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Digital Humanities 2009 - Laying out the conceptual foundations for data integration in the humanities
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Digital Humanities 2009 - Laying out the conceptual foundations for data integration in the humanities

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  • 1. Laying out the conceptual foundations for data integration in the humanities Michele Pasin, Arianna Ciula Centre for Computing in the Humanities Kings College, London michele.pasin@ kcl.ac.ukFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 2. Summary 1. An emerging web of data 2. The role of ontologies 3. Creating ontologies for the humanities 4. Working in a world with many ontologiesFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 3. The Anglo-Saxon projects: an example Anglo-Saxon charter S65 A.D. 704 (13 June). Swæfred, king of Essex, and Pæogthath, comes, with the consent of Æthelred, king of Mercia, to Waldhere, bishop; grant of 30 hides (cassati) at Twickenham, Middx, with confirmation by Cenred and Ceolred, kings of Mercia. Ceolreds confirmation took place at Arcencale. Latin with bounds.Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 4. The Anglo-Saxon projects: an example Kemble Anglo-Saxon charter S65 http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/kemble/ singlesheets/4-24.html A.D. 704 (13 June). Swæfred, king of Essex, and Pæogthath, Langscape comes, with the consent of Æthelred, king of Mercia, to http://www.langscape.org.uk/ Waldhere, bishop; grant of 30 hides (cassati) at Twickenham, descriptions/editorial/L_65_000.html Middx, with confirmation by Cenred and Ceolred, kings of Mercia. Ceolreds confirmation took place at Arcencale. Pase Latin with bounds. http://www.pase.ac.uk/pase/apps/ ASC/persons.jsp?sourceKey=341 ESawyer ASchart http://www.esawyer.org.uk/ http://www.aschart.kcl.ac.uk/ content/charter/65.html content/charters/text/s0065.htmlFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 5. The Anglo-Saxon projects: analysisFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 6. The Anglo-Saxon projects: desiderata • data sharing ! maintain provenance and integrity ! eliminate redundancy ! allow for comparative perspective (e.g. visualise conflicts of interpretations) • models exposure ! what is an event (e.g. Anglo-Saxon project: what is a transaction in PASE?), a person, a place? ! Can a certain consensus be reached? Necessity to establish community of practices around modeling exercises, clusters of consensus around knowledge domains or specific disciplinesFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 7. The LinkedData initiative May 2007 http://linkeddata.org/Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 8. An emerging web of data March 2009 http://linkeddata.org/Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 9. An emerging web of data: in a nutshell http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/LinkedDataTutorial/Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 10. An emerging web of data: in a nutshell 1) expose your data - e.g. Web2 APIs, stable URIs 2) expose the semantics of your data: - e.g., RDF data model, RDF links http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/LinkedDataTutorial/Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 11. Creating semantic models: ontologiesFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 12. Creating semantic models: ontologiesFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 13. Creating semantic models: ontologies - a theory of how to make ontological distinctions in systematic and coherent manner - making representational choices at the highest level of abstraction, while still being as clear as possible about the meaning of termsFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 14. The role of ontologies: the ‘realist’ positionFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 15. The role of ontologies: the ‘pragmatic’ position software applications research communitiesFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 16. The ontological approach: a few principlesFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 17. The ontological approach: a few principles - determine an essential property for each concept and instance - Proper use of is-a relation should inherit the “Essential” property of its super classes (= identity criteria checking)Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 18. The ontological approach: a few principles - determine an essential property for each concept and instance - Proper use of is-a relation should inherit the “Essential” property of its super classes (= identity criteria checking) - concepts rather than terms - people are easily trapped by the endless terminological discussion departing from the underlying conceptual structure of the target domainFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 19. The ontological approach: a few principles - determine an essential property for each concept and instance - Proper use of is-a relation should inherit the “Essential” property of its super classes (= identity criteria checking) - concepts rather than terms - people are easily trapped by the endless terminological discussion departing from the underlying conceptual structure of the target domain - role concepts vs basic concepts - Clear and consistent differentiation between basic concepts (man, rice, oil, etc.) and role concepts(teacher, food, fuel, etc.).Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 20. Example: looking for essential properties... #1 Mr. JonesFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 21. Example: looking for essential properties... #1 Mr. Jones Mr. Jones author, editor, common person...Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 22. Example: looking for essential properties... #2 text#1Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 23. Example: looking for essential properties... #2 text#1 text#1Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 24. Common ‘things’ we mention in our contracts: - information objects - key characteristics of entities that can carry information, that can be seen as (or part of) a representation - physical features of information objects - e.g., materials, conditions, preservation ... - abstract features of information objects - e.g., the contents of an information object, the Hamlet as a work - e.g., the linguistic features of an information object (latin, english, etc.) - e.g., aspects of the discourse used to communicate the contents of an information object (e.g., proem, dispositive word, bound, curse etc.). These aspects will vary with different projects!Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 25. Common ‘things’ we mention in our contracts: - people & places - prosopographic and topographic information - time & events - the temporal aspects are omnipresent! - event-types must be specialized depending on the domain of investigation - abstract ideas - e.g. theories, viewpoints, concepts [what we talk about in philosophy]Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 26. A network of ontologies....Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 27. A network of ontologies.... enough ?Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 28. Common ‘ways of talking’ about these things: - uncertainty - information is missing or contradictory - dates are incomplete, or just unknown - interpretations - what we say is not what the text says - for keeping track of who says what - for allowing contradictory views on the same subject - debate - being able to represent the arguments supporting a view - being able to represent the arguments challenging a viewFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 29. Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar) http://pipes.yahoo.com/Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 30. Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar)Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 31. Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar) - ‘pipes’ (i.e., modules, patches) can be defined functionally, and described through specific task- oriented ontologies - e.g. low level pipes: - tokenize, segment - name and rename parts - modify the notation of the original content - sort, rearrange according to different criteria - identify and extract patterns of dataFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 32. Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar) - ‘pipes’ (i.e., modules, patches) can be defined functionally, and described through specific task- oriented ontologies - e.g. high level pipes: - comparing - e.g., highlighting ambiguities, aporias, contradictions - interpreting - e.g., connecting different data and storing the rationale of it - matching - e.g., data streams with common features - annotating, commenting - relate in domain-specific ways - e.g., time-based, geo-based, etc.Friday, 16 September 2011
  • 33. Conclusions - main points: - the web of data is quickly emerging - ontologies allow reuse and sharing - solid ontologies need to be carefully crafted - communities of practice to improve the modeling of common entities - importance of modeling also the interpretative connectionsFriday, 16 September 2011
  • 34. Some references Auer, S. et al. Dbpedia: A Nucleus for a Web of Open Data. 6th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2007) (2007). Mizoguchi, R. Tutorial on Ontological Engineering - Part 1, 2, 3: Advanced Course of Ontological Engineering. New Generation Computing 22, 198-220 (2004). Guarino, N. & Welty, C. Evaluating Ontological Decisions With Ontoclean. Commun. ACM 45, 61-65 (2002). Gruber, T. It Is What It Does: The Pragmatics of Ontology. Invited presentation to the meeting of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model committee (2003). Jones, A. (ed) Summit on Digital Tools for the Humanities: Report on Summit Accomplishments. (2006). Retrieved 20 Feb. 2009, http://staff.cch.kcl.ac.uk/~mpasin/Friday, 16 September 2011