Introduction to Management and Organizations

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TUP - TAGUIG
Graduate Program: Masters in Management
Prof: Dr. Vargas

Subject: Management Planning and Controlling
By: Elbert M. Areja

Published in: Business, Career
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Introduction to Management and Organizations

  1. 1. Management INTRODUCTION Chapter TO MANAGEMENT 1 ANDPresented by: Elbert M. Areja ORGANIZATIONSMasters in ManagementFebruary 22, 2012 1–1
  2. 2. LEARNING OUTCOMESTHE OUTLINE OF THIS REPORT1.1 Who Are Managers? • Explain how managers differ from non- managerial employees. • Describe how to classify managers in organizations.1.2 What Is Management? • Define management. • Explain why efficiency and effectiveness are important to management. 1–2
  3. 3. LEARNING OUTCOMES1.3 What Do Managers Do? • Describe the four functions of management. • Explain Mintzberg’s managerial roles. • Describe Katz’s three essential managerial skills and how the importance of these skills changes depending on managerial level. • Discuss the changes that are impacting manager’s jobs. • Explain why customer service and innovation are important to the manager’s job. 1–3
  4. 4. LEARNING OUTCOMES1.4 What Is An Organization? • Explain the characteristics of an organization. • Describe how today’s organizations are structured.1.5 Why Study Management? • Discuss why it’s important to understand management. • Explain the universality of management concept. • Describe the rewards and challenges of being a manager. 1–4
  5. 5. WHO ARE MANAGERS? Manager  Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished. 1–5
  6. 6. CLASSIFYING MANAGERS First-line Managers  Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees. Middle Managers  Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers. Top Managers  Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization. 1–6
  7. 7. MANAGERIAL LEVELS 1–7
  8. 8. WOMEN IN MANAGERIAL POSITIONS AROUND THE WORLD Women in Women in Top Management Manager’s Job Australia 41.9 percent 3.0 percent Canada 36.3 percent 4.2 percent Germany 35.6 percent N/A Japan 10.1 percent N/A Philippines 57.8 percent N/A United States 50.6 percent 2.6 percent 1–8
  9. 9. WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? Management involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. 1–9
  10. 10. MANAGEMENT: DEFINITION Acc to Harold Koontz: Management is the art of getting things done through & with an formally organized group Acc to Henry Fayol: To manage is to forecast & plan, to organize, to compound, to co-ordinate and to control PODSCORB:- Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing, Co ntrolling, Co-ordinating, Reporting & Budgeting
  11. 11. HENRY FAYOL (1841-1925) Was a french industrialist Given :  Elements of Management- Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Co- ordination & Control  Qualities of Manager: Physical, Mental, Moral, General Education, Special Knowledge & Experience  Principles of Management
  12. 12. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Division of work Authority & responsibilty Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordinate of individual interest to group interest Remuneration of personnel Centralization Scalar Chain
  13. 13. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Order Equity Stability of tenure of personnel Initiative Espirit De Corps
  14. 14. FEATURES OF MANAGEMENT Art as well as Science Management is an activity Management is a continuous process Management achieving pre-determined objectives Organized activities Management is a factor of production Management as a system Management is a discipline
  15. 15. FEATURES OF MANAGEMENT Management is a distinct entity Management aims at maximising profit Management is a purposeful activity Management is a profession Universal application Management is getting things done Management is needed at all levels
  16. 16. WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? Managerial Concerns  Efficiency  “Doing things right”  Getting the most output for the least inputs  Effectiveness  “Doing the right things”  Attaining organizational goals 1–16
  17. 17. EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY IN MANAGEMENT 1–17
  18. 18. WHAT MANAGERS DO? Three Approaches to Defining What Managers Do.  Functions they perform.  Roles they play.  Skills they need. 1–18
  19. 19. WHAT MANAGERS DO? Functions Manager’s Perform  Planning  Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.  Organizing  Arrangingand structuring work to accomplish organizational goals.  Leading  Working with and through people to accomplish goals.  Controlling  Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work. 1–19
  20. 20. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS 1–20
  21. 21. MANAGEMENTFUNCTIONSManagement Functions:planning, organizing,leading, and controlling
  22. 22. DISTRIBUTION OF TIME PER ACTIVITY BY ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELSource: Adapted from T. A. Mahoney, T. H. Jerdee, and S. J. Carroll,“The Job(s) of Management,” Industrial Relations 4, No.2 (1965), p.103.
  23. 23. WHAT MANAGERS DO? Roles Manager’s Play  Roles are specific actions or behaviors expected of a manager.  Mintzberg identified 10 roles grouped around interpersonal relationships, the transfer of information, and decision making. 1–23
  24. 24. WHAT MANAGERS DO? Management Roles (Mintzberg)  Interpersonal roles  Figurehead, leader, liaison  Informational roles  Monitor, disseminator, spok esperson  Decisional roles  Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator 1–24
  25. 25. WHAT MANAGERS DO (MINTZBERG)  Actions  thoughtful thinking  practical doing 1–25
  26. 26. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles  Interpersonal Roles • Figurehead • Leader • Liaison  Interpersonal Roles • Monitor • Disseminator • Spokesperson  Decisional Roles • Entrepreneur • Disturbance handler • Resource allocator • NegotiatorAdapted from Mintzberg, Henry,The Nature of Managerial Work,1st Edition, © 1980, pp. 93–94.. 1–26
  27. 27. WHAT MANAGERS DO? Skills Managers Need  Technical skills  Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field  Human skills  The ability to work well with other people  Conceptual skills  The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization 1–27
  28. 28. SKILLS NEEDED AT DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT LEVELS 1–28
  29. 29. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS • Ability to use information to solve business problems • Identification of opportunities for innovation • Recognition of problem areas and implementation of solutions • Selection of critical information from masses of data • Understanding of business uses of technology • Understanding of organization’s business modelSource: Based on American Management Association Survey of Managerial Skills andCompetencies, March/April 2000, found on AMA Web site (www.ama.org), October 30, 2002. 1–29
  30. 30. COMMUNICATION SKILLS • Ability to transform ideas into words and actions • Credibility among colleagues, peers, and subordinates • Listening and asking questions • Presentation skills; spoken format • Presentation skills; written and/or graphic formatsSource: Based on American Management Association Survey of Managerial Skills andCompetencies, March/April 2000, found on AMA Web site (www.ama.org), October 30, 2002. 1–30
  31. 31. EFFECTIVENESS SKILLS • Contributing to corporate mission/departmental objectives • Customer focus • Multitasking: working at multiple tasks in parallel • Negotiating skills • Project management • Reviewing operations and implementing improvementsSource: Based on American Management Association Survey of Managerial Skills andCompetencies, March/April 2000, found on AMA Web site (www.ama.org), October 30, 2002. 1–31
  32. 32. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS • Coaching and mentoring skills • Diversity skills: working with diverse people and cultures • Networking within the organization • Networking outside the organization • Working in teams; cooperation and commitmentSource: Based on American Management Association Survey of Managerial Skills andCompetencies, March/April 2000, found on AMA Web site (www.amanet.org), October 30, 2002. 1–32
  33. 33. MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND MANAGEMENT FUNCTION MATRIX Exhibit 1.7 1–33
  34. 34. HOW THE MANAGER’S JOB ISCHANGING The Increasing Importance of Customers  Customers: the reason that organizations exist  Managing customer relationships is the responsibility of all managers and employees.  Consistent high quality customer service is essential for survival. Innovation  Doing things differently, exploring new territory, and taking risks  Managers should encourage employees to be aware of and act on opportunities for innovation. 1–34
  35. 35. CHANGESIMPACTINGTHE MANAGER’SJOB 1–35
  36. 36. WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION? An Organization Defined A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose (that individuals independently could not accomplish alone). Common Characteristics of Organizations  Have a distinct purpose (goal)  Composed of people  Have a deliberate structure 1–36
  37. 37. CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATIONS
  38. 38. THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION Exhibit 1.10 1–39
  39. 39. WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT? The Value of Studying Management  The universality of management  Good management is needed in all organizations.  The reality of work  Employees either manage or are managed.  Rewards and challenges of being a manager  Management offers challenging, exciting and creative opportunities for meaningful and fulfilling work.  Successful managers receive significant monetary rewards for their efforts. 1–40
  40. 40. UNIVERSAL NEED FOR MANAGEMENT 1–41
  41. 41. REWARDS AND CHALLENGES OF BEING A MANAGER 1–42

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