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measurment, testing & eveluation
 

measurment, testing & eveluation

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major concepts and terminologies in second language testing

major concepts and terminologies in second language testing

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    measurment, testing & eveluation measurment, testing & eveluation Presentation Transcript

    • Measurement: Fundamental Concepts & Preliminaries
    • Importance of Testing
      In Educational situations
      To determine the progress of students
      To ascertain achievement of educational objectives
      To make sound decision based on evaluation
      To know how much learning has taken place.
      Teaching & Testing Relationship
      Testing at the service of teaching
      Washback / backwash effect
      Positive / negative
    • Concepts & Terms
      Test:
      A procedure designed to elicit a certain behavior from which one can make inferences about certain characteristics of an individual.
      Assessment:
      An ongoing Process and a kind of measurement which encompasses a wider domain than a test and is carried out in direct and indirect ways.
    • Concepts & Terms
      Measurement:
      Process of quantifying individuals’ characteristics according to specific rules & procedure
      Evaluation:
      The systematic gathering of information for the purpose of making decisions. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Evaluations
    • Teaching–assessment Relation
      • 1. non-test, non-measure evaluation
      • Qualitative description of Ss performance
      • 2. non-test measure for evaluation
      • Teacher’s ranking for assigning grades
      • 3. test for evaluative purpose
      • Achievement testing
      • 4. test for non-evaluative purpose
      • Proficiency test for research
      • 5. non-test measure for non-evaluative purpose
      • Assigning code numbers to subjects for research
    • Nominal Scale
      • Not really a ‘scale’ because it does not scale objects along any dimension. It simply labels objects and gives the researcher the least amount of information about participants.
      Gender : Male = 1 Female = 2
      Religious Affiliation : Catholic= 1 Protestant= 2 Jewish= 3 Muslim= 4 Other= 5
      • yes/no responses
      categorizing subject by hair colour
      marital status
      Race
      political party affiliation
      college major
      Birthplace
      Nominal data is often generated in studies using a questionnaire design from closed, forced choice questions, e.g. type of pet (cat, dog, rat etc.)
    • Ordinal Scale
      • Numbers are used to place objects in order, but there is no information regarding the differences (intervals) between points on the scale.
      symptoms of depression from a psychiatric assessment?
      None= 0 Mild= 1
      Moderate= 2 Severe= 3
      Ranking students according to frequency of spelling errors
      the scores on a Likert questionnaire
      Strongly Agree= 5
      Agree= 4
      No opinion= 3
      Disagree= 2
      Strongly disagree= 1
    • Interval Scale
      • •An interval scale is a scale on which equal intervals between objects represent equal meaningful differences.
      • Determining scores on a grammar test
      A 10-degree difference has the same meaning anywhere along the scale.
    • Ratio Scale
      •Ratio scales have a true zero point and are meaningful
      Physical scales of
      time
      length
      weight
      speed
      absolute temperature(Kelvin scale)

    •     the categories of the variable:   
    • Test Genres
      Test Battery
      A group of tests standardized on the same population to yield comparable results and to produce a single score.
      Traditional vs. Computer-adaptive
      Discrete-point vs. Global/ Integrative
      Pragmatic vs. Functional/communicative
      Norm-referenced vs. Criterion-referenced
      Direct vs. Indirect
      Subjective vs. Objective
      Summative vs. Formative
      Power vs. Speed
    • Dimension
      CRT
      NRT
      To determine whether each student has achieved specific skills or concepts.
      To find out how much students know before and after instruction
      To rank each student with respect to theachievement of others in broad areas of knowledge.
      To discriminate between high and low achievers.
      Purpose
      Content
      Measures specific skills making up a designated curriculum and identified by teachers and curriculum experts.
      Each skill is expressed as an instructional objective.
      Measures broad skill areas sampled from a variety of textbooks, syllabi, and the judgments of curriculum experts.
      ItemCharacteristics
      Each skill is tested by at least four items to obtain an adequate sample of performance and to minimize the guessing effect . The items which test any given skill are parallel in difficulty.
      Each skill is usually tested by less than four items.
      Items vary in difficulty.
      Selected items show high discrimination indexes.
      ScoreInterpretation
      Testers are compared with a preset standard for acceptable achievement. The performance of other examinees is irrelevant. A student's score is usually expressed as a percentage. Student achievement is reported for individual skills.
      Testers are compared with other examinees and assigned a score--usually expressed as a percentile, a grade equivalent score, or a stanine.
      Student achievement is reported  for broad skill areas, although some norm-referenced tests do report student achievement for individual skills.
      NRT vs. CRT
    • Test Items
      Alternate response Items
      True / False
      Yes / No
      Agree / Disagree
      Right / Wrong
      Fixed / Closed-ended response Items
      Multiple-Choice
      Matching
      Free / Open-ended response Items
      Short answer
      Gap-Fill
      Essay
    • Teacher-made vs. Standardized Tests
      • Teacher-made/classroom tests:
      Small scale, classroom tests generally prepared, administered, and scored by one teacher .
      • Standardized Tests:
      Tests with fixed contents, constant administration and scoring procedures and statistically acceptable characteristics.
      • Differences between TMD & SDT
      • Administration & scoring
      • Content sampling
      • Test construction
      • Norms & Standards
      • Purpose and use
    • Self-assessment
      1. A test refers to a standard set of items to be answered.
      2.Evaluation uses both tests and informal pieces of evidence for making a value judgment and decision.
      4.Measurement refers to any device for obtaining information in a quantitative manner.
      5.If a person Knows how to teach, he may not be necessarily able to judge the ability of his pupils.
      Mohd. Pazhouhesh
      T
      F
      T
      T
    • 6. Educational decisions can be made without measurement or evaluation.
      7. Summative evaluation involves the use of tests and quizzes for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of instructional programs.
      Mohd. Pazhouhesh
      F
      T
      • The process of gathering information to make proper decisions is called ----------.
      a. measurement
      b. testing
      c. evaluation
      d. examination
      • The subjective judgment of a teacher about a student’s performance is a kind of --------- evaluation.
      quantitative
      standard
      qualitative
      comprehensive
      Mohd. Pazhouhesh