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POWER, POLITICS, NETWORKINGAND NEGOTIATION Group’s Members: Low Ai Choo Abreza Bt. Atan NoorHayati Bt. Yusop ‘Izzat Haizan B. Anuar Mohd Zulhida B. Badarudin
INFLUENCINGDefinition: The process of affecting / changing others’ attitudes and behavior to achieve an objective. Its about being able to move things forward, without pushing, forcing or telling others what to do.
Rational Rational Inspirational Inspirational Persuasion Persuasion Appeals Appeals Pressure Pressure Consultation Consultation 9 9 Influencing Influencing Legitimization Legitimization Tactics Tactics Ingratiation Ingratiation Personal Personal Coalitions Coalitions Appeals Appeals Exchange ExchangeSource: Adapted from J. French and B.H. Raven. 1959. “The Bases of Social Power.” In Studies of Social Power. D. Cartwright, ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social 4
1. Rational Persuation Presenting the facts and logical arguments Emphasizing the positive benefits of a course of action. Most accepted methods of influencingExample: Teacher advise student work hard to get the better result by telling the outcome with better score in SPM. Unfortunately, not all people think with logic all the time.
2. Inspirational Appeals Leader set up their vision for future success and by doing so, not only gains support, but also sparks enthusiasm for major changes. Modeling behavior and setting an example for others to follow.Example: Launching of Rakyat 1 Malaysia by Prime minister.
3. Consultation Examining the problem and working with the influence toward a solution It works when someone provides input, they become more committed to the initiative. They feel involved and are more motivated to take action.Example:• Headmaster need your support and assistance or modify your proposal to certain activity in school.
4. Ingratiation• Get you in a good mood before asking you for somethingExample:• Teacher praise student hardworking before giving home work.5. Personal Appeals• Appeals to your feelings of loyalty and friendship.Example: Can u be my best• Teacher treat student as friends in process of friend and BOSS?? influencing their behavior.
6. Exchange Exchanging by giving something of value to influence in return for something you want.7. Coalitions Get someone else to persuade you to comply Use someone else’s support as reason for you to comply
8. Legitimating• Claims to have the authority to get you to do something• Verifying its in the policy manual, rules or practices and traditions9. Pressure• Use demands threats or persistent reminders
Power is: ability to bring about change in one’s psychological environment. Influence is the use of power to bring about change
2 Sources of Power Derived fromPosition top management Derived from thePersonal follower based on leader’s behavior 14
Legitimate Power Comes from appointed/elected position Most followers grant this to a leaderExample:
Reward Power Control of things valued by followers Based on exchange relationship The power of give or with hold rewards, such as bonuses, promotion, salary increasing, recommandation.
Coercive Power Is based on fear Bases its effectiveness on the ability to administer punishment or give negative reinforcements A leader using often resorts to punishment, reprimands or dismissal. It is also called the pressure influencing tactic.
Referent Power An admiration of a leader, which usually produces influence and acceptance by subordinates (French & Raven, 1959 ). Referent power acts a little like role model power. It depends on respecting, liking and holding another individual in high esteem. It usually develops over a long period of time.
Information/Resources Power on the user’s data Is based desired by others. Information power involves access to vital information and control over its distribution to other. Distortion of information includes selective editing to promote only your position, giving a biased interpretation of data and even presenting false information.
Connection Power Is based on the leader’s connections with influential or important persons inside or outside the organization. A leader who demonstrates connection power induces cooperation from others because they wish to gain favour or avoid the disfavour.
Expert Power Is based on the leader’s possession of expertise, skill and knowledge, which through respect, influences others. A leader with expert power is seen as possessing the expertise to improve the work behaviour for others.
RELATIONSHIP relationship POWER POLITICS To increase power
INTERPRETATION If the level of Gaining power management higher More Using power Process More POLITICS political Affects In larger behavior organization Vary decision From organization to organization
POLITICS IS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGED To get what we want System POLITICS Building Accomplish relationship Help meet Personal goal objectives Professional goal
ANALOGY Inherently GOOD nor BADMONEYMONEY POLITICS POLITICS Medium of EXCHANGED In economy In organization Political behavior Tangible currency
ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICAL BEHAVIOR NETWORKING RECIPROCITY COALITIONS
ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICAL BEHAVIOR NETWORKING RECIPROCITY COALITIONS
NETWORKINGManagers engage Developing relationshipCategorized into… Activities Process For the purpose of… Traditional management socializing communication politicking Human resource management networking Successful Managers Spend around twice as much time networking as average manager
RECIPROCITY Builds TRUST in relationshipTIP to increase chances of getting HELP from others… Use the word FAVOR – its persuade people to help you Rote response to a favor request “Yeah sure, what it is?” Always start with the phrase “Will you please do me a favor?”
COALITIONS*INFLUENCING tactics in political behavior*Each party HELP EACH OTHERS toachieves objectives*Developed for ACHIEVING SPESIFICOBJECTIVE*Getting a person whose support youneed to JOIN your coalition rather thancompete
GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING POLITICALSKILLS RECIPROCITY COALITIONS Learn the organizational culture & power players Develop good working relationships, especially with the manager Be a loyal, honest team player Gain recognition NETWORKING
Key to Is about building promotion to professional higher relationships and management friendshipsRequires social Most successful skills approach 2/3 of all jobs Difficult for women Word of mouth Not called “the good old boy Informal referrals network” for nothing Results in more new jobs than all other methods combined
THENETWORKING PROCESS Conduct networking interviews Maintain your networking
Perform a Self-Assessment and Set Goals •Accomplishments •Tie accomplishments to the Job Interview - you want to be sure to state your accomplishment that are based on your skill during the job interview. The second step after listing key result you have achieved is to elaborate on a problem that was solved or an opportunity taken and how you achieved it using your skills. •Set Networking Goal - after your self-assessment focusing on your accomplishments, you need to clear state your goal.
Create Your One-Minute Self-Sell• History of your career - start with a career summary, the highlights of your career to date. Include your most recent career or school history and a description of the type of work/internship or courses you have taken. Also include the industry and type of organizations.• Plans for the future - next, state the target career you are seeking, the industry you prefer, and a specific function or role. You can also mention names of organizations you are targeting as well as let the acquaintance know why you are looking for work.
• Questions to stimulate conversation- ask a question to encourage two-way communication. The question will vary depending on the person and your goal or the reason you are using the one-minute self-sell.• Write and Practice- write out your one-minute self-sell. Be sure to clearly separate your history, plans, and question and customize your question based on the contact with whom you are talking. Practice delivering it with family and friends and get feedback to improve it.
Develop Your Network• Begin with who you know• Expand to people you don’t know – Referrals – Volunteer work• Develop ability to remember peoples’ names - if you want to impress people you never met or hardly know, call them by their name. - Ask others who they are, then go up and call them by name and introduce yourself with your one-minute sell. - If you think the person can help you, don’t stop with casual conversation-make an appointment at a later time for a phone conversation, personal meeting, coffee or lunch, - get their business card.
Conducting Interviews• Establish rapport - provide a brief introduction and thank the contact for his or her time. Clearly state the purpose of the meeting, be clear thah you are not asking for a job. Don’t start selling yourself, project an interest in the other person.• Deliver your one-minute self-sell - evenif the person has already heard it, say it again. This enables you to quickly summarize your background and career direction.
• Ask prepared questions - do your homework before the meeting and compose a series of questions to ask during the interview. Your questions should vary depending on your goal, the contact and how he or she may help you with your job search• Get additional contacts for your network- always ask who else you should speak with. Most people can give you three names, so if you are only offered one, ask for other. Leave a business card and/ or resume so the person can contact you in case something comes up.
• Ask your contacts how you might help them- offer a copy of a recent journal article or any additional information that come up in your conversation. Remember, it’s all about building relationships, and making yourself a resource for other people• Followup – Send thank-you notes – Give status reports
Maintain Your Network-It is important to keep your network informed ofyour career progress.- if an individual was helpful in finding your job, besure to let him know the outcome.- saying thank you to those who helped in yourtransition will encourage the business relationship
NEGOTIATION ( Perundingan )Kamus Dewan:“perhitungan, perkiraan, pertimbangan” dan“perbicaraan (perkiraan) yang sungguh-sungguh lagi mendalam tentang sesuatu hal”.Kamus Oxford Advanced Learner’sDictionary: “discuss aimed at reaching anagreement”
Definisi (Khusus)• Bussmann & Muller (1992) : “…the communication process of a group of agents in order to reach a mutually accepted agreement on some matter.• Lewicki, Saunders, dan Minton (1997): “Suatu proses formal yang berlaku apabila dua pihak cuba mencari penyelesaian dalam konflik yang rumit”.
Definisi (Umum)“Perundingan merupakan aplikasi strategi dan taktik untuk mengendalikan konflik secara produktif”
Proses Perundingan ( Negotiation Process ) Perancangan awal ( PLAN ) Proses Perundingan ( NEGOTIATIONS ) Tidak Setuju Setuju(DISAGREEMENT) (AGREEMENT) Penangguhan ( POSTPONEMENT )
Perancangan awal ( PLAN )• Research the other party(ies)• Set objectives – Lower limit – Objective – Opening• Develop OPTION & TRADEOFFS• Be prepared to deal with questions & objections (especially unstated)
Proses Perundingan ( NEGOTIATIONS )• Develop rapport• Keep it professional, never personal• Let the other person to make the first offer• Listen• Ask questions• Don’t give in too quickly• Never give something up for free• Ask for something in return
Penangguhan ( POSTPONEMENT )• When you are getting what you want you may try to create urgency• When other party is creating urgency don’t be pressure into making a deal• If you do want to postponed give a specific time you will be back
Setuju (AGREEMENT)• Both sides should feel good about the agreement• Get it in writing• Quit selling• Start work on a personal relationship
Tidak Setuju ( DISAGREEMENT)• Accept that agreement isn’t possible• Learn from the failure• Ask the other party what you did right & wrong• Analyze and plan for the next time
Stop bargaining and fulfill the agreement In the future can Accept the impossiblecreate better prospect circumstances & and develop new maintain good strategy network