Measurement: Fundamental Concepts & Preliminaries
Importance of Testing In Educational situations To determine the progress of students To ascertain achievement of educational objectives To make sound decision based on evaluation To know how much learning has taken place. Teaching & Testing Relationship Testing at the service of teaching Washback / backwash effect Positive / negative
Concepts & Terms Test: A procedure designed to elicit a certain behavior from which one can make inferences about certain characteristics of an individual. Assessment: An ongoing Process and a kind of measurement which encompasses a wider domain than a test and is carried out in direct and indirect ways.
Concepts & Terms Measurement: Process of quantifying individuals’ characteristics according to specific rules & procedure Evaluation: The systematic gathering of information for the purpose of making decisions. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Evaluations
categorizing subject by hair colour marital status Race political party affiliation college major Birthplace Nominal data is often generated in studies using a questionnaire design from closed, forced choice questions, e.g. type of pet (cat, dog, rat etc.)
Numbers are used to place objects in order, but there is no information regarding the differences (intervals) between points on the scale.
symptoms of depression from a psychiatric assessment? None= 0 Mild= 1 Moderate= 2 Severe= 3 Ranking students according to frequency of spelling errors the scores on a Likert questionnaire Strongly Agree= 5 Agree= 4 No opinion= 3 Disagree= 2 Strongly disagree= 1
Test Genres Test Battery A group of tests standardized on the same population to yield comparable results and to produce a single score. Traditional vs. Computer-adaptive Discrete-point vs. Global/ Integrative Pragmatic vs. Functional/communicative Norm-referenced vs. Criterion-referenced Direct vs. Indirect Subjective vs. Objective Summative vs. Formative Power vs. Speed
Dimension CRT NRT To determine whether each student has achieved specific skills or concepts. To find out how much students know before and after instruction To rank each student with respect to theachievement of others in broad areas of knowledge. To discriminate between high and low achievers. Purpose Content Measures specific skills making up a designated curriculum and identified by teachers and curriculum experts. Each skill is expressed as an instructional objective. Measures broad skill areas sampled from a variety of textbooks, syllabi, and the judgments of curriculum experts. ItemCharacteristics Each skill is tested by at least four items to obtain an adequate sample of performance and to minimize the guessing effect . The items which test any given skill are parallel in difficulty. Each skill is usually tested by less than four items. Items vary in difficulty. Selected items show high discrimination indexes. ScoreInterpretation Testers are compared with a preset standard for acceptable achievement. The performance of other examinees is irrelevant. A student's score is usually expressed as a percentage. Student achievement is reported for individual skills. Testers are compared with other examinees and assigned a score--usually expressed as a percentile, a grade equivalent score, or a stanine. Student achievement is reported for broad skill areas, although some norm-referenced tests do report student achievement for individual skills. NRT vs. CRT
Test Items Alternate response Items True / False Yes / No Agree / Disagree Right / Wrong Fixed / Closed-ended response Items Multiple-Choice Matching Free / Open-ended response Items Short answer Gap-Fill Essay
Self-assessment 1. A test refers to a standard set of items to be answered. 2.Evaluation uses both tests and informal pieces of evidence for making a value judgment and decision. 4.Measurement refers to any device for obtaining information in a quantitative manner. 5.If a person Knows how to teach, he may not be necessarily able to judge the ability of his pupils. Mohd. Pazhouhesh T F T T
6. Educational decisions can be made without measurement or evaluation. 7. Summative evaluation involves the use of tests and quizzes for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of instructional programs. Mohd. Pazhouhesh F T