Silent Way <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of Audio-lingualism (1960s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The...
<ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural approach </li></ul></...
<ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To attain near-native flu...
<ul><ul><li>Types of  Teaching / Learning Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving activities  </li></ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Teacher Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technician / engineer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimula...
<ul><li>Role of Instructional Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Pointer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuisenaire rods  </li><...
The Cuisenaire Rods <ul><li>Are used in  elementary school   </li></ul><ul><li>Were initially used for  mathematics </li><...
The Cuisenaire Rods  Different  in  color,  & size   To  teach Vocabulary & syntax  ( Colors/ numbers /adjectives / Verbs ...
Word Chart <ul><li>Functional words of the language are printed in color. </li></ul><ul><li>color code is the same as that...
The First English Word Chart One of the 12 word charts on which the functional words are printed in color.
Sound-Color Chart To show how to form syllables, words, sentences To teach stress pattern of words
  Color-Coded Fidel Chart <ul><li>The Fidel is a set of charts presenting all the possible spellings of each sound of the ...
Color-Coded Fidel Chart To associate sounds with spelling
<ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching L2 sounds first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using sound-color chart </...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Silent Way

7,709
-1

Published on

Gattegno's Silent Way, its origin, and features

Published in: Education
1 Comment
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
7,709
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
372
Comments
1
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Silent Way

  1. 3. Silent Way <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of Audio-lingualism (1960s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of structural linguistics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of T-G linguistics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of Behaviorism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of Cognitive-code learning theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practical Attack </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to use L2 habits to communicative situations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boring & unsatisfying teaching procedures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative Teaching proposals (1980s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silent Way by Caleb Gattegno </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TPR by James Asher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CLL by Charles A. Curran </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sentence a basic unit of teaching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teaching & learning grammar inductively </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teaching functional vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive-code view of learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L2 learning radically different from L1 learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful, discovery learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on having an artificial teaching approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primacy of learning to teaching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of repetition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silence a powerful tool for mental organization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner criteria, self-correction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To attain near-native fluency in L2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives for low-level students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To gain oral-aural facility in basic L2 elements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To gain a basic practical knowledge of L2 grammar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Perform adequately in reading , and writing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richrds & Rogers: a Structural syllabus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larsen Freeman: Based on learners’ needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More lexico-grammatical units </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No precise selection & arrangement of content </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatical complexity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of visual presentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><ul><li>Types of Teaching / Learning Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using charts, rods, other aids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helping Ss develop independence, autonomy, responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing inner criteria & correct themselves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperating with other Ss to solve language problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative rather than competitive procedures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner Roles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule discoverers / Language explorers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working cooperatively not competitively </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correcting themselves & being corrected by others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making use of their background </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming responsibility for their own learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><ul><li>Teacher Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technician / engineer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulator / Not a hand holder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being silent most of the time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Getting out of the way for Ss to develop inner criteria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative rather than competitive procedures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner Roles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule discoverers / Language explorers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working cooperatively not competitively </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correcting themselves & being corrected by others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making use of their background </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming responsibility for their own learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Role of Instructional Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Pointer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuisenaire rods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To teach Vocabulary (Colors/ numbers/adjectives / Verbs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To teach syntax ( prepositions, conditionals, word order…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 Word Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Containing about 500 functional English vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having identical color code with sound & Fidel charts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Color-Coded Fidel Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To associate sounds with spelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Sound- color chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representing vowels & consonants of L2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To show how to form syllables, words, sentences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To teach stress pattern of words </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. The Cuisenaire Rods <ul><li>Are used in elementary school </li></ul><ul><li>Were initially used for mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Are used to teach items such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prepositions of place, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sentence and word stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to represent a series of useful situations for a language lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Are named after their inventor, Georges Cuisenaire (1891-1976), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a Belgian primary school teacher , </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are used for both mathematics and language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Are 10 rods measuring 1 cm to 10 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Rods of equal length are assigned the same color. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Cuisenaire rods follow this system: </li></ul><ul><li>White rod = 1 cm. Red rod = 2 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Light green rod = 3 cm. Lavender rod = 4 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow rod = 5 cm. Dark green rod = 6 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Black rod = 7 cm. Brown rod = 8 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Blue rod = 9 cm. Orange rod = 10 c </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of rods depends on efficient teacher training. </li></ul><ul><li>When used by untrained teachers, the results can be disappointing. </li></ul>
  8. 10. The Cuisenaire Rods Different in color, & size To teach Vocabulary & syntax ( Colors/ numbers /adjectives / Verbs prepositions, conditionals, word order…)
  9. 11. Word Chart <ul><li>Functional words of the language are printed in color. </li></ul><ul><li>color code is the same as that of the rectangle chart and the fidel. </li></ul><ul><li>Only structural words (about 500 words) is included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pronouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common adjectives and adverbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>auxiliary verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a few common verbs but very few nouns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The use of colour enables students to read directly in languages with a different alphabet or characters and to pronounce correctly what they read. </li></ul>
  10. 12. The First English Word Chart One of the 12 word charts on which the functional words are printed in color.
  11. 13. Sound-Color Chart To show how to form syllables, words, sentences To teach stress pattern of words
  12. 14. Color-Coded Fidel Chart <ul><li>The Fidel is a set of charts presenting all the possible spellings of each sound of the language using the same color code as the rectangle chart and word charts. </li></ul><ul><li>It is particularly useful when the foreign language uses signs unknown to the student </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an English person learning Japanese or vice versa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the same signs correspond to different sounds as in English and French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there are many irregularities in spelling </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Color-Coded Fidel Chart To associate sounds with spelling
  14. 16. <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching L2 sounds first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using sound-color chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considering L1 background of Ss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling sounds at the beginning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using pointer to indicate stress/phrasing /intonation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching sentence-patterns & vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using colored rods for visual realization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling utterances by the teacher first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having a S model & produce utterances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No encouragement or correction by the teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regarding learning as personal responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice with L2 structure without repetition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-correction gestures / peer correction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured feedback </li></ul></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×