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Laying out the conceptual                                foundations for data                            integration in th...
Summary   1. An emerging web of data    2. The role of ontologies    3. Creating ontologies for the humanities    4. Worki...
The Anglo-Saxon projects: an example                 Anglo-Saxon charter S65              A.D. 704 (13 June). Swæfred, kin...
The Anglo-Saxon projects: an example                                                                       Kemble         ...
The Anglo-Saxon projects: analysisFriday, 16 September 2011
The Anglo-Saxon projects: desiderata            • data sharing               ! maintain provenance and integrity          ...
The LinkedData initiative                                    May 2007                                    http://linkeddata...
An emerging web of data                                  March 2009                                  http://linkeddata.org...
An emerging web of data: in a nutshell                      http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/LinkedDataTutorial/F...
An emerging web of data: in a nutshell      1) expose your data       - e.g. Web2 APIs, stable URIs      2) expose the sem...
Creating semantic models: ontologiesFriday, 16 September 2011
Creating semantic models: ontologiesFriday, 16 September 2011
Creating semantic models: ontologies               - a theory of how to make ontological distinctions in               sys...
The role of ontologies: the ‘realist’ positionFriday, 16 September 2011
The role of ontologies: the ‘pragmatic’ position                       software                       applications        ...
The ontological approach: a few principlesFriday, 16 September 2011
The ontological approach: a few principles       - determine an essential property for each concept and       instance    ...
The ontological approach: a few principles       - determine an essential property for each concept and       instance    ...
The ontological approach: a few principles       - determine an essential property for each concept and       instance    ...
Example: looking for essential properties... #1      Mr. JonesFriday, 16 September 2011
Example: looking for essential properties... #1      Mr. Jones                 Mr. Jones     author, editor,              ...
Example: looking for essential properties... #2                            text#1Friday, 16 September 2011
Example: looking for essential properties... #2                            text#1            text#1Friday, 16 September 2011
Common ‘things’ we mention in our contracts:       - information objects                  - key characteristics of entitie...
Common ‘things’ we mention in our contracts:       - people & places                  - prosopographic and topographic inf...
A network of ontologies....Friday, 16 September 2011
A network of ontologies....           enough ?Friday, 16 September 2011
Common ‘ways of talking’ about these things:       - uncertainty                  - information is missing or contradictor...
Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar)                                         http://pipes.yahoo.com/Friday, 16...
Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar)Friday, 16 September 2011
Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar)        - ‘pipes’ (i.e., modules, patches) can be defined        functiona...
Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar)        - ‘pipes’ (i.e., modules, patches) can be defined        functiona...
Conclusions            - main points:              - the web of data is quickly emerging              - ontologies allow r...
Some references       Auer, S. et al. Dbpedia: A Nucleus for a Web of Open Data. 6th International Semantic Web       Conf...
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Digital Humanities 2009 - Laying out the conceptual foundations for data integration in the humanities

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Transcript of "Digital Humanities 2009 - Laying out the conceptual foundations for data integration in the humanities"

  1. 1. Laying out the conceptual foundations for data integration in the humanities Michele Pasin, Arianna Ciula Centre for Computing in the Humanities Kings College, London michele.pasin@ kcl.ac.ukFriday, 16 September 2011
  2. 2. Summary 1. An emerging web of data 2. The role of ontologies 3. Creating ontologies for the humanities 4. Working in a world with many ontologiesFriday, 16 September 2011
  3. 3. The Anglo-Saxon projects: an example Anglo-Saxon charter S65 A.D. 704 (13 June). Swæfred, king of Essex, and Pæogthath, comes, with the consent of Æthelred, king of Mercia, to Waldhere, bishop; grant of 30 hides (cassati) at Twickenham, Middx, with confirmation by Cenred and Ceolred, kings of Mercia. Ceolreds confirmation took place at Arcencale. Latin with bounds.Friday, 16 September 2011
  4. 4. The Anglo-Saxon projects: an example Kemble Anglo-Saxon charter S65 http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/kemble/ singlesheets/4-24.html A.D. 704 (13 June). Swæfred, king of Essex, and Pæogthath, Langscape comes, with the consent of Æthelred, king of Mercia, to http://www.langscape.org.uk/ Waldhere, bishop; grant of 30 hides (cassati) at Twickenham, descriptions/editorial/L_65_000.html Middx, with confirmation by Cenred and Ceolred, kings of Mercia. Ceolreds confirmation took place at Arcencale. Pase Latin with bounds. http://www.pase.ac.uk/pase/apps/ ASC/persons.jsp?sourceKey=341 ESawyer ASchart http://www.esawyer.org.uk/ http://www.aschart.kcl.ac.uk/ content/charter/65.html content/charters/text/s0065.htmlFriday, 16 September 2011
  5. 5. The Anglo-Saxon projects: analysisFriday, 16 September 2011
  6. 6. The Anglo-Saxon projects: desiderata • data sharing ! maintain provenance and integrity ! eliminate redundancy ! allow for comparative perspective (e.g. visualise conflicts of interpretations) • models exposure ! what is an event (e.g. Anglo-Saxon project: what is a transaction in PASE?), a person, a place? ! Can a certain consensus be reached? Necessity to establish community of practices around modeling exercises, clusters of consensus around knowledge domains or specific disciplinesFriday, 16 September 2011
  7. 7. The LinkedData initiative May 2007 http://linkeddata.org/Friday, 16 September 2011
  8. 8. An emerging web of data March 2009 http://linkeddata.org/Friday, 16 September 2011
  9. 9. An emerging web of data: in a nutshell http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/LinkedDataTutorial/Friday, 16 September 2011
  10. 10. An emerging web of data: in a nutshell 1) expose your data - e.g. Web2 APIs, stable URIs 2) expose the semantics of your data: - e.g., RDF data model, RDF links http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/LinkedDataTutorial/Friday, 16 September 2011
  11. 11. Creating semantic models: ontologiesFriday, 16 September 2011
  12. 12. Creating semantic models: ontologiesFriday, 16 September 2011
  13. 13. Creating semantic models: ontologies - a theory of how to make ontological distinctions in systematic and coherent manner - making representational choices at the highest level of abstraction, while still being as clear as possible about the meaning of termsFriday, 16 September 2011
  14. 14. The role of ontologies: the ‘realist’ positionFriday, 16 September 2011
  15. 15. The role of ontologies: the ‘pragmatic’ position software applications research communitiesFriday, 16 September 2011
  16. 16. The ontological approach: a few principlesFriday, 16 September 2011
  17. 17. The ontological approach: a few principles - determine an essential property for each concept and instance - Proper use of is-a relation should inherit the “Essential” property of its super classes (= identity criteria checking)Friday, 16 September 2011
  18. 18. The ontological approach: a few principles - determine an essential property for each concept and instance - Proper use of is-a relation should inherit the “Essential” property of its super classes (= identity criteria checking) - concepts rather than terms - people are easily trapped by the endless terminological discussion departing from the underlying conceptual structure of the target domainFriday, 16 September 2011
  19. 19. The ontological approach: a few principles - determine an essential property for each concept and instance - Proper use of is-a relation should inherit the “Essential” property of its super classes (= identity criteria checking) - concepts rather than terms - people are easily trapped by the endless terminological discussion departing from the underlying conceptual structure of the target domain - role concepts vs basic concepts - Clear and consistent differentiation between basic concepts (man, rice, oil, etc.) and role concepts(teacher, food, fuel, etc.).Friday, 16 September 2011
  20. 20. Example: looking for essential properties... #1 Mr. JonesFriday, 16 September 2011
  21. 21. Example: looking for essential properties... #1 Mr. Jones Mr. Jones author, editor, common person...Friday, 16 September 2011
  22. 22. Example: looking for essential properties... #2 text#1Friday, 16 September 2011
  23. 23. Example: looking for essential properties... #2 text#1 text#1Friday, 16 September 2011
  24. 24. Common ‘things’ we mention in our contracts: - information objects - key characteristics of entities that can carry information, that can be seen as (or part of) a representation - physical features of information objects - e.g., materials, conditions, preservation ... - abstract features of information objects - e.g., the contents of an information object, the Hamlet as a work - e.g., the linguistic features of an information object (latin, english, etc.) - e.g., aspects of the discourse used to communicate the contents of an information object (e.g., proem, dispositive word, bound, curse etc.). These aspects will vary with different projects!Friday, 16 September 2011
  25. 25. Common ‘things’ we mention in our contracts: - people & places - prosopographic and topographic information - time & events - the temporal aspects are omnipresent! - event-types must be specialized depending on the domain of investigation - abstract ideas - e.g. theories, viewpoints, concepts [what we talk about in philosophy]Friday, 16 September 2011
  26. 26. A network of ontologies....Friday, 16 September 2011
  27. 27. A network of ontologies.... enough ?Friday, 16 September 2011
  28. 28. Common ‘ways of talking’ about these things: - uncertainty - information is missing or contradictory - dates are incomplete, or just unknown - interpretations - what we say is not what the text says - for keeping track of who says what - for allowing contradictory views on the same subject - debate - being able to represent the arguments supporting a view - being able to represent the arguments challenging a viewFriday, 16 September 2011
  29. 29. Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar) http://pipes.yahoo.com/Friday, 16 September 2011
  30. 30. Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar)Friday, 16 September 2011
  31. 31. Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar) - ‘pipes’ (i.e., modules, patches) can be defined functionally, and described through specific task- oriented ontologies - e.g. low level pipes: - tokenize, segment - name and rename parts - modify the notation of the original content - sort, rearrange according to different criteria - identify and extract patterns of dataFriday, 16 September 2011
  32. 32. Let’s find the right pipes (for the hum.scholar) - ‘pipes’ (i.e., modules, patches) can be defined functionally, and described through specific task- oriented ontologies - e.g. high level pipes: - comparing - e.g., highlighting ambiguities, aporias, contradictions - interpreting - e.g., connecting different data and storing the rationale of it - matching - e.g., data streams with common features - annotating, commenting - relate in domain-specific ways - e.g., time-based, geo-based, etc.Friday, 16 September 2011
  33. 33. Conclusions - main points: - the web of data is quickly emerging - ontologies allow reuse and sharing - solid ontologies need to be carefully crafted - communities of practice to improve the modeling of common entities - importance of modeling also the interpretative connectionsFriday, 16 September 2011
  34. 34. Some references Auer, S. et al. Dbpedia: A Nucleus for a Web of Open Data. 6th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2007) (2007). Mizoguchi, R. Tutorial on Ontological Engineering - Part 1, 2, 3: Advanced Course of Ontological Engineering. New Generation Computing 22, 198-220 (2004). Guarino, N. & Welty, C. Evaluating Ontological Decisions With Ontoclean. Commun. ACM 45, 61-65 (2002). Gruber, T. It Is What It Does: The Pragmatics of Ontology. Invited presentation to the meeting of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model committee (2003). Jones, A. (ed) Summit on Digital Tools for the Humanities: Report on Summit Accomplishments. (2006). Retrieved 20 Feb. 2009, http://staff.cch.kcl.ac.uk/~mpasin/Friday, 16 September 2011
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