measurment, testing & eveluation
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measurment, testing & eveluation

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major concepts and terminologies in second language testing

major concepts and terminologies in second language testing

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measurment, testing & eveluation measurment, testing & eveluation Presentation Transcript

  • Measurement: Fundamental Concepts & Preliminaries
  • Importance of Testing
    In Educational situations
    To determine the progress of students
    To ascertain achievement of educational objectives
    To make sound decision based on evaluation
    To know how much learning has taken place.
    Teaching & Testing Relationship
    Testing at the service of teaching
    Washback / backwash effect
    Positive / negative
  • Concepts & Terms
    Test:
    A procedure designed to elicit a certain behavior from which one can make inferences about certain characteristics of an individual.
    Assessment:
    An ongoing Process and a kind of measurement which encompasses a wider domain than a test and is carried out in direct and indirect ways.
  • Concepts & Terms
    Measurement:
    Process of quantifying individuals’ characteristics according to specific rules & procedure
    Evaluation:
    The systematic gathering of information for the purpose of making decisions. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Evaluations
  • Teaching–assessment Relation
    • 1. non-test, non-measure evaluation
    • Qualitative description of Ss performance
    • 2. non-test measure for evaluation
    • Teacher’s ranking for assigning grades
    • 3. test for evaluative purpose
    • Achievement testing
    • 4. test for non-evaluative purpose
    • Proficiency test for research
    • 5. non-test measure for non-evaluative purpose
    • Assigning code numbers to subjects for research
  • Nominal Scale
    • Not really a ‘scale’ because it does not scale objects along any dimension. It simply labels objects and gives the researcher the least amount of information about participants.
    Gender : Male = 1 Female = 2
    Religious Affiliation : Catholic= 1 Protestant= 2 Jewish= 3 Muslim= 4 Other= 5
    • yes/no responses
    categorizing subject by hair colour
    marital status
    Race
    political party affiliation
    college major
    Birthplace
    Nominal data is often generated in studies using a questionnaire design from closed, forced choice questions, e.g. type of pet (cat, dog, rat etc.)
  • Ordinal Scale
    • Numbers are used to place objects in order, but there is no information regarding the differences (intervals) between points on the scale.
    symptoms of depression from a psychiatric assessment?
    None= 0 Mild= 1
    Moderate= 2 Severe= 3
    Ranking students according to frequency of spelling errors
    the scores on a Likert questionnaire
    Strongly Agree= 5
    Agree= 4
    No opinion= 3
    Disagree= 2
    Strongly disagree= 1
  • Interval Scale
    • •An interval scale is a scale on which equal intervals between objects represent equal meaningful differences.
    • Determining scores on a grammar test
    A 10-degree difference has the same meaning anywhere along the scale.
  • Ratio Scale
    •Ratio scales have a true zero point and are meaningful
    Physical scales of
    time
    length
    weight
    speed
    absolute temperature(Kelvin scale)

  •     the categories of the variable:   
  • Test Genres
    Test Battery
    A group of tests standardized on the same population to yield comparable results and to produce a single score.
    Traditional vs. Computer-adaptive
    Discrete-point vs. Global/ Integrative
    Pragmatic vs. Functional/communicative
    Norm-referenced vs. Criterion-referenced
    Direct vs. Indirect
    Subjective vs. Objective
    Summative vs. Formative
    Power vs. Speed
  • Dimension
    CRT
    NRT
    To determine whether each student has achieved specific skills or concepts.
    To find out how much students know before and after instruction
    To rank each student with respect to theachievement of others in broad areas of knowledge.
    To discriminate between high and low achievers.
    Purpose
    Content
    Measures specific skills making up a designated curriculum and identified by teachers and curriculum experts.
    Each skill is expressed as an instructional objective.
    Measures broad skill areas sampled from a variety of textbooks, syllabi, and the judgments of curriculum experts.
    ItemCharacteristics
    Each skill is tested by at least four items to obtain an adequate sample of performance and to minimize the guessing effect . The items which test any given skill are parallel in difficulty.
    Each skill is usually tested by less than four items.
    Items vary in difficulty.
    Selected items show high discrimination indexes.
    ScoreInterpretation
    Testers are compared with a preset standard for acceptable achievement. The performance of other examinees is irrelevant. A student's score is usually expressed as a percentage. Student achievement is reported for individual skills.
    Testers are compared with other examinees and assigned a score--usually expressed as a percentile, a grade equivalent score, or a stanine.
    Student achievement is reported  for broad skill areas, although some norm-referenced tests do report student achievement for individual skills.
    NRT vs. CRT
  • Test Items
    Alternate response Items
    True / False
    Yes / No
    Agree / Disagree
    Right / Wrong
    Fixed / Closed-ended response Items
    Multiple-Choice
    Matching
    Free / Open-ended response Items
    Short answer
    Gap-Fill
    Essay
  • Teacher-made vs. Standardized Tests
    • Teacher-made/classroom tests:
    Small scale, classroom tests generally prepared, administered, and scored by one teacher .
    • Standardized Tests:
    Tests with fixed contents, constant administration and scoring procedures and statistically acceptable characteristics.
    • Differences between TMD & SDT
    • Administration & scoring
    • Content sampling
    • Test construction
    • Norms & Standards
    • Purpose and use
  • Self-assessment
    1. A test refers to a standard set of items to be answered.
    2.Evaluation uses both tests and informal pieces of evidence for making a value judgment and decision.
    4.Measurement refers to any device for obtaining information in a quantitative manner.
    5.If a person Knows how to teach, he may not be necessarily able to judge the ability of his pupils.
    Mohd. Pazhouhesh
    T
    F
    T
    T
  • 6. Educational decisions can be made without measurement or evaluation.
    7. Summative evaluation involves the use of tests and quizzes for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of instructional programs.
    Mohd. Pazhouhesh
    F
    T
    • The process of gathering information to make proper decisions is called ----------.
    a. measurement
    b. testing
    c. evaluation
    d. examination
    • The subjective judgment of a teacher about a student’s performance is a kind of --------- evaluation.
    quantitative
    standard
    qualitative
    comprehensive
    Mohd. Pazhouhesh