 3), in addition, the same cartcl affired on the fronts of the butlclings is affixed on thc facade of monuments, in this case thc photci refers to the Chapel of Souls (Capilla de Animas, Photo zl.). as Of coutse, thc rehabilitation of an1. kind of building being catalogued WHS is a considerable expense for its ou.ner; therefore the programs of economic aids motir.ate the preserrration of the urban image. Nlanagement inr-olr'cs not on1r, the implementation and fulfilmcnt of these measures, but it is important to monitor thc impact of these initiatir.es, therefore Santiagcr City for-ttrcil ar-ails itself of the cooperation of an Lrban Obsen,ator1,, responsible for the monitoring of the conditions of the historic citr¡ (thus interesting diffcrcnt ficlcls, as fcrr instance Tourism Hetitage, Cultural Offer and Public Space). as Throughourt time numerous buildings har-e been rehabilitatcd, indeed according to Santiago Citr- Council the (r0% of the tehabilitated builclings are monuments, while the 259/t' are residential buildings; nor','adatrs, olrce Photo 1.a) 1.b) Proper tirillis, 250 Sor-rrce. Certels: "Santiaccr Santiago rehabilitates". Photo 2. Proper Source. Stlcct meintcnence s'ork.
  8. 8. Photo 3. Proper Source. X.Iaintcnance ,brlis at the Cathedral of Santiagcr Photo 4. Proper Source. Cartel Affixed on the facade tl-re Chapel of thc Souls, llistoric (lcntre rehabilitated, the main interest is towards their conservation. The new challenges of the urban poücies inreresr: . attention towards thc consen ation; ' dinamization of the historical centre with respect to its functions. Although the whole historical centre is worrd Heritage Site, the cathedral is doubtlcss its emblem, therefore any visir ro the citl,ilp[es the visit to it; because of the increasing affluence of visitants (pilgrims, tourists, inhabitants, etc.) the Glory Portico is running the dsk of being iner.itabl). deteriorated. For this reason, the Tourism Depaúment and the Xacobeo have charged the centre of rourist Studies of the university of santiago (CETUR) and a Research Group of the univetsity complutens. to .rubo-rut. u p.o¡..t aimed at identif,ving strategies to regulare the visits to rhe cathedral in order to grant the conservation of the Cultural Heritage. A particular Hcritage of Santiago de compostera is the ,,Llniaersi4t Heritage", if we consider that the recognition X/HS refers to the of whole city, to all its various natures of the patrimonl,, the Universitv one is not excluded. Indeed, the universitv Heritage includes immobile and documental goods, as we have to consider the Facuity of Geographv and Histor1,, the 251
  9. 9. Athenaeums and the Htstoric Archir-es of the historical cities. This Heritage receives its protection and r.alorisation thanks to the program ,,uni'ersidade viva", aimed at the universitv Heritage, gir,,ing it more visibility ''alorising5 with respect both to its outside and to its inside, in fact its originality ües in the access to the inside of the Universitri "Hentage is one ( tbe attributes of a p/ace,, (Graham, 2000, p. 4), this attribute can be material that is tangible, but also immaterial, that is "cuhilraf', thus the designation of Santiago de compostela as European Ciqr ef Culture in 2000 is the rccognition of its d1,¡¿mic and alive culture. This "Live heritage" ascribes a sense of identitl, and continuit1,,, marking the limits of the "cultutal diversity"; for this reason during the latest vears it has received a strong world recognition and "ifs preseruation bas become one af the pioriff' af the international cooperation, thanks to the role p/a1et/ b-1, the LrA/-EJ'co uith the adaption oJ' the Conaentianfor lhe Safeguanling af tbe Intangible Caltaral Htritage" (UNESCO). 3. The Pilgrimage Routes to Santiago de Compostela: ttwalking" towards their heritage making process The Routes are rich of Patrimon,: natural, architectural, cultural an¡ of which asking and receiúng a proper form of protection, for this reason the Route s arc generallv considere d " cartp/ex heritages", until nou, only the French one has been recognizcd 'HS. The entry of spain in the European union in 1986 brought immediatel;. bene{its to the French Route, in fact after having been declar ed as part of the Arti.rtic and Hi.rtoical Hentage tn 1962 from the Spanish Government, the European council proclaimed it First Earapean cultut"al ltinerarl on the 23 october 1987. Furthermore, this declaration was the first step towards the w-odd recognition of the historic legacv and protectir¡n of its cultural heritage, which is the symbol of "a European space enriched of collective memory". The restoration of the Route to santiago as European cultural Axis inaugurated a heritage making process through the revaluation of the material heritage and the re-discor.ery of the immaterial one. Indeed, before the world recognition the French Route had become priority of the tourist policie s of the Garrcian Government, which in 1991 had 252
  10. 10. approved the Plan Xact¡beo 93 that is aPlanincluding various initiatives for the Holy Year 1993. Given the complexity of the project the public Enterprise s. A' de Gestión de/ plan Xacabeo 9J was created; since its creadon it sustained, together with the Tourist Department, the appointment of the French Roure as S7HS, moreover, the.5-.A. Xacobeohas alwal.s been deaüngwith the growth of the Jacobean phenomenon, supporting poücies related to the Route as well as the general guidelines for the management of the culturar Heritage. With the appointment as Iltlorltl Heritage J.ite on behatf of the UNESCO ]n 1993 the international image of the French Roure was consolidated once for all and from that moment on its truly patdm oniarizaticnbegan; in fact, it inaugurated an intense process of rehabiliiation and recovery of architectural and natural heritages of particular interest for the Gaücian landscape: hosting resources (houses, monasteries and churches) and infrastructures (bridges, paths, wa,vs). The management of the Route requested the imprementation of regisrative methods of protection, rhus rhere was firstlv th' Colturo/ patinonl Act of calicia in 1995, which defines the Route as ,, a goocl of public inlerest with culfural charactef', and later the pilgrin's protection Act in th-e 1996,which interested in the nafiualheritage and in the delimitation of is more the Route. The most important presenr policies rcgard the derimitation Pilgrimage Route; of the French and the Northern Route s are concerned, currently reviewed and shourd be concruded by as far as the their delimitation is being the end of the 2008; once concluded, a cultural Inreresl Asset repofiwiil be elaborated with the inrention of valorising the historic and cuhurar asser of these territories, {inally the purpose is to "gain', the appointment of ,,ü7odd Heritage sire" for the Northern and for the primitive pilgrimage Roure. As far as the other Pilgrim's Routes are concerned (the port.rgl.r., t"h. Errgrirh, the Fisterra- Muxia, the Southeast and the Arousa- padrón ones), they are being studied for their upcoming derimitation, hoping for them theappointmenr as H istoncal I tineraries. As shown, the Garician authorities have implemented policies of protection of the Routes demonstrating the awareness that the Rootes to Santiago stand for culture and History and that for this reason, it is indispensable ro prorecr ¡hem. zJt
  11. 11. x'ith respect to the "immaterial" heritage, the ,,elements,, rebuilding th.Cultural Heritage are: a) its uniqueness as itinerarv founding the European identitl,; b) the reco¡erv of the ideologicar heritage anci of the Jacobean pilgrimage tradition; c) the reco¡err of the ancient practise of a vaiorisation. hospitaliy, rer-itaLizecl thanks to such ()nce rediscovered, ar these aspects hal-e been contextuaLized, so that toda1, their meaning is enriched with new ones; in fact, u-ith respect to the second point, the neaningof the Route is continuoush, rene.,ved, and on occasion of the 20'L anniYersarv of the proclamation of the French Route as liist Cuitural Itinerarl; a new deciaration has been read, as a ¡av of recording alr change, occurred. Even the concept of hospitaritv has been adaptcd to the needs I ffi.":.:-:sesandthe,isks ¡ The heritagc making proccss enriches the image of a city or of a site malang emerge their identit,v; in the cases considerecr, heritage does not I I j I of :i'#:Ti ?;ffi'::fi'::'^t',1'_'ff:fj:'T::Tilff,?*J:*;ff: I ffii':ifi ;:ilffi::j:ff::)ffi:T }"?l:,1T:;::'":l#x, I the people working on it (or along it in the case of the Route) ancl the tourisrs, I I Ii;liJt1"i:i*i,9: ;'JT:JJ:::?il"#;1Ili,"J.lr;JiI :::#1?. transformauon might affect their integritri thus their preseryation shoulcl be realtzed through Nlanagement plans, as instruments indicating the direction, the individuation and the fulfrlment of terdtorial polrtics armrng at re',aruing these resources and "preserr,-ing,, the values of the sites. The x'{anagement of a wHS impries manr, task., among u-hich the preservadon of the Built Patrimonr and the respect of its scrcial function-s. bur this is nor alu'ais eas. as the pian rcducing rhe access 254 r";; o;;;;;.";,- i j I i I I
  12. 12. the Glorv of the Cathedral of Santiago mav pro¡e. Of course, it is a Plan of Heritage Preservation, but it is in contrast :vith the pi/grimage-natare of tlte ci4t, supposing that the access to the cathedral should free and always possible. As demonsttated, in Galicia thc regional and the local Government pa¡ attention to the valodsation and protection of their Heritage, availing themseives of r,'arious management instruments: Plans, Lar¡rs, and Acts. In spite of the big efforts, a lot still has ro be done, in fact the results of the tehabrlitation of the histotic centfe arc heterogencous, as u'e easilr, find buildings properly rehabilitated next to buildings abandoned and completeh' destroved and this has inevitabh' a negatir-e effect on those visiting the citri Furthermore, the revitahzatton of a wHS should impl,v the restitution of the site to its original diversified functions, and ftequentlv in this "heritage making process" anytfuin* is directed to the external image rather than to the tc I f .t0/// aJ rn( il4t As far as Santiago de compostela is concefned, its patrimoniahzattctn pfocess means also the redefinition of its "identity"; in spite of all efforts the historical cih- is loosing its onginal functions. The historic cenrre of Santiago is running the risk of "e/itiTación1 tur"isttfcación", indeed the constant Heritage making process transforms it into something appealing for banks, enrerprises, and all activities linked w-ith the tertiarv-administrative secror, thus the old city in order to become a "s}'rnfe¡. part" of Santiago. Another risk is the "turistification", so that throughout time, tourism is becoming the main commcrcial actir,-itr, of the cifi,'and thc nbrld Heritage looses its primarv housing function Site runs thc risks of becoming iust a tourist space. Furthetmore, one of the difficultres the institutions deal with is that the r.alorisation pohcies regard the "heritage" of other people, as the Heritage of Santiago belongs mainlv to indir-iduals and to the Universitl.. Finall1,, in the case of Santiago de Compostela, its patrimonialization process has not produced the monumenfahzation of the cifi', bccause the historic citv is d).namic thanks to the "lives" which take place in it: bl, day and by night. As far as the Routes are concerned, the institutions are aware that the Acts regarding the Routc of the past years need to be reformulated, because of the numberless changes occurred; moreo¡ef, ther. will have to conciliate as best rs possible the tourist uses of the Routes with the proper pilgrimages needs. 255
  13. 13. As alteady said, the heritage making process is not simply the rehabiütation of a building, but it is also importnnt ,h. .,rr.function,, ascribed to it, for example the rehabiütated Mill of roreiro wiil be the seat of a Bureau of the Xacobeo and of the uNESCQ this ',immersion,, in the Route is a form of monitoring the Heritage from its "inside,,. It proves that Institutions have understood that for the management of the resources the monitoring of the process and of the necessities in place arlows to be more effective (Esposito M., Cavelzad, A., 2006,p. 4I0). All the impremented policies are "preparing,, rhe other Routes for a future appointment as wHS, so that their revai,r úzationm€ht be considered a way of re-consrructing them,,re-rhaping their mearlrg ooording i ,t , pnrrof ,. If on the one hand the Heritage Making process of the Roures is doubtress a success' it may easily become a risk, because their (with reference to an the Routes) increasing internationali zaúon imp)tes firstly the menace of a sataralion, secondly rhe menace of a g/oba/ilatioa, depriving them of their identitl,. And frnally, both for santiago and for irs Route, it wourd be more propedv to state that the patrimoniarization has brought to a Heritage_reuita/iqation, thus undedining the dynamism originut.i from management". 256 rh.i."'',,r,u1.red_based
  14. 14. REFERENCES cle Compostcla: medium sizecl cifl', cul¡-rral and poliucal J. A. (2006): "santiago Clahcie", en[]rbdn rh¿n&.r in differenf .rcales yslen: and s/rucbrres.León, Secrctatiado cle iZQUtrZ, ALDREY capitai of PubLicaciones C,NO c1c J. NL, (2005): Tri.¡mo tultur¡l: tilanual del gestor NÍ]UVESÍN FAB'RÉ, de patinanio, Córcloba, Almuzata. CASOLARI, Nf.(20i)4): Tttulurc i nnfii Cultural Patr-imc¡nv Act (.R()STi of Claiicix, storici per la qm/iti dello stikppa. 'gori, Reggio limilia. 1995 P. (1998): Politiche. Qua/e cana.rcenz"afu'/'dTione lu'ritnridle?. Nfilano, F-tanco AngeJi. DE TORRES LLTNA, Nr p., PÉRHZ AI-BERTI, A, l-( )IS GONZ'LEZ, R.C. (ED.) (1993';: Lrts tu"itoio. Santiago de Compostcla, Consellctía de Relncitins Instituclonais e Pottavoz do Gobctno. Catyin¿.; rle .'antia¡401,e/ CIAR¡ÍA GRINDA,J. l-. Caminc¡ dc Santiago: Conjunto históric,-r tetr-itolial. Pattimonio, gesti¿)n". En T-ópez 1'rigal, L. (I)lR.): Ciadddes -¡t ¡l//a.¡ caninerds _-y F..rtudio-y Debnte []rl¡ano-¡, León: Linir-ersiclad de I-eón, Secretati¿do c1e (200t)): "El plancamiento Utbanístico .fnobus : III .lt,rnatla-r rle Pubüc¿ciones. G,RCÍA IGLI]SiAS, X. Nf., CARBALI-O PF,RIjZ, P, ROI)R(;trllz FIIRNÁNDEZ, r'L (1999): G¿Iciu xarobr¿: a retitul17ación dns Camitits de -lanfiago.,unta clc GaLicie, Consellería cle Cultura, Comunicación Social e Tutismo. G^RCÍA IGI-IISIAS, X. },i., (2004) (.Dir.): Xacrtbeo 2001.Xu¡tz de (laLicia, Consellería cle Cultuta, Comunicación Social e Tudsmo. S. A. de Xestiírn clo Plan X¿cobeo C;. J. v TUNRRID(]F,, J. F,. (20)0ii): Culture ancl F,conomt-. London, Arnolcl. c]tuHANf, B., ASHORTH, A ceagaph.T oJ HeitaE. Porvet, ESPOSITO, l,{. Y (.,ryALZANI, A. (2006): "The W<rrlci Hetitage anci Cu}tural l,:rnclsc:rpes", e¡ Reuista de Ttri.rma,y Pdtintonio Cu/nu'u/, Vo1. '1, no 3, pp 409-419' Pttsos. LOIS (;ONZÁLEZ, R.C. (1999): Rer-italización cconrimica l- dcsarolio urbano tecientc cle Sanuago de Ccrn-rpostela . In Conu-ci¡, tnri-vno -1, cdmbios Juncianales ea /¡¡ citdafu: e:pdia/a.r Palintonio fu Lt Huntanidad. Cáceres, (lámala de Cometcio c Inclustria, pp 161-197' LOIS C]()NZÁLLZ, R. C. (2000): "Dot:rciones y iflfraestructuras clcl Carnrno cle Santiago. Una aproximaciírn geográfica". IJn Lcipcz Trigal, L. (DIR): Cidades..T' tilla.r canineras jacobea-r: III León: Unir.ctsidecl de León, Sccretariado Jirna,las tle l:sturlio-1 l)eh¿le Urbano.r, c1e Publicaciones. LOIS CIONZ¡iLtrZ, R. C. r- SONIOZA NIEDINA,I. (2003): "Cultural tourjsm ancl ud¡an manxgcment in ni¡rtbu-estern Spain: the pilgrimage to Santiago clc (-ompostcla", in'litaism Ceogrdphiu,cl 5, n. o4, pp. 446-4ó0. Pilgrim's Prr¡tcction Act, 1996. RNÍ()S GUALLTRT,,i., PANI1RO PARDq .otfos (2003): "La ()iicina clc tchal¡iütación cle le ciudad histórica cle Santiago. 1994-2001".1(anztes d¿ concerr-ación v ld Co.¡tración, Vt¡l. 55, no 486, juLio-agosto 2003. S (2ilU3): "Patrimcinios culturale s I tuListrs: utros lccn Rtlista rJr'Turi¡maJ, Patizttonia Ct/tu,t/, Vol. 1, n. " 1, pp 1-12. NTANA T]LAVER-A, A. En Ptt.¡os. : TOS SOLLA, X. Nf. (1999): "Nlitos r. reahdades del racobco", en Boktht 1o cluc A.c.E, otros mir:1n". n.o 28, pp. 1i)3- 111. 257
  15. 15. S'NT()S S()l.LA, X. 1. (2006): "Ei turismo cul¡_u¿l en Gelicia,', en Rodrígucz Camprrs' X. S., Santos Soil¿. X. |,1., G¿/icia e: 'l-trranara t- I ¡tbrat/or.: Llnir-ersidacie cle Santiagr¡ de (ior.npostela, Scn'izo cle publicaclirns e Intercaml¡io Científico. LizQLrF,ZSANTOS,R.(2007)(coorc1.): E/1¿I,'¿/itia.E/t'entt¡1n¡iuttarle/Cuilina.Striagocle(-omposrela, Xunta clc (laLicia r S.A. de Xestiiin do X¡cobeo. TorrÉ t'FRNÁNI)EZ, pp.75 S. (20t)l: "l-os ceürros 88. WEB SITES rrrui consctLcio san tiego.com 'i s?uttiagociecompos tela.org :.. unc 258 s c ( ). aJ fg histcir-icos cle l:r ciuclaclcs espaiiolas,,, e¡ Erír.t ¡. j2,