Biomass Feedstock Sustainability,
Quantity, and Supply Competition
             Issues
    Marcia Patton-Mallory, PhD
    ...
Major Topics:

• Forestry- biomass and forest
  management- a model system
• Sustainability- general concepts and
  exampl...
FORESTRY:

A MODEL SYSTEM FOR
    BIOENERGY



                     3
Forestry: The Opportunity and Potential




Feedstock                                 Uses
                        Convers...
Forest Management and
        Biomass

• Large volumes of biomass
    • Fire risks
    • Declining forest health
• Declini...
Public vs. Private Forests
              Land Ownership Matters…




                                        East

West   ...
Managing our lands for energy, food and fiber




                                                7
What we need from Forests
•   Wood
•   Water
•   Non-wood products
•   Recreational opportunities
•   Habitats
•   Climate...
What we need from Agriculture
•   Food
•   Feed
•   Fiber
•   Recreational opportunities
•   Habitats
•   Climate change m...
BIOENERGY
SUSTAINABILITY




                 10
Dimensions of Sustainability
• Economic
   –   New linkages in markets – energy – food - wood products
   –   Direct effec...
Not all biomass feedstocks are
               the same!
•   Grain-based (food, feed)
•   Sugar-based (food)
•   Oil plant ...
Key challenges for sustainable
              biomass energy production
     • Farmer and forest landowner engagement and i...
Challenges to Sustainability
          Production                                  Feedstock
                             ...
Challenges to Sustainability
          Conversion
                                                     Transport of
      ...
Examples of Sustainability
        Criteria




                             16
Sustainability Frameworks- examples
• International Dialog
   – Global Bioenergy Partnership
   – Roundtable on Sustainabl...
Example Sustainability Criteria
  The Council on Sustainable Biomass Production (CSBP)

  •    Voluntary sustainability pr...
Example Sustainability Criteria
  The Council on Sustainable Biomass Production (CSBP)

  Components include:

     1.    ...
Example Sustainability Criteria
World Wildlife Foundation
 Environmental                       Social
 • Conserve Carbon  ...
25x ‘25 Coalition - Sustainability
                       Principles
• Access                                             ...
Other Approaches
• Specify/limit feedstock and land that qualify for
  incentives
   – EISA 2007- RFS renewable biomass de...
FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY,
QUANTITY AND COMPETITION




                       23
Biorefinery Concept
                              • Pre-pulping

                              • Standalone




• Increase...
Biomass supply curves- Dry Tons/Year
                             Totals 2 quads/year at
                                 ...
Forest Biomass- Supply Curve




Western Governor’s Association- Strategic Assessment of Bioenergy in the West (2008)   26
Ag Residue - supply curve




                                                                                       27
We...
Biorefinery Potential - Generation/Plant Location
                                                                        ...
Target Price Results
    Biofuels Produced at the Target Price

 11.3 Billion
Gallons Total




                          ...
Switchgrass Supply




Farm Gate price does not
include storage or delivery,
which can be high for
herbaceous energy crops...
Relative Cost for Feedstock- power sector




                                            Varies with location




       ...
Biomass Crop Assistance
                  Program (BCAP)
   • Rules released February 8, 2010
   • Assists agriculture and...
Feedstock Competition
Southeastern Wood-Using
Bioenergy Projects




                          Data source:
              ...
Consider Existing Infrastructure




                               34
Consider Other New Facilities




                                35
Biofuels that make sense…
• Use material that would otherwise have negative
  environmental consequences
  – Reduces wildf...
Natural Resource Management

                                         Energy
   Environment
                              ...
Western Forestry Leadership Coalition
 We work as a Coalition to address critical resources issues across
ownerships and j...
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Patton Mallory It3 Feedstock Sustainability Quantity Supply Competition Feb16 2010 Final

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Biomass Feedstock Supply and Competition- presentation at International Thermal Energy Conference

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Patton Mallory It3 Feedstock Sustainability Quantity Supply Competition Feb16 2010 Final

  1. 1. Biomass Feedstock Sustainability, Quantity, and Supply Competition Issues Marcia Patton-Mallory, PhD Bioenergy and Climate Change Specialist US Forest Service/Western Forestry Leadership Coalition 2010 International Conference on Thermal Treatment Technologies and Hazardous Waste Combustion San Francisco, CA May 18, 2010 1
  2. 2. Major Topics: • Forestry- biomass and forest management- a model system • Sustainability- general concepts and examples • Bioenergy Feedstock Supply 2
  3. 3. FORESTRY: A MODEL SYSTEM FOR BIOENERGY 3
  4. 4. Forestry: The Opportunity and Potential Feedstock Uses Conversion Fuels: - Forest Residues - Manufacturing − Ethanol - Hazardous Fuel - Co-firing − Other Liquid Fuels Forest Treatments - Combustion − Hydrogen - Short Rotation - Gasification Woody Crops - Hydrolysis Electricity and Heat - Wood Waste - Digestion Biobased Products - Conventional - Pyrolysis – Composites - Mill Waste & - Extraction – Specialty Products Residues - Separation – New Products – Chemicals 4 – Traditional Products
  5. 5. Forest Management and Biomass • Large volumes of biomass • Fire risks • Declining forest health • Declining infrastructure • Industry decline • Offshore investments and imports • Worker (capacity) shortage • Reduced investments • Markets and barriers • Cyclic booms and busts • No markets • Higher costs • Very distributed 5
  6. 6. Public vs. Private Forests Land Ownership Matters… East West 9% federal 58% federal 6
  7. 7. Managing our lands for energy, food and fiber 7
  8. 8. What we need from Forests • Wood • Water • Non-wood products • Recreational opportunities • Habitats • Climate change mitigation • Energy 8
  9. 9. What we need from Agriculture • Food • Feed • Fiber • Recreational opportunities • Habitats • Climate change mitigation • Energy 9
  10. 10. BIOENERGY SUSTAINABILITY 10
  11. 11. Dimensions of Sustainability • Economic – New linkages in markets – energy – food - wood products – Direct effects (supply, demand, and cost and price) – International trade – Jobs in rural areas • Environmental – Direct and Indirect land use effects – Soil health, water quantity and quality, air quality, biodiversity and habitat, GHG emissions, GMO and invasive species – Ecosystem services- co-production on a landscape • Social – Regional, National, and International – New Energy Economy- renewable and advanced technology – Labor rights, land rights and participation – Energy Security and Food Security – Cultural and Spiritual Values 11
  12. 12. Not all biomass feedstocks are the same! • Grain-based (food, feed) • Sugar-based (food) • Oil plant (food, oilseeds) • Cellulosic (herbacious energy crops) • Cellulosic (woody energy crops) • Waste recycling (tallow, grease) • Residues (crop, forest, urban wood diversion from landfills, C&D waste) 12
  13. 13. Key challenges for sustainable biomass energy production • Farmer and forest landowner engagement and interest in sustainability for new industry • Developing the value proposition for converting to sustainable biomass production • Help ensure that sustainability is part of the platform on which this industry is built 13 Ref: Discussion during DOE Biomass 2009 meeting-http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/biomass_2009_track_1.html
  14. 14. Challenges to Sustainability Production Feedstock Type Feedstock Feedstock Management Location Address All Dimensions Feedstock Original Extent on Conditions Landscape Environmental Attributes 14 Ref: Dale and Kline, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  15. 15. Challenges to Sustainability Conversion Transport of Feedstock Transport to Net Market Energy Address All Dimensions Location of Water Use Refinery GHG Emissions 15 Ref: Dale and Kline, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  16. 16. Examples of Sustainability Criteria 16
  17. 17. Sustainability Frameworks- examples • International Dialog – Global Bioenergy Partnership – Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels – EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) • National Dialog – Interagency working group on sustainability – EISA 2007 Renewable Fuels Standard: Biofuels mandate- renewable biomass definition – National Renewable Electricity Standard - dialog in progress • States – Best Management Practices (water quality) – Biomass Harvesting Guidelines • Certification- Forestry – Council on Sustainable Biomass Production (bioenergy from non- food feedstocks) – SFI and FSC (sustainable forestry certification) 17
  18. 18. Example Sustainability Criteria The Council on Sustainable Biomass Production (CSBP) • Voluntary sustainability principles and standards for the production of feedstocks for second generation biorefineries • Focus on dedicated fuel crops, crop residues, purpose- grown wood, and forestry residues in North America • Full complement of sustainability issues through principles, criteria, and indicators applicable to both agriculture and silviculture. 18 Ref: www.csbp.org
  19. 19. Example Sustainability Criteria The Council on Sustainable Biomass Production (CSBP) Components include: 1. Climate Change 2. Biological Diversity and Productivity 3. Water Quality and Quantity 4. Soil Quality 5. Socio-Economic Well-being 6. Integrated Resource Management Planning 19 Ref: www.csbp.org
  20. 20. Example Sustainability Criteria World Wildlife Foundation Environmental Social • Conserve Carbon • Worker’s rights • Conserve Biodiversity • Land rights • Sustainable water • Food security and • Soil Conservation availability • Air Quality • Share benefit locally “the right crops and trees in the right place with the right techniques” 20
  21. 21. 25x ‘25 Coalition - Sustainability Principles • Access • Opportunities • Air Quality • Public Lands • Biodiversity • Soil Erosion • Community Economic • Soil Quality Benefits • Special Areas • Efficiency and • Technology Conservation • Water Quality • Greenhouse Gas • Water Quantity Emissions • Wildlife • Invasive and Non- Native Species http://www.25x25.org/storage/25x25/documents/SustainabilityPrinciples/sustainability_principles3-7-08.pdf 21
  22. 22. Other Approaches • Specify/limit feedstock and land that qualify for incentives – EISA 2007- RFS renewable biomass definition • Specify Net GHG or Net Energy – EISA 2007- RFS “advanced biofuel” LCA – Low carbon fuels standard – Potential efficiency standards in national Renewable Electricity Standard – Carbon Neutrality monitoring through National GHG emission inventory by sector (Forestry and Land use accounts for bioenergy implicitly through change in carbon stocks, so “carbon neutral” in energy sector) 22
  23. 23. FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY, QUANTITY AND COMPETITION 23
  24. 24. Biorefinery Concept • Pre-pulping • Standalone • Increase values • Maintain competitiveness • Reduce oil dependency 24 Ref: http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/biorefinery.html
  25. 25. Biomass supply curves- Dry Tons/Year Totals 2 quads/year at $50/dry ton States: AZ CA CO HI ID KS MT ND NM NV OK OR SD TX UT WA WY 25 Western Governor’s Association- Strategic Assessment of Bioenergy in the West (2008)
  26. 26. Forest Biomass- Supply Curve Western Governor’s Association- Strategic Assessment of Bioenergy in the West (2008) 26
  27. 27. Ag Residue - supply curve 27 Western Governor’s Association- Strategic Assessment of Bioenergy in the West (2008)
  28. 28. Biorefinery Potential - Generation/Plant Location Cellulosic feedstock Biodiesel feedstock 28 Western Governor’s Association- Strategic Assessment of Bioenergy in the West (2008)
  29. 29. Target Price Results Biofuels Produced at the Target Price 11.3 Billion Gallons Total Feedstocks Consumed at the Target Price Target Prices (wholesale) – Gasoline Substitutes: $2.40/gge Diesel Substitutes: $2.36/gge (gge: gallon of gasoline equivalent) Western Governor’s Association- Strategic Assessment of Bioenergy in the West (2008) 29
  30. 30. Switchgrass Supply Farm Gate price does not include storage or delivery, which can be high for herbaceous energy crops. Others estimate with storage and delivery costs range from $75-100/MT Ref: The Economics of Biomass Production in the United States, R.Graham et al, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1995 30 Ref: Switchgrass Production in Iowa: Economic Analysis, soil suitability, and varietal performance, Oak Ridge National Lab 2002
  31. 31. Relative Cost for Feedstock- power sector Varies with location 31 http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biomass/
  32. 32. Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) • Rules released February 8, 2010 • Assists agriculture and forest landowners with establishment and production of eligible crops including woody biomass for conversion to bioenergy • Assistance for collection, harvest, storage and transportation of eligible material for use in eligible biomass conversion facilities Ref: BCAP web site: http://www.fsa.usda.gov/FSA/webapp?area=home&subject=ener&topic=bcap 32
  33. 33. Feedstock Competition Southeastern Wood-Using Bioenergy Projects Data source: Wood Bioenergy South, October 2009. Wood Bioenergy South tracks announced and operating wood- consuming energy projects across the US South. Updated monthly. www.foriskstore.com
  34. 34. Consider Existing Infrastructure 34
  35. 35. Consider Other New Facilities 35
  36. 36. Biofuels that make sense… • Use material that would otherwise have negative environmental consequences – Reduces wildfire, improves forest health, protects watersheds, and provides habitat • Produced on marginal lands with minimal inputs – Water, fertilizer, and low impact harvesting • Production is scaled to match feedstock availability and provide value to help maintain working landscapes • Have favorable net energy and net GHG profiles 36
  37. 37. Natural Resource Management Energy Environment • Renewable • Climate Change • Secure • Stand Function Biomass • Sustainable • Sustainability Management and Use Water Infrastructure Working Land Lands Economy • Costs Conservation Air • Rural Development & Utilization • Global Competition 37
  38. 38. Western Forestry Leadership Coalition We work as a Coalition to address critical resources issues across ownerships and jurisdictions. We assist family forest owners, rural and state fire organizations, and community forestry groups; improving forest health, encouraging land conservation, and stimulating community economic recovery. http://www.wflccenter.org/ US Forest Service Web sites: Biomass www.fs.fed.us/woodybiomass/ Climate Change www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/ Interagency Woody Biomass information: www.forestsandrangelands.gov/woody_biomass mpattonmallory@fs.fed.us (970) 295-5947 38
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