Woody Biomass Utilization




Marcia Patton-Mallory, PhD
Biomass and Bioenergy Coordinator, US Forest Service
CSU Biomass ...
Overview

• Forest Resources, Climate
  Change and Biomass
• Bioenergy
• Biobased
  Products
• Sustainability
Managing our lands for energy, food and fiber
Total US Green House Gas Annual
                                                              Emissions by Sector (EPA, 20...
U.S. Carbon Emissions Displacement Potential from
                        Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by 2030

...
Restoring Fire Adapted Forest Ecosystems




    RA FRCC




             http://www.landfire.gov/rapid_assessment.php
Forest Insect and Disease Risk
Potentially Available Forest Resource

                                      70



                                      6...
Agricultural and Wood Residues
Public vs Private Forests
                Land Ownership Matters…




                                          9% federal...
U.S. Energy Consumption
                                                           Total = 6.2 Quadrillion Btu
           ...
Climate Change Mitigation




 Pew Center on Global Climate Change 2007
Bioenergy: What is it?

• Thermal Energy
  – Heat
  – Steam
• Power
  – Electricity
  – Combined heat and power
• Biofuels...
Biomass Heat and Power
Biomass Power Plants
Fuels for Schools and Communities


                                                    Northern and Intermountain
       ...
Example facility
                                               biomass sources



         (Urban Tree Residues)




    ...
Electricity Use and Generation
                                                                    Coastal States


      ...
Electricity Use and Generation
                                                                      Interior West


     ...
Source: American Solar Energy Society. 2007. http://www.ases.org/climatechange/climate_change.pdf
Renewable Portfolio Standards

                                                                     MN: 25% by 2025       ...
Biomass Incentives
                                             AK - 2 (AK not shown)
                                    ...
Biofuels
Net Energy and
                                                 Net GHG Emissions

    Units of biofuel                   ...
U.S. Biorefinery Locations
                       U.S. Biorefinery Locations
                     Corn and Cellulosic Feed...
Integrated Biobased Products and
                           Bioenergy Approach



                                        ...
Forest Service
                   Woody Biomass Utilization Strategy



Identify and build partnerships through
collaborat...
Sustainability and Communities
                              Biobased Products and Bioenergy

                            ...
Sustainability and Bioenergy




• Forest Resource
  Issues
• National Policy
• State Policy
• Public Interest

• Sustaina...
Thank you!



           Contact Information:
           (970) 295-5947
           mpattonmallory@fs.fed.us




For more i...
CSU ShortCourse Biomass And Bioenergy Jan 2008 Mpm
CSU ShortCourse Biomass And Bioenergy Jan 2008 Mpm
CSU ShortCourse Biomass And Bioenergy Jan 2008 Mpm
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CSU ShortCourse Biomass And Bioenergy Jan 2008 Mpm

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Overview of Biomass Utilization and Bioenergy from Forests

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CSU ShortCourse Biomass And Bioenergy Jan 2008 Mpm

  1. 1. Woody Biomass Utilization Marcia Patton-Mallory, PhD Biomass and Bioenergy Coordinator, US Forest Service CSU Biomass Short Course Fort Collins, CO – January 2008
  2. 2. Overview • Forest Resources, Climate Change and Biomass • Bioenergy • Biobased Products • Sustainability
  3. 3. Managing our lands for energy, food and fiber
  4. 4. Total US Green House Gas Annual Emissions by Sector (EPA, 2003) 40 35 30 25 forests and wood products Percent CO2 Eq. 20 sequester 11% US GHG emissions annually 15 10 5 0 try ts n s s re al r al te we oil tio ree uc nti ltu rci us as -5 S rt a Po od nT e cu me I nd W sid Ag po Pr ri ic an ba m Ag Re ctr ns od Co rb Ur -10 Tra Ele Wo dUe d fill an nd -15 ts La res Fo Sectors
  5. 5. U.S. Carbon Emissions Displacement Potential from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by 2030 Source: American Solar Energy Society. 2007. http://www.ases.org/climatechange/climate_change.pdf
  6. 6. Restoring Fire Adapted Forest Ecosystems RA FRCC http://www.landfire.gov/rapid_assessment.php
  7. 7. Forest Insect and Disease Risk
  8. 8. Potentially Available Forest Resource 70 60 20 15 50 7 Millon dry tonnes per year 15 40 10 14 30 47 44 42 25 20 32 29 7 10 10 8 7 0 Fuelwood Logging Residue Other Removal Residue (Other Forestland) (Forest Products) (Forest Products) Fuel Treatments Urban Wood Residue Wood Residues Pulping Liquors Fuel Treatments (Timberland) Growth Unexploited Existing Use Source: DOE and USDA “Billion Ton Report” May 2005 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/publications.html
  9. 9. Agricultural and Wood Residues
  10. 10. Public vs Private Forests Land Ownership Matters… 9% federal 58% federal
  11. 11. U.S. Energy Consumption Total = 6.2 Quadrillion Btu − 2% Wind Domestic Natural Gas 21% Domestic Petroleum − 45% Hydroelectric 9% Domestic Coal 22% − 5% Geothermal Domestic Renewable Energy 6% Domestic Nuclear − 47% Biomass Electric 8% − 1% Solar All Imports 34% 72% of biomass is wood based
  12. 12. Climate Change Mitigation Pew Center on Global Climate Change 2007
  13. 13. Bioenergy: What is it? • Thermal Energy – Heat – Steam • Power – Electricity – Combined heat and power • Biofuels – Liquid transportation fuels • Fermentation • Gasification – Methane (digesters)
  14. 14. Biomass Heat and Power
  15. 15. Biomass Power Plants
  16. 16. Fuels for Schools and Communities Northern and Intermountain Regions have partnered with states and RC&D coordinators to promote local community biomass energy projects Location s of Vermont Schools Using Woody Biomass VT- by law funds 30% of school for biomass heat projects, the balance is Heating Source: through bonds Vermont Superintende nts Association
  17. 17. Example facility biomass sources (Urban Tree Residues) (Municipal Solid Waste) Source: Jefferson County Biomass Facility Feasibility Study McNeil Technologies Inc Jan 2005
  18. 18. Electricity Use and Generation Coastal States 250000 Thousands of Megawatt-Hours/Year 200000 150000 Misc Renewabes Hydro Nuclear Coal Natural Gas-Fired 100000 Petroleum Electric Usage 50000 0 OR CA WA Source: EIA State Electricity Profiles, 2005. March 2007. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/sep2005.pdf
  19. 19. Electricity Use and Generation Interior West 100000 90000 80000 Thousands of MW-Hours/Year 70000 60000 Misc Renewabes Hydro 50000 Nuclear Coal Natural Gas-Fired 40000 Petroleum Electric Usage 30000 20000 10000 0 ID CO NV NM UT WY AZ MT Source: EIA State Electricity Profiles, 2005. March 2007. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/sep2005.pdf
  20. 20. Source: American Solar Energy Society. 2007. http://www.ases.org/climatechange/climate_change.pdf
  21. 21. Renewable Portfolio Standards MN: 25% by 2025 ME: 30% by 2000 VT: RE meets load 10% by 2017 - new RE (Xcel: 30% by 2020) growth by 2012 *WA: 15% by 2020 ☼ NH: 23.8% in 2025 ND: 10% by 2015 WI: requirement varies by MA: 4% by 2009 + utility; 10% by 2015 goal MT: 15% by 2015 1% annual increase OR: 25% by 2025 (large utilities) RI: 16% by 2020 5% - 10% by 2025 (smaller utilities) CT: 23% by 2020 IA: 105 MW ☼ NY: 24% by 2013 ☼ *NV: 20% by 2015 ☼ CO: 20% by 2020 (IOUs) IL: 25% by 2025 ☼ NJ: 22.5% by 2021 *10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis) CA: 20% by 2010 ☼ PA: 18%¹ by 2020 MO: 11% by 2020 ☼ MD: 9.5% in 2022 ☼ NC: 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs) ☼ *DE: 20% by 2019 ☼ AZ: 15% by 2025 10% by 2018 (co-ops & munis) ☼ DC: 11% by 2022 ☼ NM: 20% by 2020 (IOUs) *VA: 12% by 2022 10% by 2020 (co-ops) TX: 5,880 MW by 2015 State RPS HI: 20% by 2020 State Goal ☼ Minimum solar or customer-sited RE requirement * Increased credit for solar or customer-sited RE ¹PA: 8% Tier I / 10% Tier II (includes non-renewables) (Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy. 2007. “Renewables Portfolio Standards.” NC State University. NC Solar Center. Available online at: http://www.dsireusa.org/documents/summarymaps/RPS_Map.ppt)
  22. 22. Biomass Incentives AK - 2 (AK not shown) Federal – 8 Programs VT - 8 11 NH - 4 6 13 4 MA - 14 11 15 CT - 13 8 1 9 10 3 10 RI - 6 13 17 NJ - 9 3 8 9 4 8 3 DE - 7 1 13 4 14 1 5 2 DC - 6 7 MD - 10 1 1 6 3 9 11 2 1 1 11 3 4 State RPS State Goal 6 Numbers of Incentives (State and Local) (Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy. 2007. “Renewables Portfolio Standards.” NC State University. NC Solar Center. Available online at: http://www.dsireusa.org/documents/summarymaps/RPS_Map.ppt)
  23. 23. Biofuels
  24. 24. Net Energy and Net GHG Emissions Units of biofuel Reduction in GHG emissions to produced from 1 unit of make ethanol compared to fossil fuel gasoline made from fossil fuel 1.3 22% Corn to ethanol 8 56% Sugar Cane to ethanol 2.5 69% Soybean to biodiesel Up to 36 91% Wood/Grass to ethanol Data Sources (adapted from C.Mater, Mater Engineering) •Corn to ethanol data: US DOE; EPS; Renewable Fuel's Association; Energy Future Coalition; Worldwatch Institute •Cane to ethanol data: USDOE; Worldwatch Institute; Iowa State University •Soy to biodiesel data: USDOE; EPA; Worldwatch Institute; •Woody/grass biomass to ethanol: USDOE; EPA; WorldWatch Institute
  25. 25. U.S. Biorefinery Locations U.S. Biorefinery Locations Corn and Cellulosic Feedstocks Source: Renewable Fuels Association 1.29.07 Source: Renewable Fuels Association 1.29.07 Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefineries Announced Source: Media Announcements as of 3.07
  26. 26. Integrated Biobased Products and Bioenergy Approach Climate Change Feedstock Production effects & adaptation Management mitigation carbon markets Biobased Harvest & Products Disposal Delivery & Bioenergy Utilization • Research & Development • Technical Assistance & • Financial Assistance Products • Land Management • Public & Private Partnerships • Collaborative Project Planning & Development
  27. 27. Forest Service Woody Biomass Utilization Strategy Identify and build partnerships through collaboration Develop and deploy the needed science and technology Help develop new and expand markets for bioenergy and biobased products Facilitate a reliable and predictable supply of biomass Draft National Strategy- September 2007
  28. 28. Sustainability and Communities Biobased Products and Bioenergy air culture and quality tradition watershed protection purchasing power tree agricultural generation protection zoning recycling pest programs management ecoindustrial fuel parks choice incentive programs materials heat power Source: James and Lahti, 2004, The Natural Step for Communities
  29. 29. Sustainability and Bioenergy • Forest Resource Issues • National Policy • State Policy • Public Interest • Sustainability- Energy, Environment, Economy Effective biomass policy is essential to achieving sustainable forests in the United States
  30. 30. Thank you! Contact Information: (970) 295-5947 mpattonmallory@fs.fed.us For more information, please visit: http://www.fs.fed.us/woodybiomass

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