• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Practicalities of contributing to open educational resources (OER)
 

Practicalities of contributing to open educational resources (OER)

on

  • 768 views

Practical workshop on contributing to the open educational resources (OER) movement by scrutinizing your teaching and learning resources for copyright concerns. Developing Open Educational Practices. ...

Practical workshop on contributing to the open educational resources (OER) movement by scrutinizing your teaching and learning resources for copyright concerns. Developing Open Educational Practices. (OEP)

Statistics

Views

Total Views
768
Views on SlideShare
767
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
2
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://www.slideshare.net 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • First, an important distinction… The difference between "online content" and "open content" Much of the content we interact on a daily basis is online, but that does not necessarily make it open. Reuse – the right to reuse the content in its unaltered / verbatim form Revise – the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself Remix – the right to combine the original or revised content with other content to create something new Redistribute – the right to make and share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others  How do we know its open? Through open license models such as Creative Commons
  • The UCT OpenContent directory hosts openly licensed teaching and learning resources created by academics and students at UCT This could range from a number of different materials: Instructional websites, Handbooks, Image Collections, textbooks, Presentations, Vula sites, Podcasts, video lectures Basically anything used in the teaching and learning process Needs to be something that you have created most likely due to some curriculum need and are interested to share on a wider basis. Question: What resources do you have that you could share?
  • Once we have identified something we would like to share, we need to scrutinize it for any potential third party copyright considerations. This is the least fun part of the process! Remember that textual quotes or references from scholarly materials are ok to include as long as you reference properly. The problem is usually media, images, charts, graphs, etc. Often we create materials that use other’s content simply because we found it online – remember online does not necessarily mean open ! If you have used content which you do not have the right to share openly, you have three options: Replace the resource with an openly licensed alternative Obtain permission from the publisher, author, or organization that holds copyright (we have seen this work!) If all else fails – reconsider using the material at all
  • **OPTIONAL** This is the Health Sciences example I used for Occupational Therapy.
  • **OPTIONAL**   This I reproduced in Powerpoint using a vector graphic and text box graphics. 
  • **OPTIONAL**   The second Health Sciences example.
  • **OPTIONAL** Also reproduced in Powerpoint using textboxes and drawings.
  • Copyrighted diagrams and charts can be recreated using popular office applications such as PowerPoint, Excel, or Word. This also allows the craetor to put their own spin on the media – maybe even making it better and improving their thinking about it GoogleDocs and Gliffy are online diagram creation tools which are free and easy to use for diagram creation.
  • There are plenty of options for finding alternatives image using openly licensed content sources: Great Search Creative Commons Flickr images search engine called compfight Images on Wikipedia are either Creative Commons or PD – did you hear that! Over 6 million media files licensed under creative commons available for reuse!! Part of Wikipedia - Medical Images - Grays Anatomy  Re-creation of the image for your own purposes – I have given you some links for these software tools. GoogleDocs drawing /diagram tool http://www.gliffy.com/ Lastly, one can recrete using Powerpoint, Word, Excel, or by using scanned hand-drawn graphics
  • Once you have found something that is openly licensed to use, you will need to reference it. There is no one standard for referencing open content. We believe it is best practice to include License  Creators Name (ususally a user name which may not be their given names) A link to source file online May differ according to where its used, print – include URL, online - link to
  • Highlights the relevance of Vygotsky today Questions arising in modern times show relevance of Vygotsky 75 years on
  • Recall Vygotsky’s theories of - Psychological Tools, Zone of Proximal Development, Mediation Psychological Tools – Symbolic artefacts (signs, symbols, texts, formulae) Modern Issues in education include … Multiculturalism because each culture has its own set of psychological tools This is important because one of the main goals of learning is the transmission of culture from generation to generation. However this may create challenges in a homogenized learning environments Recall that Vygotsky did his research in a diverse multicultural environment (a time where social systems put people of different social and ethnic backgrounds into similar educational environments) This allowed him to focus on literacy as well as ethnic and cultural diversity. Vygotsky re-orientated learning theory from an individualistic perspective to that of a sociocultural perspective. The use of literacy studies challenge students ability to decode and comprehend in a given language or context Some Students lack basic cognitive skills needed for higher level functions Cognitive education aims to provide psychological tools which can build on general or pre-existing cognitive ability Tools, When internalized help us interpret our environment Zone of Proximal Development New forms of dynamic assessment focus on the difference between performance before and that after the learning or assistance phase Focuses on emerging ability through Assisted performance Many have started to critique IQ testing as primary means of assessment Mediation This refers to Knowledge Acquisition - The old model was “Learners are vessels to be filled with knowledge” Nowadays learning is facilitated using mediating Agents between the learner and their environment which include: Symbolic Tools, Scaffolding, Apprenticeship The paper focuses on Mediation and Symbolic tools and how these concepts can further contribute to learning and instruction:
  • The first question put forth by Kozulin is as such: What kind of involvement by the adult is effective in enhancing the child’s performance? Remember the Genetic Law – Psychological functions appear twice in development, once in the form of actual interaction between people, and the second time as an internalized form of this function (First socially, then within the individual) Why does this happen?
  • Through the Zone of Proximal Development – that is the transfer of the function of awareness to actual development (The function goes from interpersonal to intrapersonal)   Main Principles of the ZPD 1. In an interactive situation children can become involved in activities that are more complex than those they could master themselves 2. Joint activity results in the specific function becoming appropriated (internalized) by the child How do we do this: Traditional forms of Mediation Apprenticeship – /provides a model of community activity that mediates sociocultural patters to novices Guided participation – /covers the interpersonal aspects of joint activity Appropriation – /changes occurring within individuals because of involvement in mediated activity   However Kozulin argues for a more specific set of classifications of mediation which include:
  • Highlights the relevance of Vygotsky today Questions arising in modern times show relevance of Vygotsky 75 years on
  • Recall Vygotsky’s theories of - Psychological Tools, Zone of Proximal Development, Mediation Psychological Tools – Symbolic artefacts (signs, symbols, texts, formulae) Modern Issues in education include … Multiculturalism because each culture has its own set of psychological tools This is important because one of the main goals of learning is the transmission of culture from generation to generation. However this may create challenges in a homogenized learning environments Recall that Vygotsky did his research in a diverse multicultural environment (a time where social systems put people of different social and ethnic backgrounds into similar educational environments) This allowed him to focus on literacy as well as ethnic and cultural diversity. Vygotsky re-orientated learning theory from an individualistic perspective to that of a sociocultural perspective. The use of literacy studies challenge students ability to decode and comprehend in a given language or context Some Students lack basic cognitive skills needed for higher level functions Cognitive education aims to provide psychological tools which can build on general or pre-existing cognitive ability Tools, When internalized help us interpret our environment Zone of Proximal Development New forms of dynamic assessment focus on the difference between performance before and that after the learning or assistance phase Focuses on emerging ability through Assisted performance Many have started to critique IQ testing as primary means of assessment Mediation This refers to Knowledge Acquisition - The old model was “Learners are vessels to be filled with knowledge” Nowadays learning is facilitated using mediating Agents between the learner and their environment which include: Symbolic Tools, Scaffolding, Apprenticeship The paper focuses on Mediation and Symbolic tools and how these concepts can further contribute to learning and instruction:
  • The first question put forth by Kozulin is as such: What kind of involvement by the adult is effective in enhancing the child’s performance? Remember the Genetic Law – Psychological functions appear twice in development, once in the form of actual interaction between people, and the second time as an internalized form of this function (First socially, then within the individual) Why does this happen?
  • Through the Zone of Proximal Development – that is the transfer of the function of awareness to actual development (The function goes from interpersonal to intrapersonal)   Main Principles of the ZPD 1. In an interactive situation children can become involved in activities that are more complex than those they could master themselves 2. Joint activity results in the specific function becoming appropriated (internalized) by the child How do we do this: Traditional forms of Mediation Apprenticeship – /provides a model of community activity that mediates sociocultural patters to novices Guided participation – /covers the interpersonal aspects of joint activity Appropriation – /changes occurring within individuals because of involvement in mediated activity   However Kozulin argues for a more specific set of classifications of mediation which include:
  • Creative commons gives us space to operate between full copyright and public domain. I just want to mention here that so often, without realizing it, we put our work under full copyright –without even really knowing why. If you don’t specify an open license such as creative commons, you automatically retain full copyright. So of you put something online, and don’t specifiy an open license, you retain full copyright – although its online for anyone to access – and someone will probably use it some way too! These are some of the issues with our 300 year old copyright laws in a digital age.
  • Attribution is always implied when using the Creative Commons license. Users - This license will ensure anyone who uses your work will give you credit for being the creator. Creators - You can use the content as long as you reference the original creator. Non-Commercial Users - You can freely use the work as long as it is not for commercial gain. Creators - Your work will not be used by others for commercial gain. No Derivatives Users - You can use the work in its original verbatim form alone. You may not adapt or re-work the material. Creators - Your work will be available for use in its original form and will not be modified. Share Alike Users - You can use the content freely as long as you also share it using the same license in which you found it. Creators - Anyone who uses your work will share it the same way you have, ensuring the continuing openness of your original work.
  • Some of the license options based on the two key decisions you need to make about licensing: Do you allow commercial uses of your work? Would you allow modifications of your work?
  • Consider the example of the resource constrained school teacher who wants to print out and distribute Creative Commons material to students.  They may need to charge a small fee to recoup the cost of printing.  This could be forbidden under a NC clause.   The Share-Alike clause ensures that your work will be shared in the same fashion you shared it. In order for a company to make a substantial profit from the work, they would have to provide added value beyond what is available for free. A NC license stops any such attempt to add value, is this what we really want?
  • We have copied the licenses locally at UCT to enable academics to get the license badge and text as easily as possible. Lets take a look… its as easy as cutting and pasting the license you want to use into your resource. Demo with oer_Psychological Tools and Mediated Learning
  • Hopefully the resource is already online (Vula, Departmental server, etc.) WE believe that often its best to choose your host most suitable to the file type: Lets look at some examples of content currently on OpenContent in various file types. Slideshare (Example) HTML sites (Example) Document on Vula (Example) Flickr Youtube No matter where it is hosted, you will be able to describe it and make it more discoverable using the OpenContent Directory!

Practicalities of contributing to open educational resources (OER) Practicalities of contributing to open educational resources (OER) Presentation Transcript

  • Open Educational Resources Workshop    Practicalities of Contributing to UCT OpenContent Developing Open Educational Practice Shihaam Donnelly & Michael Paskevicius 16 April 2010
  • Difference between "online content" and "open content" (OER)
    • Much of the content we interact on a daily basis is online, but that does not necessarily make it open.
    • Truly OpenContent can be:
      • Reused
      • Revised
      • Remixed
      • Redistributed
    • (Wiley, 2009)
  • Identifying something to share
      • The UCT OpenContent directory hosts openly licensed teaching and learning resources created by academics and students at UCT
        • Instructional websites
        • Handbooks & guides
        • Image Collections
        • Open textbooks 
        • Presentations 
        • Vula sites 
        • Podcasts 
        • What resources do you have that you could share?
    A Creative Commons image by (ta)
  • Evaluating the media resources within your resource
      • Is it protected under copyright law?
      • If resource falls under copyright protection, either:
        • Recreate the resources using office or online tools
        • Replace the resource with a similar resource by finding an open source alternative or by creating your own resource
        • Obtain permission from the author, publisher, editor, organization who holds the copyright 
        • Reconsider if the resource is really necessary?
    •    
    •      
  • Example: Copyrighted Resource
  • Recreated resource Adapted from Kielhofner (2002) A Model of Human Occupation: Theory and Application  . Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (124)
  • Copyrighted Resource
  • Recreated resource Adapted from: Cole and Tufano (2008) Applied Theories in Occupational Therapy: A Practical Approach  , SLACK Incorporated. (109)
  • Recreation of images http://google.com/docs http://www.gliffy.com/
  • Sourcing Alternatives
      • Finding an alternative image
        • Search Creative Commons Flickr images
        • Images on Wikipedia are either Creative Commons or PD
        • Medical Images - Grays Anatomy 
      • Re-creation of the image for your own purposes
        • GoogleDocs drawing /diagram tool
        • http://www.gliffy.com/
        • Powerpoint, Word, Excel, scanned hand-drawn graphics
  • Compfight search for "computer laptop"
  • Wikimedia search for "leg"
  • Referencing open content
    • http://www.learnerstogether.net/how-to-use-and-cite-creative-commons-resources/312
      • Mention License 
      • Creators Name 
      • Link to source if possible
  • Presentation Example
      • Original PowerPoint presentation
      • Converted PowerPoint presentation
  • Psychological Tools and Mediated Learning By: Alex Kozulin Article Review Michael Paskevicius
  • Vygotsky Theory and Issues in Modern Education http://billkerr2.blogspot.com/2006_07_01_archive.html
  • Mediated Learning
    • What kind of involvement by the adult is effective in enhancing the child’s performance?
    http://education.more4kids.info/page/5/
  • Zone of Proximal Development
    • Transfer of function of awareness to actual development
      • 1. In an interactive situation children can become involved in activities that are more complex than those they could master themselves
      • 2. Joint activity results in the specific function becoming appropriated (internalized) by the child
    • (Kozulin, 2003)
  • Psychological Tools and Mediated Learning By: Alex Kozulin Article Review Michael Paskevicius
  • Vygotsky Theory and Issues in Modern Education Adapted from Kozulin, A. (2003) Psychological tools and Mediated Learning. Cambridge University Press
  • Mediated Learning
    • What kind of involvement by the adult is effective in enhancing the child’s performance?
    Creative commons image by robertjosiah http://www.flickr.com/photos/robertjosiah/542734888/
  • Zone of Proximal Development
    • Transfer of function of awareness to actual development
      • 1. In an interactive situation children can become involved in activities that are more complex than those they could master themselves
      • 2. Joint activity results in the specific function becoming appropriated (internalized) by the child
    Kozulin, A. (2003). Psychological tools and mediated learning. In Vygotsky's Educational Theory in Cultural Context. Kozulin, A., Gindis, B., Ageyev, V.V., Miller, S.M. Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Discuss issues with resources
      • What issues do you foresee with your potential OER resources?
  • Choosing a license
  •  
      • Would you allow commercial uses of your work?
      • Yes
      • No
      • Would you allow modifications or derivatives of your work?
      • Yes
      • No
    Questions to ask
  • OpenContent Suggests
  • Get a license
      • http://opencontent.uct.ac.za/Get-a-Creative-Commons-license
      • Copy and paste license into resource
      • Or http://creativecommons.org/choose/
  • Hosting
      • Hopefully the resource is already online (Vula, Departmental server, etc.)
      • Choose host most suitable to file type
        • Slideshare ( Example )
        • HTML sites ( Example )
        • Document on Vula ( Example )
        • Flickr
        • Youtube
      • No matter where it is hosted, you will be able to describe it and make it more discoverable using the OpenContent Directory!
  • Creating the link on OpenContent
      • Log in using your UCT staff number 
      • Click contribute 
      • Enter the necessary metadata 
      • Submit!  
      • Your resource is moderated and becomes part of UCT OpenContent
    •  
    • Demo  
    •  
  • Profiling
      • Showcase profile of Jonny Myers and Jean-Paul Van Belle
  • References
    • Wiley, D. (2009) Defining “Open”. Blog post on iterating toward openness. Posted November 16, 2009. Retrieved online April 13, 2010. http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/1123
  • UCT OER team contacts
    • General Help : http://opencontent.uct.ac.za/Help
    • Michael Paskevicius [email_address]
    • Glenda Cox [email_address]
    • Shihaam Donnelly [email_address]
    • Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams [email_address]
    • Centre for Educational Technology
    • Hlanganani Building,Upper Campus, UCT
    • Tel: 021 650 3841
    • Fax: 021 650 5045
  • This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 South Africa License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/za/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. Prepared by Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams [email_address] & Michael Paskevicius [email_address] OpenContent Directory : http://opencontent.uct.ac.za Companion site on Vula: https://vula.uct.ac.za/portal/site/openuct OER UCT project blog: http://blogs.uct.ac.za/blog/oer-uct Follow us: http://twitter.com/openuct Presentations: http://www.slideshare.net/mpaskevi