Book of Hosea
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Book of Hosea

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Book of Hosea Book of Hosea Presentation Transcript

  • Biblical Prophecy
    • Six Characteristics of Biblical Prophecy:*
    • It plainly foretells things to come without ambiguities
    • It is a designed and intended prediction, not “lucky guesses”
    • It is prior to the event it refers, not after that.
  • Biblical Prophecy
    • Six Characteristics of Biblical Prophecy:*
    • It is fulfilled in accordance with the original prediction.
    • It does not work out its fulfillment, but stands as a witness to the event, before and after.
    • It is not an isolated prediction, but related to other prophecies as a long series.
    • * Dr. Walter C. Kaiser. Jr. in Back Toward the Future: Hints for Interpreting Biblical Prophecy p.19
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • Determine the relative date of the book or passage. *
    • General historical period and religious trends:
    • Mosaic Period
    • Theocracy (Judges to Samuel)
    • United Monarchy (Saul, David, Solomon)
    • Elijah-Elisha Saga ( 9 th Century BC - Joel, Obadiah )
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • General historical period and religious trend
    • 8 th Century – (Age of Hezekiah) Jonah, Amos, Hosea, Micah , Isaiah
    • 7 th Century – (Age of Josiah), Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Nahum, Jeremiah
    • 6 th Century – (The Exile Period), Daniel, Ezekiel
    • 5 th Century – (Age of Restoration), Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • General historical period and religious trend
    Hosea Micah Jonah Isaiah Joel Amos
    • Two extreme steps should be avoided
    • To limit prophecy to historical events and omit its supernatural character
    • To avoid history and view as purely supernatural.
    • History Both Supernatural
    Interpretation of Prophecies
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • Determine the main divisions of the biblical book and note the prophetic themes in the narrative and logic of the text. *
    • Repeated Words
    • Change of Subject, Person, Location, Time, Literary Form
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • Identify different topics, subjects, or themes within each section. *
    • Find the focal point.
    • Key verses, clauses, or phrases.
    • What is said about the subject.
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • Determine the paragraph division within the subject. *
    • Consult number of translations (KJV, NKJV, NIV, RSV, NASB, etc.,)
    • Identify the topic sentence of each paragraph
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • Investigate the citations, references, allusions of the text in its predecessors. *
    • The Bible is one continuous, progressive story.
    • Latest revelations are built on previous thoughts
    • (Analogy of Antecedent Scripture).
    • Concordance, Chain References, The Treasury of the Bible
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • Analogy of Antecedent Scripture
    • Often God’s latest word deliberately builds on what Scripture has previously said on the subject.
    • Be sensitive to the nature of progressive or cumulative revelation:
    • a)  the analogy of antecedent Scripture (the meaning of a word or passage is to be determined in the light of that Scripture which has preceded it in the sequence of revelation)
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • Analogy of Antecedent Scripture
    • b)  the analogy of subsequent Scripture (the more complete interprets the less complete; i.e., the NT interprets the OT).
    • All Scripture is organically interrelated:
    • seed --- sprout --- root --- stem --- bud --- flower --- fruit
    • The fruit will tell you far more about the seed than the seed will tell you about the fruit.
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • Do Word Study of terms and phrases. *
    • Technical Words, theological words
    • Repeated many times?
    • Translated in different ways?
    • Used in different contexts?
    • Used often in same meaning and context?
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • Summarize and correlate to all teachings found in the later writings. *
    • Gain a wholeness of the teaching
    • Do not interject the later revelation onto earlier texts without clear investigation.
    • X Eisegesis = putting your idea into the text
    • Exegesis = getting God’s truth from the text
  • 7 Principles of Interpretation*
    • Determine the relative date of the book or passage.
    • Determine the main divisions of the biblical book and note the prophetic themes in the narrative and logic of the text .
    • Identify different topics, subjects, or themes within each division.
    • Determine the paragraph division within the subject.
    • Investigate the citations, references, allusions of the text in its predecessors.
    • Do word study of terms and phrases.
    • Summarize and correlate to all teachings found in the later writings.
    • * Dr. Walter C. Kaiser. Jr. in Back Toward the Future: Hints for Interpreting Biblical Prophecy p. 85-88
  • Further Questions*
    • What is historical and what is predictive?
    • What is figurative and what is real?
    • What is conditional and what is absolute?
    • What was fulfilled and what remains unfulfilled?
    • What is for Israel and what is for nations or churches?
    • What is physical and what is spiritual?
    • What is messianic and what is for all?
    • *Dr. Walter C. Kaiser. Jr. in Back Toward the Future: Hints for Interpreting Biblical Prophecy p.89
  • One Big Story The New Age, Kingdom of God, Eternity This Age History of Israel Church Age The Covenantal Promise of God The Eternal Plan of God Fulfillment and Realization of the Promise of New Covenant
  • Theoria
  • Theoria
  • Historical Setting of Hosea
    • Hosea 1:1; 2 Kings 14:23 – 20:21; 2 Chronicles 26
    • Kings of Judah
    • (Southern Kingdom)
    • Uzziah (783 – 742)
    • Jotham (742 – 735)
    • Ahaz (735 – 715)
    • Hezekiah (715 – 687)
    • From ca.750 – 715 BC
    Kings of Israel (Northern Kingdom) Jeroboam II (786 – 746) Zahariah (6 months, killed by) Shallum (1 month, killed by) Mehahem (746 – 738) Pekahiah (738 – 737 killed by) Pekah (737 – 732, killed by) Hoshea (732 – 722) Fall of Samaria 722
  • Interpretation of Prophecies
    • General historical period and religious trend
    Hosea Micah Jonah Isaiah Joel Amos
  • Historical Setting of Hosea
    • Internal Stability: Long and peaceful Reigns of Uzziah, 52 years and Jeroboam II, 41 years;
    • No petty wars between Judah and Israel.
    • International Peace: No Foreign Invasion (Syria subdued by Assyria; Egypt was weak)
    • Economic Prosperity: Agriculture, Trade-Routes, Refineries,
    • Ritualism in South and Ba’alism in North
    • Collapse of Northern Kingdom and Fall of Samaria:
  • Major Outline of the Book
    • 1 – 3 Hosea’s Marriage with faithless Gomer*; their three children and their names; Gomer left Hosea, engaged in adultery, ended in slavery; Hosea restored her back to him with renewed covenant; Analogy of God’s relationship with Israel.
    • 4 – 14 Hosea’s Message to faithless Israel*; their idolatry and adultery with Baal; prophecy about Assyrian invasion and destruction of Israel; call to repent and warning to Judah; God’s everlasting love (Cheded) on Israel and the promise of restoration.
    • (* Use your creativity to give catchy headings…)
  • Major Divisions of the Book
    • 1 – 3 Hosea’s Marriage with Faithless Gomer
    • 1:1 Title
    • 1:2 – 3:5 Hosea’s Call and Life
    • 1:2 – 2:1 Hosea’s Faithless Gomer
    • 2:2 – 23 God’s Faithless Israel
    • 3:1 – 5 Hosea’s Restoring Love
    • (Please rework the divisions, reword titles, and write your own summary of each division)
  • Messenger and the Message
    • Who is the Prophet?
    • Hosea – Son of Beeri; “Salvation of the LORD”
    • Contemporary to Isaiah (1:1) and Micah (1:1) and young to Amos (1:1) ; From North (4:5 “ our king”)
    • Wife – Gomer (adulteress/tendency to adultery)
    • Son – Jezreel = Scattered, Sowed (Jehu scattered Ahab family in Jezreel, 2 Kings 9:1-10:35)
    • Daughter – Lo Ruhama = not loved
    • Son – Lo Ammi = not my people (contrast to the Covenantal relationship – “You are my People; I am your God”)
  • Major Divisions of the Book
    • 4 – 14 Hosea’s Message to the Faithless Israel*
    • 4:1 – 7:16 God’s Unfaithful and Unrepentant Israel
    • 8:1 – 13:16 God’s Judgment on Israel
    • 14:1 – 9 God’s Restoring Love on Israel
    • (*Please rework the divisions, reword titles, and write your own summary of each division)
  • Major Themes
    • Some repeated words and phrases * (not complete list)
    • Unfaithful / adultery / prostitution
    • Ba’als / idols / calf-idols
    • Not acknowledging God / No knowledge of God/ Ignorant of law of God / without understanding
    • Ephraim / Israel / Samaria / Judah (sister)
    • Out of Egypt / to Assyria /
    • Repent /
    • Love/ everlasting love / compassion
  • Major Themes
    • Ba’alism: “master” “husband” “possessor”
    • Israelites concept YHWH was, He was God of Mountains (El-Shaddai) and God of War. But, as they settled in the land, they needed Canaanites gods and goddesses, Baals, who were owner of the plain land and were gods of fertility and seasons. As Baal (he) and Ashtoreth (she) produced fertility by conjugal relationship, so also, the worshipers should perform physical adultery with the male/female temple prostitutes. Children were also sacrificed by made them walk on fire.
    • Later Syncretism: Israel named YHWH, but did Ba’alism.
  • Major Themes
    • Samaria, Calf, Gilgal, Beth-Aven:
    • Jeroboam’s political ideology was to control the 10 Northern Tribes by not allowing them to go to Jerusalem temple, least they would join with the Judah. So, he erected two shrines in his kingdom and Idols of calves were kept in those shrines. Worship was in tune to Ba’alism. This policy was promptly followed by all of his successors, which is named as “the evil of Jeroboam.”
    • Besides, people were encouraged to worship in the alters of Ba’als, nearer to their localities (on hills and under big trees).
  • Some Questions to Reflect
    • What is idolatry and what is adultery? What is the reason for these sins? Is there any relationship between two?
    • What are today’s manifestations of idolatry and adultery?
    • Do you think that ignorance of God’s word is one of the reasons?
    • If Hosea would live today, what would be his message to Gomer? Compare it with God’s message to us, the church.
    • If Gomer would live today, what would be her testimony to Hosea’s everlasting love? Compare it with our, the church, testimony to God’s love.
    • Why do you think that this not a message of doom, but of God’s grace and restoration?