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Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
Silent Way
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Silent Way

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Gattegno's Silent Way, its origin, and features

Gattegno's Silent Way, its origin, and features

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  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3. Silent Way <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of Audio-lingualism (1960s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of structural linguistics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of T-G linguistics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of Behaviorism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of Cognitive-code learning theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practical Attack </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to use L2 habits to communicative situations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boring & unsatisfying teaching procedures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative Teaching proposals (1980s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silent Way by Caleb Gattegno </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TPR by James Asher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CLL by Charles A. Curran </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sentence a basic unit of teaching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teaching & learning grammar inductively </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teaching functional vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive-code view of learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L2 learning radically different from L1 learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful, discovery learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on having an artificial teaching approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primacy of learning to teaching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of repetition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silence a powerful tool for mental organization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner criteria, self-correction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. <ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To attain near-native fluency in L2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives for low-level students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To gain oral-aural facility in basic L2 elements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To gain a basic practical knowledge of L2 grammar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Perform adequately in reading , and writing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richrds & Rogers: a Structural syllabus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larsen Freeman: Based on learners’ needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More lexico-grammatical units </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No precise selection & arrangement of content </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatical complexity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of visual presentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. <ul><ul><li>Types of Teaching / Learning Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using charts, rods, other aids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helping Ss develop independence, autonomy, responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing inner criteria & correct themselves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperating with other Ss to solve language problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative rather than competitive procedures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner Roles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule discoverers / Language explorers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working cooperatively not competitively </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correcting themselves & being corrected by others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making use of their background </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming responsibility for their own learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. <ul><ul><li>Teacher Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technician / engineer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulator / Not a hand holder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being silent most of the time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Getting out of the way for Ss to develop inner criteria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative rather than competitive procedures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner Roles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule discoverers / Language explorers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working cooperatively not competitively </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correcting themselves & being corrected by others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making use of their background </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming responsibility for their own learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Role of Instructional Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Pointer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuisenaire rods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To teach Vocabulary (Colors/ numbers/adjectives / Verbs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To teach syntax ( prepositions, conditionals, word order…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 Word Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Containing about 500 functional English vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having identical color code with sound & Fidel charts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Color-Coded Fidel Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To associate sounds with spelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Sound- color chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representing vowels & consonants of L2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To show how to form syllables, words, sentences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To teach stress pattern of words </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. The Cuisenaire Rods <ul><li>Are used in elementary school </li></ul><ul><li>Were initially used for mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Are used to teach items such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prepositions of place, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sentence and word stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to represent a series of useful situations for a language lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Are named after their inventor, Georges Cuisenaire (1891-1976), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a Belgian primary school teacher , </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are used for both mathematics and language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Are 10 rods measuring 1 cm to 10 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Rods of equal length are assigned the same color. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Cuisenaire rods follow this system: </li></ul><ul><li>White rod = 1 cm. Red rod = 2 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Light green rod = 3 cm. Lavender rod = 4 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow rod = 5 cm. Dark green rod = 6 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Black rod = 7 cm. Brown rod = 8 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Blue rod = 9 cm. Orange rod = 10 c </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of rods depends on efficient teacher training. </li></ul><ul><li>When used by untrained teachers, the results can be disappointing. </li></ul>
  • 10. The Cuisenaire Rods Different in color, & size To teach Vocabulary & syntax ( Colors/ numbers /adjectives / Verbs prepositions, conditionals, word order…)
  • 11. Word Chart <ul><li>Functional words of the language are printed in color. </li></ul><ul><li>color code is the same as that of the rectangle chart and the fidel. </li></ul><ul><li>Only structural words (about 500 words) is included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pronouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common adjectives and adverbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>auxiliary verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a few common verbs but very few nouns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The use of colour enables students to read directly in languages with a different alphabet or characters and to pronounce correctly what they read. </li></ul>
  • 12. The First English Word Chart One of the 12 word charts on which the functional words are printed in color.
  • 13. Sound-Color Chart To show how to form syllables, words, sentences To teach stress pattern of words
  • 14. Color-Coded Fidel Chart <ul><li>The Fidel is a set of charts presenting all the possible spellings of each sound of the language using the same color code as the rectangle chart and word charts. </li></ul><ul><li>It is particularly useful when the foreign language uses signs unknown to the student </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an English person learning Japanese or vice versa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the same signs correspond to different sounds as in English and French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there are many irregularities in spelling </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Color-Coded Fidel Chart To associate sounds with spelling
  • 16. <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching L2 sounds first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using sound-color chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considering L1 background of Ss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling sounds at the beginning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using pointer to indicate stress/phrasing /intonation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching sentence-patterns & vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using colored rods for visual realization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling utterances by the teacher first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having a S model & produce utterances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No encouragement or correction by the teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regarding learning as personal responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice with L2 structure without repetition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-correction gestures / peer correction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured feedback </li></ul></ul>

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