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Critical thinking lake co ps

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  • 1. Critical Thinking through Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking Lake County Public Schools November 13, 2010 Presented by: Maggie Pagan 1
  • 2. Session Objectives To review the connections of critical thinking and the real world… To explore what critical thinking is… To practice critical thinking activities… To share strategies to increase students’ critical thinking skills… To review the levels of critical thinking… 2
  • 3. Quick Write How do we use critical thinking in our lives and work? 3
  • 4. Startling Facts 25% of adults in the United States cannot understand their pay stub. 58% cannot determine the differences between two medical benefit options. 78% of adults in the United States cannot figure out how much interest is paid on a loan. 71% cannot figure how many miles per gallon their vehicle gets. 55% of adults in the United States cannot determine the correct dosage of liquid aspirin substitute to administer to their child, given a label with ages and weights. 4
  • 5. Current Brain Research This generation struggles with: Context Transfer Parts to Whole Relationships Inferential Thinking Why? Our brains are shaped by the world around us This is the media generation Thinking by “remote control” builds a different set of skills 5
  • 6. Learning Activity Retention 6
  • 7. Changing the Paradigm of Teaching and Learning Engagement in learning Application of knowledge Collaboration among teachers and students 7
  • 8. Working Assumptions Active learning is necessary for the teaching of critical thinking. Critical thinking should be integrated into every aspect of the educational process. Students should be made aware of the thinking process. Critical thinking must be taught explicitly. Process is as important as content. Teachers often confuse physical attention for mental attention 8
  • 9. What is Critical Thinking? “The object of education is to prepare the young to educate themselves throughout their lives.” -Robert M. Hutchins Critical thinking is the process of analyzing the arguments of others. It means examining the logic of such arguments. It enables people to do more than just repeat knowledge. 9
  • 10. Critical thinking is… Asking thoughtful questions (knowledge) Answering questions with good reasoning (skills) Believing the results of your own good reasoning and acting accordingly (dispositions) 10
  • 11. What can you infer from this map? What is your proof? 11
  • 12. Why is Critical Thinking Important? Critical thinking prepares students to educate themselves for the rest of their lives. Critical thinking skills are necessary for success in many fields. Critical thinkers are less likely to just go along with the crowd 12
  • 13. Ways to increase students’ critical thinking skills… Use of real world documents, media and technology in classroom instruction to increase rigor, relevance and critical thinking. Motivate and get student’s interest with the use of technology, real world documents and authentic and engaging tasks. Remember…The more engaged the student and the more thinking and relevance in the learning, the more parts of the brain work to form lasting and retrievable memories. 13
  • 14. Prerequisites for critical thinking Substantial knowledge of facts, concepts, ideas Belief in one’s ability to think critically Safe environment in which to express thoughts Rewards for thinking critically Others? 14
  • 15. Procedures of Critical Thinking Identifying key definitions Identifying ambiguity Identifying variables Formulating questions Defining issue or problem Classifying information Sequencing information Recognizing patterns Determining credibility Distinguishing fact from opinion Identifying assumptions Identifying values Noting missing evidence Identifying relationships Comparing & contrasting Cause and effect Summarizing information Using analogies 15
  • 16. Key Learning Strategies to Increase Memory and Critical Thinking in Any Content Area Use of technology Use of visuals – video, use the classroom walls, graphic organizers, etc. Adding relevance – found materials, real world application of content Use of inquiry and experimentation Teaching with critical questions Use of grouping strategies tied to desired level of thinking Increase Writing – it is a whole brain activity Student questioning and self-evaluation Graphic Organizers Analogical Reasoning Great vocabulary/concept strategies 16
  • 17. Keys to Developing Critical Thinking Skills There is a hierarchy of learning levels. It takes time and effort to climb the ladder of understanding. 17
  • 18. Teach Students to Look at the Question Words and Identify What is Asked 18
  • 19. This pyramid depicts the different levels of thinking we use when learning. Notice how each level builds on the foundation that precedes it. It is required that we learn the lower levels before we can effectively use the skills above. Bloom’s Taxonomy Evaluation Making decisions and supporting views; requires understanding of values. Combining information to form a unique product; requires creativity and originality. Synthesis Identifying components; determining arrangement, logic, and semantics. Analysis Using information to solve problems; transferring abstract or theoretical ideas to practical situations. Identifying connections and relationships and how they apply. Application Restating in your own words; paraphrasing, summarizing, translating. Comprehension Memorizing verbatim information. Being able to remember, but not necessarily fully understanding the material. Knowledge 19
  • 20. 20 20
  • 21. How to Teach Critical Thinking Use analogies Promote interaction among students Ask open-ended questions Allow sufficient time for reflection Teach students to apply knowledge to other domains Use real-life problems Allow for thinking practice 21
  • 22. 21st Century Skills Communication and Information skills Thinking and Problem Solving skills Interpersonal and Self-Directional skills Collaboration skills 22
  • 23. Pitfalls… of Developing Critical Thinkers Teaching for critical thinking takes more time to prepare Teaching for critical thinking will reduce the amount of “material” covered Teaching for critical thinking is not popular with students in the beginning BUT… 23
  • 24. One destination, many roads One match, many strokes One painting, many colors Said Other Ways, Critical Thinking is . . . One question, many answers One song, many voices One topic, many interpretations 24
  • 25. Remember… Relate content to practical situations. Design lessons so that students internalize and analyze concepts they are learning. Routinely ask questions. Make the lessons “work intensive” for the student, not you. Be a model for your students. Use tactics that encourage active learning. 25
  • 26. Next Steps and Closing What is one fact, strategy , or data you’re walking away with today? What are two strategies you learned today? One thing you’re going to implement with your students, or share with a peer is... 26
  • 27. May Your Moments be Many! “Educators are addicted to the moment when a student’s eyes light up, when the teaching becomes learning. May your days be filled with such moments.” -Philip Patrick Horenstein 27

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