ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This is a project submitted to Dr. Purvi Kothari on the topic “GLOBAL WARMING” on 28th july,2010.
INTRODUCTION Until a few decades ago, scientists generally believed that significant large-scale past global and regional climate changes occurred at a gradual pace within a time scale of many centuries of millennia. A secondary assumption followed: climate change were scarcely perceptible during a human lifetime. Recent paleoclimatic studies, however, have proven otherwise that global climate can change extremely rapidly. Humanity is now faced with the contentious problem of global warming and the potential for catastrophic climatic change. How will the global climate system react to the ever-increasing amounts of anthropogenic carbon dioxide now entering the atmosphere? Currently there is evidence that we are on a warming trend which many scientists suggest is evidence of global warming. There are researchers who argue that the same trend is a more natural adjustment of the global climate system recovering from the Little Ice Age, the last nature climate deterioration that ended 100 years ago. Global warming is a serious burning issue of the world and therefore the new age should take concrete steps towards preserving earth.
Measures to mitigate the problem of global warming are being studied and implemented on a worldwide scale under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Nevertheless, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are even forecast to increase owing to the influence of developing countries such as China, India, Russia, and Brazil, which have huge populations and are projected to achieve considerable economic growth. As such, these countries are coming to the fore as key players in prevention of global warming. The Kyoto Protocol contains GHG emission reduction targets, but mainly for developed countries; no such targets are set for developing ones. Resolution of the global warming problem will demand approaches to reduction of GHG emissions by developing countries, and especially those such as China and India.
Meaning Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the earth’s near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. Global average air temperature near the Earth’s surface rose 0.74 + 0.18 degree Celsius( 1.33 + 0.32 degree Fahrenheit) during the past century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes, “most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Natural phenomena such as solar variation combined with volcanoes have probably had a small warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950, but a small cooling effect since 1950. These basic conclusions have been endorsed by at least 30 scientific societies and academies of science, including all of the national
Academies of science of the major industrialized countries. The American Association of Petroleum geologists is the only scientific society that rejects these conclusions. A few individual scientists disagree with some of the main conclusions of the IPCC. Climate models referenced by the IPCC project that global surface temperatures are likely to increase by 1.1 to 6.4 degree Celsius (2.0 to 11.5 degree Fahrenheit) between 1990 and 2100. the range of values reflects the use of differing scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions and results of models with differences in climate sensitivity. Although most studies focus on the period up to 2010, warming and sea level rise are expected to continue for more than a millennium even if greenhouse gas levels are stabilized. This reflects the large heat capacity of the oceans.
An increase in global temperature may in turn cause other changes, including sea level rise, and changes in the amount and pattern of precipitation resulting in floods and drought. There may also be changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, though it is difficult to connect specific events to global warming. Other effects may include changes in agricultural yields, glacier retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions and increases in the ranges of disease vectors.
Global Warming Causes As said, the major cause of global warming is the emission of green house gases like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide etc into the atmosphere. The major source of carbon dioxide is the power plants. These power plants emit large amounts of carbon dioxide produced from burning of fossil fuels for the purpose of electricity generation. About twenty percent of carbon dioxide emitted in the atmosphere comes from burning of gasoline in the engines of the vehicles. This is true for most of the developed countries. Buildings, both commercial and residential represent a larger source of global warming pollution than cars and trucks.
Global Warming is Inspiring Scientists to Fight for Awareness Scientists all over the world are making predictions about the ill effects of Global warming and connecting some of the events that have taken place in the past few decades as an alarm of global warming. The effect of global warming is increasing the average temperature of the earth. A rise in earth’s temperatures can in turn root to other alterations in the ecology, including an increasing sea level and modifying the quantity and pattern of rainfall. These modifications may boost the occurrence and concentration of severe climate events, such as floods, famines, heat waves, tornados, and twisters. Other consequences may comprise of higher or lower agricultural outputs, glacier melting, lesser summer stream flows and rise in the ranges of disease vectors. As an effect of global warming species like golden toad, harlequin frog of Costa Rica has already become extinct. There are number of species that have a threat of disappearing soon as an effect of global warming. As an effect of global warming various new diseases have emerged lately. These diseases are occurring frequently due to the increase in earths average temperature since the bacteria can survive better in elevated temperatures and even multiplies faster when the conditions are favorable.
A group of scientists have recently reported on the surprisingly speedy rise in the discharge of carbon and methane release from frozen tundra in Siberia, now starting to melt because of human cause increases in earth’s temperature. The scientists tell us that the tundra is in danger of melting holds an amount of extra global warming pollution that is equivalent to the net amount that is previously in the earth's atmosphere. Likewise, earlier one more team of scientists reported that the in a single year Greenland witnessed 32 glacial earthquakes between 4.6 and 5.1 on the Richter scale. This is a disturbing sign and points that a huge destabilization that may now be in progress deep within the second biggest accretion of ice on the planet. This ice would be enough to raise sea level 20 feet worldwide if it broke up and slipped into the sea. Each day passing brings yet new proof that we are now in front of a global emergency, a climate emergency that needs instant action to piercingly decrease carbon dioxide emissions worldwide in order to turn down the earth's rising temperatures and avoid any catastrophe. It is not easy to attach any particular events to global warming, but studies prove the fact that human activities are increasing the earth’s temperature. Even though most predictions focus on the epoch up to 2100, even if no further greenhouse gases were discharged after this date, global warming and sea levelwould be likely to go on to rise for more than a millennium, since carbon- dioxide has a long average atmospheric life span.
AWARENESS OF GLOBAL WARMING Many efforts are being made by various nations to cut down the rate of global warming. One such effort is the Kyoto agreement that has been made between various nations to reduce the emissions of various green house gases. Also many non profit organizations are working for the cause. Al Gore was one of the foremost U.S. politicians to have an alarm about the hazards of global warming. He has produced a significantly acclaimed documentary movie called "An Inconvenient Truth," and written a book that archives his advice that Earth is dashing toward an immensely warmer future. Al Gore, the former vice president of United States has given various speeches to raise an awareness of global warming. He has warned people about the ill effects of Global warming and its remedies
But an interesting side of the global warming episode is that there are people who do not consider global warming as something that is creating a problem. Skeptics of global warming think that global warming is not an ecological trouble. According to the global warming skeptics, the recent enhancement in the earth's average temperature is no reason for alarm. According to them earth's coastlines and polar ice caps are not at a risk of vanishing. Global warming skeptics consider that the weather models used to establish global warming and to forecast its impacts are distorted. According to the models, if calculations are made the last few decades must have been much worse as compared to actually happened to be. Most of the global warming skeptics believe that the global warming is not actually occurring. They stress on the fact the climatic conditions vary because of volcanism, the obliquity cycle, changes in solar output, and internal variability. Also the warming can be due to the variation in cloud cover, which in turn is responsible for the temperatures on the earth. The variations are also a result of cosmic ray flux that is modulated by the solar magnetic cycles. -http://www.globalwarming.org.in/
HOW CAN YOUTH HELP PREVENT GLOBAL WARMING… 1. Drive A Vehicle Which Is A Hybrid Or An Electric Powered Vehicle The global warming problem has made transportation an even more important consideration. Traditional vehicles that use gasoline or diesel fuel have greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to global warming, but driving a hybrid or plug in electric car can reduce the emissions significantly. In the case of an electric car, as long as the electricity is obtained from alternative energy sources such as solar or wind power there are no emissions at all in the entire process. Driving a hybrid vehicle can reduce the carbon emissions which have global warming impacts by a large percentage. 2. Prevent Deforestation Efforts Deforestation and global warming are closely connected. The trees in the forests on the planet are composed of around fifty percent carbon, and the forests act as huge carbon sinks and pump clean oxygen into the air. By reducing the carbon and other greenhouse gases in the air, the trees can slow down global warming and help keep the earth in better shape. Take all steps possible to stop deforestation, and to encourage replacing the depleted forests around the world whenever possible.
3. Plant Trees, Shrubs, And Other Plants The global warming problem is getting worse, and recent news reports have shown an increase in temperature, severe storms, and ice melting from the ice shelves. Planting trees and other plants can help clean the air, trap carbon and other harmful greenhouse gases, and provide rich oxygen for the environment. Plants and trees can slow down global warming and keep the changes caused by it to a minimum. By planting living things, you are taking a big step towards reversing the effects of global warming. 4. Use Renewable Alternative Energy Sources Renewable alternative energy sources can have beneficial global warming impacts. These energy sources do not have large amounts of carbon emissions, and they are renewable. Sources such as solar power, wind power, municipal solid waste to energy, and others are renewable and can be collected without causing harm to the earth. Fossil fuels cause greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental damage, but alternative renewable energy sources do not. Using these sources of energy instead can make a big difference in the pace of global warming. 5. Use Energy Conservation Measures Conserving energy can have large global warming impacts. Taking steps to conserve energy can help the global warming problem by causing less energy demand which must be met. These steps should include making sure your home is well insulated and your appliances are energy efficient. Turn off lights when you are not in a room, and install a programmable thermostat to help heat and cool your home more efficiently while conserving energy at the same time. Walk or ride a bike instead of driving if you are only going a short distance.
6. Use Biofuels Instead Of Traditional Fuels Using biofuels in your vehicle can really help with the global warming problem. Biofuels offer many advantages when it comes to global warming impacts. These fuels have carbon emissions which are just a fraction of the carbon released by traditional fossil fuels, and they also do not release anywhere near the level of particulates and other pollutants either. This makes biofuels much more environmentally friendly, and these fuels contribute far less to global warming than traditional fuels do. Using biofuels can allow you to help fight global warming in a big way. 7. Use Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs Instead Of Incandescent Light Bulbs Changing your light bulbs to compact fluorescent light bulbs instead of using incandescent light bulbs can use about sixty percent less energy in your home each month, and this can add up in a big way. Switching all of the light bulbs in your home can save you tens of dollars or more each month on your electric bills, and you lower energy demand which helps to fight global warming.
EARTH : 2050…if Global Warming not prevented !!!! Green house gases can stay in the atmosphere for an amount of years ranging from decades to hundreds and thousands of years. No matter what we do, global warming is going to have some effect on earth. Here are the five deadliest effects of global warming if not controlled by 2050: 1. Spread of diseases: As northern countries warm, disease carrying insects migrate towards north, bringing plague and disease with them. Indeed some scientists believe that in some countries thanks to global warming, malaria has not been fully eradicated. 2. Warmer waters and more hurricanes: As the temperature of ocean rises , so will the probability of more frequent and stronger hurricanes. We saw this in 2004 and 2005.
3. Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves: Although some areas of earth will become wetter due to global warming, other areas will suffer serious droughts and heat waves. Africa will receive worst of it, with more severe droughts also expected in Europe. Water is already a dangerously rare commodity in Africa, and according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global warming will exacerbate the conditions and would lead to conflicts and wars. 4.Economic consequences: Most of the effects of anthropogenic global warming won’t be good. And these effects spell one thing for the countries of the world: economic consequences. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars in damage, diseases cost money to treat and control and conflicts exacerbate all of these.
Lastly, the most dangerous and deadliest effect of global warming: 5.Polar ice caps melting: The ice caps melting is a four-pronged danger. FIRST: It will raise see levels. There are 5,773,000 cubic miles of water in ice caps, glaciers, and permanent snow. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, if all glaciers melted today the seas would rise about 230 feet. SECOND: Melting ice caps will throw the global eco system out of balance. The ice caps are fresh water, and when they melt they will desalinate the ocean. The desalinization of the gulf current will imbalance the ocean currents, which regulate temperatures. The stream shut down or irregularity would cool the area around North East America and Western Europe.
THIRD: Temperature rises and changes landscape in the arctic circle will endanger several species of animals. Only the most adaptable will survive. FOURTH: Ice caps are white, and reflect sunlight, much of which is reflected back into space, further cooling earth if the ice caps melts, the only reflector is the ocean. Darker colours absorb sunlight, further warming the earth.
Bibliography Books: “Global Warming” by Govind Prasad Singh “Basic of environmental studies” by R.RajaGopalan Sites: www.globalwarming.org.in www.environmentalgraffiti.com
Vote of thanks We are very thankful to Dr. Purvi Kothari for giving us this topic of “global warming” and enhancing our knowledge….