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  1. 1. MexicaMárcio PadilhaUniversidad de GuanajuatoGuanajuato, Gto., México
  2. 2. The Mexica:Basic Concepts One of the great Mesoamerican Civilizations. Inhabited the Valley of Mexico circa 1325 AD-1521 AD Polytheistic
  3. 3. “Mesoamerica:” what is that? It is a cultural region in the Americas where a number of pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
  4. 4. “Mesoamerica:” Where is that?
  5. 5. Valley of Mexico • Roughly where Highlands the Federal District and plateau in eastern half of central Mexico the State of Mexico are It was a center • Teotihuacan for several pre- • The Toltec Columbian • The Aztec civilizations
  6. 6. Polytheism?Polytheistic… Polytheism poly theos many god
  7. 7. Terminology Interrelation Mexica Aztec Náhuatl
  8. 8. Terminology InterrelationMexica Náhuatl Aztec • Demonym: • Language: • Origin: • The • Group of • The indigenous related Náhuatl people languages word for and "people of the dialects of from Valley of the Uto- Aztlán,” Mexico, Aztecan the who lived language mythical in Aztlán. family, ancestral spoken by home of the the Mexica Mexicas. people.
  9. 9. So, in comparison… Aztlán/ Mexica/ USA Idahoan Aztec/ Náhuatl/ American English
  10. 10. Uto-Aztecan Languages Uto Utah
  11. 11. Mexico, Land of the Mexica!At first, “Mexico” referred tothe settlements in the valleywhich became the site ofwhat is now Mexico City.• Hot Summers• Cool Winters
  12. 12. Foods • maize Staple Foods: • beans • squash • chilis Condiments: • tomatoes
  13. 13. Drinks Different • maize alcoholic • honey beverages were made from • pineapple fermented: • cactus fruit Xocolatl • Yes, chocolate!
  14. 14. CannibalismThe Aztecs practiced ritualistic cannibalism.Victims, usually prisoners of war, were sacrificedin public on top of temples and pyramids bycutting out their hearts.The bodies were then thrown down to theground where they were dismembered.The pieces were then distributed to theelite, which were mostly warriors and priests.The meat was consumed in the form of stewsflavored only with salt and eaten with maizetortillas, but without the otherwise ubiquitouschili.
  15. 15. ChinampasOften referred to as "floatinggardens"Created by staking out the shallowlake bed and then fencing in therectangle with wattle.The fenced-off area was then layeredwith mud, lake sediment, anddecaying vegetation, eventuallybringing it above the level of the lake.
  16. 16. ChinampasOften trees were planted at thecorners to secure the chinampa.Chinampas were separated bychannels wide enough for a canoe topass.These "islands" had very high cropyields with up to seven crops a year.
  17. 17. Aztec Empire
  18. 18. Aztec Education Mandatoryuniversal educationof children until 14 yrs of age. Parental Involved obligation, learning thesupervised by huēhuetlàtolli the whichauthorities of embodied the their calpōlli Aztecs ideals.
  19. 19. Types of School Calmecac: Telpochcalli: Advanced Learning in Writing, Astronomy, Practical and Statesmanship, Military Studies Theology and other areas.
  20. 20. Náhuatl System of Writing Aztec Years had 260 days. Their weeks had 20 days, as shown below: The NáhuatlSystem employs glyphs instead of letters.
  21. 21. Religion Referred to God as “Teotl.” Divided the world into upper and nether worlds, each associated with a specific set of deities and astronomical objects. Had a large and ever increasing pantheon. Had elements of human sacrifice in connection with a large number of religious festivals which were held according to patterns of the Aztec calendar.
  22. 22. Aztec Calendar Mrs. Padilha by the Aztec Calendar in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City.
  23. 23. Tezcatlipoca Quetzalcoatl Tlaloc Pantheon: Cultural Gods MixcoatlHuitzilopochtli
  24. 24. Tonatiuh Metztli TlaltecuhtliChalchiuhtlicue Pantheon: Nature Gods Centzon Huitznahua Ehecatl
  25. 25. OmeteotlHuehueteotl Coatlicue Pantheon: Gods of Creation
  26. 26. TlazolteotlTepoztecatlXochiquetzal Mayahuel Pantheon: Gods of PulqueOmetochtli
  27. 27. Aztec Pantheon:Gods of Maize and Fertility Chicomecoatl Xipe Totec Xochipilli Cinteotl
  28. 28. Aztec Pantheon:Gods of Death and the Underworld Mictlancihuatl Mictlantecutli Xolotl
  29. 29. Human SacrificesAztecs practiced human sacrifice on alarge scaleOffering to Huitzilopochtli; to restorethe blood he lost to create the Sun.To prevent the end of the world thatcould happen on each cycle of 52 years.In the 1487 re-consecration of the GreatPyramid of Tenochtitlan, some estimatethat 80,400 prisoners were sacrificed.
  30. 30. Social Stratitication National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. Priest Nobels Craftsmen & Merchants Farmers Slaves
  31. 31. Aztec Architecture: TemplesScaled Model of the Templo Mayor at the Mr. and Mrs.. Padilha at the entrance of the Templo Mayor Museum in Mexico City. Templo Mayor Museum in Mexico City.
  32. 32. Aztec Architecture: Pyramids Aztec Pyramid in Tlalnepantla Aztec Pyramid in Malinalco, de Baz, Mexico State. Mexico State.
  33. 33. Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire Hérnan Cortés Moctezuma II
  34. 34. Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire In 1518, Cortéz is put in command of an expedition to explore and secure the interior of Mexico for colonization. Accompanied by about 11 ships, 500 men, 13 horses and a small number of cannons, Cortés landed in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mayan territory.
  35. 35. Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire In March 1519, Cortés formally claimed the land for the Spanish crown. Then he proceeded to Tabasco and won a battle against the natives, who did not want to welcome the Spaniards, during which time he received from the vanquished twenty young indigenous women and he converted them all.
  36. 36. Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire Among these women was La Malinche, his future mistress and mother of his child Martín. Malinche knew both the Nahuatl language and Maya, thus enabling Hernán Cortés to communicate in both.