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Using powerpoint in teaching

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  • While PowerPoint has been around for 18 years (PowerPoint 1.0 was released in 1987), the concept of studying PowerPoint’s effectiveness in the classroom is surprisingly new . The research is kind of thin and is based mostly on student perceptions and performance in large, undergraduate lecture classes. TRUST BUT VERIFY!
  • usability :convenience for use
  • Downright:absolute بَحْت
  • أَغْرَقَ ; غَرَّقَ ; غَطَّ inundated
  • إِدْراكِيّ ; مَعْرِفِيّ
  • When in doubt, leave it out.
  • Compare three types of note taking: 1- better from teacher and sctudent, Then from teacher even if not attend third from student
  • Print fonhts score less

Transcript

  • 1. How can I use PowerPoint to TEACH ? a presentation by Moustapha Y. Mneimneh Summer 2005
  • 2. In this Presentation
    • We’re going to look at how you can use PowerPoint to teach.
  • 3. Our goals
    • Look at the process we all go through as we learn PowerPoint.
    • Investigate student perception of PowerPoint in the classroom.
    • See if student performance supports that perception.
    • Talk about PowerPoint and student note-taking.
    • Learn a little bit about PowerPoint usability.
  • 4. PowerPoint is a tool that can be used well or poorly.
  • 5. Our PowerPoint evolution
    • Simple presentations, ones in which the message is more important than the medium.
  • 6. Our PowerPoint evolution
    • Focus shifts from the message to “gilding the lily.”
      • Content takes a back seat to the new goal of entertaining the audience.
      • We spend HOURS looking for the right sounds, pictures, or backgrounds to beautify our presentations.
  • 7. Why?
    • PowerPoint’s bells and whistles are downright appealing .
    • We ( mistakenly ) assume that if our presentations look better, so they must be better teaching tools.
  • 8. Keep in Mind
    • The primary goal of any classroom PowerPoint presentation isn’t to entertain but rather to teach .
    • And there is a HUGE difference between a business PowerPoint presentation and a classroom PowerPoint presentation.
  • 9. The problem with PowerPoint
    • PowerPoint’s fancy backgrounds, animations, builds, transitions, etc. a businessperson can
      • Impress you.
      • Close the sale.
      • Obscure the facts.
  • 10. Advertisement
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13. So, what ARE the possibilities? HORRIBLE PowerPoint presentations, ones that actually impede or inhibit learning. For example…
  • 14. Lorem Ipsum Dolor “ Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit…” clicktoaddtitle.com Leslie Harpold – Round 2
  • 15. Lorem Ipsum Dolor
    • Curabitur sed
    • Nullam pretium
    • Mauris metus
    • Curabitur sed
  • 16. Lorem Ipsum Dolor
    • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Nam erat justo, sagittis vitae, commodo ut, rhoncus lacus mit nonummy, ante.
    • Duis ligula augue, aliquam sit amet, rutrum a, gravida quis, lacus. Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis quis ipsum tincidunt vehicula. Morbi elementum dapibus est.
  • 17. Lorem Ipsum Dolor?
  • 18. Lorem Ispum Dolor!
    • “ Nam erat justo, sagittis vitae, commodo ut, rhoncus nonummy, ante. Duis ligula augue, aliquam sit amet, rutrum a, gravida quis, lacus. Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis”
  • 19. LOREM IPSUM DOLOR
    • Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis . Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere
    Ipsum Dolor!
  • 20.  
  • 21. What’s the point?
    • Powerpointless
    • The point I am trying to make is this: The fancier the PowerPoint presentation, the less valuable the ideas being presented. (Lovelace, 2001)
  • 22. Student perception What do your students feel about you using PowerPoint to teach?
  • 23. Student perception
    • Even with the endless steam of bad PowerPoint presentations we inflict on our students, students still prefer PowerPoint presentations to presentations from transparencies (Cassady, 1998; Perry & Perry, 1998; Susskind & Gurien, 1999; West, 1977) or even from a blackboard or whiteboard. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002)
    • Why?
  • 24. Student perception
    • Students believe PowerPoint has a positive effect on lectures, especially in helping them take notes and study for exams. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002)
    • Students perceive professors who deliver PowerPoint lectures as being more organized. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002)
  • 25. Student performance Does student perception equal reality?
  • 26. Three types of presentations
    • According to Bartsch & Cobern (2003), there are three types of teacher-created “multimedia” presentations used in most classrooms:
      • Transparencies
      • Basic PowerPoint, which only includes text information
      • Expanded PowerPoint, which includes pictures, sounds, movies, transitions, builds, etc.
  • 27. Ready for a shock?
    • There is no significant difference in scores on quizzes that come from transparencies and basic PowerPoint lectures. (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003)
    • Students do 10% worse on quizzes that come from expanded PowerPoint lectures. (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003)
  • 28. Wait, there’s more!
    • Does adding pictures to your presentations have a positive effect on students’ enjoyment or learning of the material?
    • NOPE! (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003)
  • 29. Interference
    • Having related pictures in your PowerPoint presentation is neither beneficial nor harmful to the students’ enjoyment or learning of the material. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003)
    • Unrelated pictures in a presentation, however, have a negative effect on students’ enjoyment and the learning of the material. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003)
  • 30. For example
    • PowerPoint 1.0 was actually derived from a product called “Presenter” that was developed by Forethought Inc. in early 1987.
    • Microsoft purchased Presenter in August of 1987 for $14 million.
    Image source: albinoblacksheep.com
  • 31. Notice the interference?
    • That picture, while humorous, had nothing to do with the real content of the slide.
    • But, I’d be willing to bet that an hour from now you’ll remember the “Howard Dean kitten” picture but completely forget how much Microsoft paid for PowerPoint in 1987.
    • The slide entertains, but fails to teach. Why? Well…
  • 32. Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
    • Students place
        • relevant words into auditory working memory and
        • relevant images into visual working memory. (Mayer, 2001)
    • Students then organize information separately in auditory and visual memory and finally integrate these representations with prior knowledge. (Mayer , 2001)
  • 33. The problem with pictures
    • The on-screen text in PowerPoint is processed in visual memory because it is seen, viewed with the eyes. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003)
    • Relevant pictures do not help because they are also stored in visual memory along with the text—no new information is added over a different channel. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003)
  • 34. In short, only use pictures to teach, not to decorate or entertain.
  • 35. PowerPoint and student notes
  • 36. Do your students need help?
    • Do your students need help taking notes?
    • In a word, YES! (Potts, 1993)
  • 37. Notes and student performance
  • 38. Giving students your notes
    • The problem is that students remember a greater proportion of the information in their own notes than in provided notes. (Kiewra, Potts, 1993)
  • 39. Solving the Notes Problem
  • 40. What is a skeletal outline? Example
  • 41. Enough about content and note-taking. Let’s talk about design.
  • 42. Which font should you use?
  • 43. Subjective test results
    • Is it easy to read?
    • Is it easy to read?
    • Is it easy to read?
    • Is it easy to read?
  • 44. Serif v. sans-serif
    • On paper, people prefer reading serif fonts—fonts with a “tail” (like Times New Roman. )
    • On screens, however, prefer sans-serif fonts—fonts without a tail (like Verdana).
  • 45. Friends don’t let friends use comic sans!
  • 46. The contrast problem
    • Many of PowerPoint’s built-in templates use light text (like a white or yellow) on a dark background (like blue or red).
    • The problem is that when light text is placed on a dark background, the text may seem to “glow” (or “halate”), making the text harder to read. (AT&T, 1989)
    • Ambient light also tends to wash out PowerPoint presentations with dark backgrounds, totally throwing the contrast (and legibility) out of whack.
  • 47. That’s all, folks!
  • 48. Our key points
    • Don’t detract: Stay away from PowerPoint’s bells and whistles like builds, transitions, animations, and sound effects.
      • The bells and whistles are for selling, not for teaching.
      • If you absolutely have to use PowerPoint’s frills, only add them to slides that contain non-testable content.
    • Only use pictures to teach, not to decorate or entertain.
  • 49. Our key points
    • To maximize student performance on fact-based tests,
      • Have your students take notes during your presentation and then give your students a copy of your presentation (and lecture notes) afterward.
      • OR give your students a skeletal outline before your presentation (with lots of white space), have your students take notes during your presentation, and then give your students a copy of your presentation (and lecture notes) afterward.
  • 50. Our key points
    • Because of diminishing attention spans, front-load the first 10 minutes of your presentation.
    • Use a sans-serif screen display font like Verdana for your on-screen presentation, and use a serif print display font like Times New Roman for your handouts.
    • Use dark text on a light background.
  • 51. References The references that follow are formatted for printing, not for on-screen display.
  • 52. References
    • AT&T. (1989) Open Look: graphical user interface application style guidelines. New York: Sun Microsystems.
    • Bartsch, R. A., & Cobern, K. M. (2003). Effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures. Computers & Education, 41, 77-86.
    • Bernard, M. (2003) Criteria for optimal web design (designing for usability). http://psychology.wichita.edu/optimalweb/text.htm
    • Cassady, J. C. (1998). Student and instructor perceptions of the efficacy of computer-aided lectures in undergraduate university courses. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 19, 175–189.
    • Connare, Vincent. Why Comic Sans? http://www.connare.com/comic.htm
    • Frey, B., & Birnbaum, D. J. (2002). Learners’ Perceptions of the Value of PowerPoint in Lectures. ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED467192
    • Hartley, J., and Davies, I. K. (1986) Note-taking: A critical review. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 15, 207.
    • Hoffman, Robert. (2004) Text Readability. http://edtechfm.sdsu.edu/bhoffman/type/font/intro.htm
    • Kiewra, K.A. (1985). Providing the instructor's notes: An effective addition to student notetaking. Educational Psychologist, 20, 33-39.
    • Lovelace, Herbert W. (2001) The Medium Is More Than The Message. Information Week, July 16, 2001. (Online)
    • Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning, p. 53. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    • Nielsen, Jakob. (1997). Be Succinct! (Writing for the Web). Alertbox, March 15, 1997. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9703b.html
    • Perry, T., & Perry, L. A. (1998). University students’ attitudes towards multimedia presentations. British Journal of Educational Technology, 29, 375–377.
    • Potts, Bonnie. (1993). Improving the quality of student notes. ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED366645.
    • Russell, I.J., Caris, T.N., Harris, G.D., & Hendricson, W.D. (1983). Effects of three types of lecture notes on medical student achievement. Journal of Medical Education, 58, 627-636.
    • Susskind, J., & Gurien, R. A. (1999, June). Do computer-generated presentations influence psychology students’ learning and motivation to succeed? Poster session presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Society, Denver, CO.
    • West, R. L. (1997). Multimedia presentations in large classes: a field experiment. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC.