Expectancy Theory, Goal Setting and Designing Jobs that Motivate
MMF503 Human Behavior in organization Motivating People to WorkBy: Edna DelantarProfessor: Dr. John N. Calamiong
What is The ERG Motivation Theory The Basics Importance in Management Maslow’s Hierarchy Need Contemporary TheoryMotivation Motivational Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Intrinsic Theory Rewards Reward s and Goal-Setting incentives Theory Extrinsic Rewards Job Design Theory
Expectancy Theory States that employee’s motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (Expectancy) and the belief that the performance will lead to reward (Instrumentality).
Major Components: Expectancy (Peformance Expectancy ) – is the faith that better efforts will result in better performance. Expectancy is influenced by factors such as possession of appropriate skills for performing the job, availability of right resources, availability of crucial information and getting the required support for completing the job. Instrumentality (Reward Expectancy ) – is the faith that if you perform well, then a valid outcome will be there. Instrumentality is affected by factors such as believe in the people who decide who receives what outcome, the simplicity of the process deciding who gets what outcome, and clarity of relationship between performance and outcomes.
Major Components: Valence – is the significance associated by an individual about the expected outcome. It is an expected and not the actual satisfaction that an employee expects to receive after achieving the goals.
Employees Expectancy Model of Motivation Effort Effort Performance Reward Perceived effort– Perceived Perceived performance performance– Value of probability reward probability Reward “If I work hard, “What rewards “What rewards will I get the job will I get when do I value?” done?” the job is well done?”
Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory People exert To achieve Task and realize Effort Work-related work effort Performance outcomes Instrumentality Valence Expectancy. Clarity possible Identify needs and Select capable rewards for performance Match rewards Workers, train them, give performance To needs Support them and contingent reward set clear goals.
Advantage of Expectancy Theory It is based on self-interest individual who want to achieve maximum satisfaction and who wants to minimize dissatisfaction. This theory stresses upon the expectations and perception; what is real and actual is immaterial. It emphasizes on rewards or pay-offs. It focuses on psychological extravagance where final objective of individual is to attain maximum pleasure and least pain.
Limitations of Expectancy Theory The expectancy theory seems to be idealistic because quite a few individuals perceive high degree correlation between performance and rewards. The application of this theory is limited as reward is not directly correlated with performance in many organizations. It is related to other parameters also such as position, effort, responsibility, education, etc.
Goal-Setting Theory The famous goal setting theory was put forward by Dr Edwin Locke in the late 1960s, linking goals to performance. It focuses on the process of setting goals. According to this theory, the individuals are motivated when they behave in ways that move them to certain goals they can expect to attain. Goals should be accepted by the individual as long as they are accepted demanding goals lead to better performance than easy goals
Goal-Setting - Definition Is the process of developing, negotiating and formulating the targets or objectives that a person is responsible for accomplishing.
Goal-Setting - Guidelines Goals should be specific Goals such as "Become a top sales" or "Sell as many products as I can" are too vague and therefore have no effect on motivation. Instead, you should set more specific goals. Specific means quantitative. For example: set a goal such as "sell 500 products per month". This is a specific target. You will use the specific result as a source of motivation and you will perform better.
Goal-Setting - Guidelines Goals Should Be Challenging Make each goal a challenge to you. If the goal you can easily achieve, without difficulty, it is not very motivational. Hard goals are more motivating than easy goals, because when you are challenging a goal, you will try your best and generate enough enthusiasm to get it done. When the goal has been accomplished, you will feel very happy and you will get high rewards too.
Goal-Setting - Guidelines Goals should be achievable If the goals are not realistic for you to achieve, you may lose confidence in the end. So when you set a goal, make sure that you can achieve it. The goal should be challenging and difficult, and you believe that you can achieve it too.
Management by Objective (MBO) Work Process SUPERVISOR Jointly establish Individually Jointly evaluate Performance goals: act: results and recycle MBO process Subordinates Subordinate Actively participates perform tasks Subordinates in developing while supervisor actively participates in performing goals Coaches and performance review Provides supportSUBORDINATE
Goal-Setting - Conclusion The theory emphasizes the important relationship between goals and performance. Research supports predictions that the most effective performance seems to result when goals are specific and challenging, when they are used to evaluate performance and linked to feedback on results, and create commitment and acceptance. The motivational impact of goals may be affected by moderators such as ability and self-efficacy. Deadlines improve the effectiveness of goals. A learning goal orientation leads to higher performance than a performance goal orientation, and group goal-setting is as important as individual goal-setting.
Job Design The process through which managers plan and specify job tasks and the work arrangements that allow them to be accomplished.
Job Design Goals To meet the organizational requirement such as higher productivity, operational efficiency, quality of product/ service. To satisfy the needs of the individual employees like interest, challenges, achievement or accomplishment. Integrate the needs of the individual with the organizational requirement.
Engineering Approach The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least on day in advance of each man receives in most cases complete written instructions, describing in detail the task which he/she has to accomplish – FW Taylor Problem with this approach: Repetition mechanical pacing – no end product-little social interaction – no input.
Human Approach The Human relations approach recognized the need to design jobs which are interesting and rewarding. Herzberg’s research popularized the notion of enhancing need satisfaction through what is called job enrichment. Factors involved: Motivators like achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth and Hygienic factors. According to Herzberg. The Employee is dissatisfied with the job if required maintenance factors to the required degree are not introduced into the job.
Job Description Approach Theory by Hackman and Oldham states that employees will work hard when they are rewarded for the work they do and when the work gives them satisfaction. Hence integration of motivation, satisfaction and performance with job design. FIVE CORE job dimensions: 1. Skill Variety 2. Task Identity 3. Task significance 4. Autonomy 5. Feedback
Core Job Dimension Skill Variety The degree to which the job requires a variety of activities that involve different skills and talents. Task Identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and an identifiable piece of work. The extent to which a job has a beginning and an end with a tangible outcome.
Core Job Dimension Task Significance The degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people, both in the immediate organization and in the external environment. Autonomy The degree to which the job allows the individual substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to schedule the work and determine the procedures for carrying it out. Feedback The degree to which the job activities give the individual direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
Job Design Process Job Design Process has to start from what activity needs to be done in order to achieve organizational goals. It requires use of techniques like work-study, process planning, organizational methods and organizational analysis and also technical aspects
Job Design MethodsCORE JOB Critical OutcomeCHARACTERISTICS Psychological Status Skills Variety Experienced Task Identify High Internal work Meaningfulness of the Task Significance Motivation work. High Quality Work Autonomy Performance Experienced responsibility for the outcome of work High growth satisfaction Feedback High General Job from the JOB Knowledge of Satisfaction the actual results Low Absenteeism and Turn over Mediator High work Effectiveness 1. Knowledge & skills. 2. Growth need Strength 3. “Content Satisfaction”
Job Rotation: Job Enlargement: Job Enrichment: Job Rotation: Refers to the movement of an employee from one Job to another. Please note: Jobs themselves are not actually Changed, only employees are Rotated among various jobs. Job Enlargement: When a job is enlarged the tasks being performed are either enlarged or several short tasks are given to on worker, thus the scope of the Job is increased because there are many tasks to be performed by the same worker. Job Enrichment: is currently practiced all over the work is a direct outgrowth of Herzberg’s Two factor theory of motivation.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Hygiene Factor: work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain maintenance factor contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied contributes to absence of complaints Motivation Factor : work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth job enrichment leads to superior performance & effort
Job Analysis: Need: procurement is the first operative function of personnel management which can be sub divided into various sub functions like HRP, Recruitments and Selection. Right PERSON for the RIGHT JOB at the Right Time and In a RIGHT PLACE.