Moza naya presentation of learning theories

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  • First experiment, Pavlov noticed that dog salivated once it was giving the meat so he described that dog salivation was Unconditional Response (UCR) because it was inborn reaction. While meat was Unconditional Stimulus (UCS) because it was a stimulus that elicit the response without any learning. Second experiment, he used bell which was unable to elicit the dog’s salivation response at the beginning but once Pavlov associated with the meat the dog began salivating since it heard the bell. As a result, the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) will be ringing bell because it acquired the ability to elicit the response while the salivation or drooling is the Conditioned Response (CR) which is identical to unconditioned response.
  • In his experiment, he used puzzle boxes to put cat inside and it has to find out ways to escape box by using different behaviors such as pushing the lever using their paw or using their tail to open doors by swishing them. Since the cat escape box due to these behaviors, the cat has been given a dish of food as a reward. The cat was put inside the puzzle box several times and he measured the time of behavior that cat needed to escape.
  • Another example, once the student praised by teacher because s/he did her/his project on time and in creative way. In the future, s/he is going to do projects on time and in creative way. However, if the student punished by taking out some of his project grade because s/he dally project or did not show their creativity, s/he would not to do the same thing again over the next period.
  • Using grades is a type of positive and negative reinforcement for instance if a student prepare for test by studying, basically, s/he will get a low grade which is the negative reinforcement for not studying. Skinner theory is operating condition helps to control students’ behaviours and increased their learning abilities
  • If I reward a child every time that s/he is being well behaved, eventually this reward as a motivation is going to be extinct. As a result, the child will less likely to behave in a good way. On the other hand, punishing a child only because of her/his bad behaviour could effect on child’s motivation to begin working on his/her behaviour. But, if you want a child behaves in a good way, s/he needs to has some type of motivation.teacher in the classroom will give students task individually to complete depend on the specific topic. This task will repeat until the students complete it successfully as result, they will have less of engagement and motivation which is a gap of this theory, in my mind.
  • The reason of focusing in students’ language development is that language becomes the basic of thinking and mental. Vygotsky thought that if teachers aim to understand what their students’ minds have developed in language domain, they need to understand the background of students’ historical and cultural contexts. Since language used as a tool to learn, using discussion and peer communication as a method to increased students’ language will create very engagement environment. So we can see that students acquire knowledge from communication and interactions with people and this is what Vygotsky called it by interpersonal. Later on, students will internalize (add) to this knowledge their personal values and this is a intrapersonal side. All these cognitive processes occur inside students’ brain and it is growth more by speaking and writing because it will help that be to active participant in the learning process.
  • Gardern believed that if teacher find out the strengths and weaknesses in each intelligence for students, teacher can help them to success. Teacher should integrate all multiple intelligence into the classroom by using variety of teaching and learning methods. So teacher can address individual differences by providing range of activities and experiences to facilitate learning.
  • Moza naya presentation of learning theories

    1. 1. LEARNING THORIES Note: The theories’ explanations has been written on the notes bar of each slide Moza Naya
    2. 2. Pavlov  Behaviorism is the study of how we learn and it basically explains how people behaviors change due to new or repetitive experience.  First experiment, Pavlov noticed that dog salivated once it was giving the meat so he described that dog salivation was Unconditional Response (UCR) because it was inborn reaction. While meat was Unconditional Stimulus (UCS) because it was a stimulus that elicit the response without any learning. http://juanat.wordpress.com/2010/10/
    3. 3.  Second experiment, he used bell which was unable to elicit the dog’s salivation response at the beginning but once Pavlov associated with the meat the dog began salivating since it heard the bell. As a result, the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) will be ringing bell because it acquired the ability to elicit the response while the salivation or drooling is the Conditioned Response (CR) which is identical to unconditioned response.
    4. 4. Waston presented three animals for Albert monkey, dog and rat. Once Albert saw monkey and dog his respond was natural. While when Albert was watching rat Waston using loud noise. As a result, Albert start crying and he cries every time that he see the rat. This http://cogpsy.info/learning/finding-little-albert/
    5. 5. Example and ways overcome these in future Most teachers are shouting at students specially kids because they didn’t do the homework. Kids become scared and every time they forget to do their homework they cry directly. How to overcome: Instead of shouting, teachers should help students to their homework during their free time and provide help to them.
    6. 6. Edward Thorndike Describe several behavior modification techniques that were used in classrooms you participated in or taught in. Were these techniques effective?   Thorndike theory is based on motivation and rewarding behavior. In his experiment, he used puzzle boxes to put cats inside and they have to find out ways to escape box by using different behaviors such as pushing the lever using their paw or using their tail to open doors by swishing them. Since the cat escape box due to these behaviors, the cat has been given a dish of food as a reward. The cat was put inside the puzzle box several times and he measured the time of behavior that cat needed to escape.
    7. 7. In teaching  Normally, if a student behavior rewarded or followed by desirable consequence, this student more likely will repeat the same behavior in the future. The low of effect is that if a behavior is followed by punishment to the behavior. It more likely this behavior will not repeated again in the future. For example, if the cat received electric shock instead of food, the cat will not get out of the puzzle box again.
    8. 8. Example:  From my teaching practice experience, I noticed that if students ask a question and the teacher reaction was smile or question answer, that mean student’s behavior has been reinforced as a result, he is going to ask questions again in the future. However, if the teacher punishes the student behavior whether by ignoring or teasing the student would avoid asking questions.  Were these techniques effective?
    9. 9. Skinner  Skinner theory is based on reinforcement and punishment for example, if you reward a child for good behaviour then he is more likely to keep continue to have that good behaviour. But if the child doesn’t’ receive any reward or positive reinforcement, her/his motivation to continue the good behaviour will stop. On the other hand, if the a child is being misbehaviour, he should be sort of negative reinforcement and he will be punished as a result, a child will less likely to model that behaviour again.
    10. 10. Strengths that help me to control behaviour in the class   A child’s behaviour problems can be alter if teacher use positive and negative reinforcement methods because he will mentally associate between positive behaviour with rewards and negative behaviour with punishments. In teaching, teacher should punish misbehaver students by giving them extra homework, change seats or ignoring them. While if the students behave in a good way, teacher should reward them by praising or giving them free time. Using grades is a type of positive and negative reinforcement for instance if a student doesn't prapear for test by studying, basically, s/he will get a low grade which is the negative reinforcement for not studying. Skinner theory is operating condition helps to control students’ behaviours and increased their learning abilities
    11. 11. Weaknesses that help me to control behaviour in the class  Operating condition theory has treat behaviour as good or bad and it skips all other conditions that surround child’s behaviour for example s/he has shyness or any physical problems.  As a teacher, I have to focus on other conditions.  In addition, as a teacher I can’t keep reinforcing the child’s good behaviour for a long time because student will adapt. But he needs to continue doing the good behaviour even I stop supporting him. If I reward a child every time that he is being well behaved, eventually this reward as a motivation is going to be extinct. As a result, the child will less likely behave in a good way.
    12. 12. Piaget How can we adapt different learning software to account for these different Piagetian stages  Sensorimotor stage:  Children start learning objects and people such as their fathers, mothers or keys, cup and so on. They understand the world by actions and senses.  I will use toys made from plastic or wood/ or book teaching color with example
    13. 13.  Preoperational stage :  Children language develop more and they understand the concepts and symbols but they can think in complex way.  I would use some iPad software that require classifying and finding such as animal games and alphabetical.
    14. 14.  Concrete Operational:  Children develop their logical more and they have their own theories which seem naïve and annoying to adults. They start understand the concept and recognize some words by sight.  Students can use Microsoft office WordPad to present their ideas.
    15. 15.  Formal operational:  children develop their theories and they change their ideas about life based on their experience and become more creative. they enjoy researching, challenges, problem-solving  Students can use search engine such as Google or Yahoo to ask and find answers for their questions.
    16. 16. Vygotsky Describe how Vygotsky’s two most important theories could be used in your research project  Vygotsky found that the child learn language from both social and cultural interaction not just form communicative interactions. The reason of focusing in students’ language development is that language becomes the basic of thinking and mental. Vygotsky thought that if teachers aim to understand what their students’ minds have developed in language domain, they need to understand the background of students’ historical and cultural contexts. Since language used as a tool to learn, using discussion and peer communication as a method to increased students’ language will create very engagement environment. So we can see that students acquire knowledge from communication and interactions with people and this is what Vygotsky called it by interpersonal. Later on, students will internalize (add) to this knowledge their personal values and this is a intrapersonal side. All these cognitive processes occur inside students’ brain and it is growth more by speaking and writing because it will help student to be active participant in the learning process.
    17. 17. Example  Due to the interaction and cooperative work with the teachers in the HCT my English language and knowledge about dealing with students will add educational value to my research project.
    18. 18. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)  The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), According to Vygotsky is, "the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers" (Vygotsky, 1978, p86). In another words, students start with low knowledge but the interaction with teachers, peers, computers and teachers as an effective way to develop or scaffold skills and knowledge within the zone of proximal development. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Zone-of-Proximal-Development.html
    19. 19. Example  For example, in my research project to understand the topic which is going to be about e-portfolio for teachers in UAE, I will start with very low knowledge about this topic but the interaction and cooperative work in the ZPD with school teachers, HCT teachers, Sharjah Educational Zoon people, peers and school students. I will scaffold my knowledge and end up with obvious point of view, thought and knowledge.
    20. 20. Vygotsky’s two theories in design of learning objects.  Mainly, I have to create a engagement environment where students improve their language mentally (discussion board). Secondly, I will pike topics that students have low knowledge about it for example, how to upload files to Moodle site. Students are going to ask teachers, peers, search over the internet to find answer and during this process they are scaffolding their knowledge about upload files which could be image, video, document or audio. At the end they will have knowledge about uploading files.
    21. 21. Bloom Describe how Bloom’s theories could be used in your teaching Evaluation teacher evaluates students presentation based on their design, features and so on. Synthesis (creating) students have a project or a task that requires from them to produce something. They have to create PowerPoint presentation. Analysis (compare) troubleshoot the problems that students face while they using program. Student compares between transition and animation features. Application (applying) students apply what they will got from teacher such as a video tutorial or actual step during the lesson. Understanding students understand the meaning of icons such as insert, design, animations and slide show. where Knowledge (remember) students memorize information for example what each icon named?
    22. 22. Describe how Bloom’s theories could be used in your design of learning objects through computers    Remembering level: Moodle glossary, blogs, wikis and Moodle quizzes. Students list, recognize, describe by searching and Googling words and topics. Understanding level: Moodle database and collaborative Moodle wiki . Students in this level are explaining, comparing and summarizing and understanding the concept. Applying level: uploading image, file, slide share or play embedded flash game.
    23. 23.    Analyzing level: Survey and Choices within Moodle and Moodle glossary creation. Students are comparing results and validating text fields and choices. Creating level: workshop, mind maps, upload video and plan lesson. Moodle allow student to design, plan and making lesson and workshop. Evaluating level: discussion forums, commenting, chat rooms, forum with peer evaluation all these required from students judging, testing, detecting and monitoring skills.
    24. 24. Gardener Multiple intelligences theory shows that each person learn and interact using different intelligences or skills. Gardern believed that if teacher find out the strengths and weaknesses in each intelligence for students, teacher can help them to success. Teacher should integrate all multiple intelligence into the classroom by using variety of teaching and learning methods. So teacher can address individual differences by providing range of activities and experiences to facilitate learning. Moodle account for Multiple Intelligences  mathematical: Uploading user names and details using excel sheet and understanding the concept of Moodle’s processes.  Visual: uploading image or mind map that illustrate students understanding for a topic.
    25. 25.   Linguistic: students present their ideas in front of the class or using discussion board, wiki, blogs and comments box to explain and share ideas. Using Glossary to highlight keywords Physical smart: Assign a project where students build some sort of 3-D object and use a digital still camera or camcorder to document its progress as it is being created. (Fose, P.6).
    26. 26.    intrapersonal: Students with this intelligence enjoy keeping a journal, consider creating individual forums or blog for each student in the discussion board of Blackboard or Moodle. interpersonal: students can use discussion board or even group work. Musical: students are assigning a digital storytelling project using PowerPoint or any online tools and upload it to their Moodle page.
    27. 27. teaching with technology can use or restrict Multiple Intelligences Vimeo Visual/spatial: watching videos. Physically smart: Sing language logical/mathematic: Solving uploading problems or using HTML style Interpersonal: Create group to comment on video and create forums Intrapersonal: has strong self-awareness (account setting private) Musical: Educational songs for 8 years old about letters or including music with video Linguistic: video record for lectures or write captions in videos.
    28. 28. References  Allen, E., & Marotz, L. (2010). Development Profiles. Wadsworth.  Behavioral Theory: Thorndike and the Law of Effect. (n.d.). Retrieved from Education Portal : http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/behavioral-theory-thorndike-and-the-law-of-effect.html  Behavioral Theory: Thorndike and the Law of Effect. (2013). Retrieved from Educational Portal : Analyzing level: Survey and Choices within Moodle and Moodle glossary creation. Students are comparing results and validating text fields and choices.  donclark. (1999, June 5). Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains. Retrieved from nwlink: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html  Fose, L. (2013). Exploring Technology. San Luis Obispo: Cal Poly State University. Retrieved from http://www.calpoly.edu/~lfose/articles/Exploring_Technology.pdf  McLeod, S. (2010). Zone of Proximal Development. Retrieved from simplypsychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/Zone-of-Proximal-Development.html  Sociocultural Theory and language development (Lantolf). (2013). Retrieved from Slaencyclopediasp: http://slaencyclopediasp12.wikispaces.com/Sociocultural+Theory+and+Language+Development  Strengths and Weaknesses of Operant Conditioning. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://integratingtech301.pbworks.com/w/page/20021638/Strengths%20and%20Weaknesses%20of %20Operant%20Conditioning

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