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How can I use PowerPoint to  TEACH ? a presentation by Moustapha Y. Mneimneh Summer 2005
In this Presentation <ul><li>We’re going to look at how you can use PowerPoint to teach. </li></ul>
Our goals <ul><li>Look at the process we all go through as we learn PowerPoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate student perc...
PowerPoint is a tool that can be used well or poorly.
Our PowerPoint evolution <ul><li>Simple presentations, ones in which the message is more important than the medium. </li><...
Our PowerPoint evolution <ul><li>Focus shifts from the message to “gilding the lily.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content takes ...
Why? <ul><li>PowerPoint’s bells and whistles are downright appealing . </li></ul><ul><li>We ( mistakenly ) assume that if ...
Keep in Mind <ul><li>The primary goal of any  classroom  PowerPoint presentation isn’t to  entertain  but rather to  teach...
The problem with PowerPoint <ul><li>PowerPoint’s fancy backgrounds, animations, builds, transitions, etc. a businessperson...
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So, what ARE the possibilities? HORRIBLE PowerPoint presentations, ones that actually impede or inhibit learning.  For exa...
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Lorem Ispum Dolor! <ul><li>“ Nam erat justo, sagittis vitae, commodo ut, rhoncus nonummy, ante. Duis ligula augue, aliquam...
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What’s the point? <ul><li>Powerpointless </li></ul><ul><li>The point I am trying to make is this: The fancier the PowerPoi...
Student perception What do your students feel about you using PowerPoint to teach?
Student perception <ul><li>Even with the endless steam of bad PowerPoint presentations we inflict on our students, student...
Student perception <ul><li>Students believe PowerPoint has a positive effect on lectures, especially in helping them take ...
Student performance Does student perception equal reality?
Three types of presentations <ul><li>According to Bartsch & Cobern (2003), there are three types of teacher-created “multi...
Ready for a shock? <ul><li>There is no significant difference in scores on quizzes that come from transparencies and basic...
Wait, there’s more! <ul><li>Does adding pictures to your presentations have a positive effect on students’ enjoyment or le...
Interference <ul><li>Having related pictures in your PowerPoint presentation is  neither beneficial nor harmful  to the st...
For example <ul><li>PowerPoint 1.0 was actually derived from a product called “Presenter” that was developed by Forethough...
Notice the interference? <ul><li>That picture, while humorous, had  nothing  to do with the real content of the slide. </l...
Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning <ul><li>Students place  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relevant words into audi...
The problem with pictures <ul><li>The on-screen text in PowerPoint is processed in visual memory because it is seen, viewe...
In short, only use pictures to teach, not to decorate or entertain.
PowerPoint and student notes
Do your students need help? <ul><li>Do your students need help taking notes?  </li></ul><ul><li>In a word, YES!  (Potts, 1...
Notes and student performance
Giving students your notes <ul><li>The problem is that students remember a greater proportion of the information in their ...
Solving the Notes Problem
What is a skeletal outline? Example
Enough about content and note-taking.  Let’s talk about design.
Which font should you use?
Subjective test results <ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to ...
Serif v. sans-serif <ul><li>On paper, people prefer reading serif fonts—fonts with a “tail” (like  Times New Roman. ) </li...
Friends don’t let friends use comic sans!
The contrast problem <ul><li>Many of PowerPoint’s built-in templates use light text (like a white or yellow) on a dark bac...
That’s all, folks!
Our key points <ul><li>Don’t detract: Stay away from PowerPoint’s bells and whistles like builds, transitions, animations,...
Our key points <ul><li>To maximize student performance on fact-based tests,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have your students take...
Our key points <ul><li>Because of diminishing attention spans, front-load the first 10 minutes of your presentation. </li>...
References The references that follow are formatted for printing, not for on-screen display.
References <ul><li>AT&T. (1989) Open Look: graphical user interface application style guidelines. New York: Sun Microsyste...
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Using powerpoint in teaching

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  • While PowerPoint has been around for 18 years (PowerPoint 1.0 was released in 1987), the concept of studying PowerPoint’s effectiveness in the classroom is surprisingly new . The research is kind of thin and is based mostly on student perceptions and performance in large, undergraduate lecture classes. TRUST BUT VERIFY!
  • usability :convenience for use
  • Downright:absolute بَحْت
  • أَغْرَقَ ; غَرَّقَ ; غَطَّ inundated
  • إِدْراكِيّ ; مَعْرِفِيّ
  • When in doubt, leave it out.
  • Compare three types of note taking: 1- better from teacher and sctudent, Then from teacher even if not attend third from student
  • Print fonhts score less
  • Transcript of "Using powerpoint in teaching"

    1. 1. How can I use PowerPoint to TEACH ? a presentation by Moustapha Y. Mneimneh Summer 2005
    2. 2. In this Presentation <ul><li>We’re going to look at how you can use PowerPoint to teach. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Our goals <ul><li>Look at the process we all go through as we learn PowerPoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate student perception of PowerPoint in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>See if student performance supports that perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about PowerPoint and student note-taking. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn a little bit about PowerPoint usability. </li></ul>
    4. 4. PowerPoint is a tool that can be used well or poorly.
    5. 5. Our PowerPoint evolution <ul><li>Simple presentations, ones in which the message is more important than the medium. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Our PowerPoint evolution <ul><li>Focus shifts from the message to “gilding the lily.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content takes a back seat to the new goal of entertaining the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We spend HOURS looking for the right sounds, pictures, or backgrounds to beautify our presentations. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Why? <ul><li>PowerPoint’s bells and whistles are downright appealing . </li></ul><ul><li>We ( mistakenly ) assume that if our presentations look better, so they must be better teaching tools. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Keep in Mind <ul><li>The primary goal of any classroom PowerPoint presentation isn’t to entertain but rather to teach . </li></ul><ul><li>And there is a HUGE difference between a business PowerPoint presentation and a classroom PowerPoint presentation. </li></ul>
    9. 9. The problem with PowerPoint <ul><li>PowerPoint’s fancy backgrounds, animations, builds, transitions, etc. a businessperson can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impress you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close the sale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obscure the facts. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Advertisement
    11. 13. So, what ARE the possibilities? HORRIBLE PowerPoint presentations, ones that actually impede or inhibit learning. For example…
    12. 14. Lorem Ipsum Dolor “ Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit…” clicktoaddtitle.com Leslie Harpold – Round 2
    13. 15. Lorem Ipsum Dolor <ul><li>Curabitur sed </li></ul><ul><li>Nullam pretium </li></ul><ul><li>Mauris metus </li></ul><ul><li>Curabitur sed </li></ul>
    14. 16. Lorem Ipsum Dolor <ul><li>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Nam erat justo, sagittis vitae, commodo ut, rhoncus lacus mit nonummy, ante. </li></ul><ul><li>Duis ligula augue, aliquam sit amet, rutrum a, gravida quis, lacus. Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis quis ipsum tincidunt vehicula. Morbi elementum dapibus est. </li></ul>
    15. 17. Lorem Ipsum Dolor?
    16. 18. Lorem Ispum Dolor! <ul><li>“ Nam erat justo, sagittis vitae, commodo ut, rhoncus nonummy, ante. Duis ligula augue, aliquam sit amet, rutrum a, gravida quis, lacus. Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis” </li></ul>
    17. 19. LOREM IPSUM DOLOR <ul><li>Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis . Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere </li></ul>Ipsum Dolor!
    18. 21. What’s the point? <ul><li>Powerpointless </li></ul><ul><li>The point I am trying to make is this: The fancier the PowerPoint presentation, the less valuable the ideas being presented. (Lovelace, 2001) </li></ul>
    19. 22. Student perception What do your students feel about you using PowerPoint to teach?
    20. 23. Student perception <ul><li>Even with the endless steam of bad PowerPoint presentations we inflict on our students, students still prefer PowerPoint presentations to presentations from transparencies (Cassady, 1998; Perry & Perry, 1998; Susskind & Gurien, 1999; West, 1977) or even from a blackboard or whiteboard. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    21. 24. Student perception <ul><li>Students believe PowerPoint has a positive effect on lectures, especially in helping them take notes and study for exams. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Students perceive professors who deliver PowerPoint lectures as being more organized. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002) </li></ul>
    22. 25. Student performance Does student perception equal reality?
    23. 26. Three types of presentations <ul><li>According to Bartsch & Cobern (2003), there are three types of teacher-created “multimedia” presentations used in most classrooms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic PowerPoint, which only includes text information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded PowerPoint, which includes pictures, sounds, movies, transitions, builds, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 27. Ready for a shock? <ul><li>There is no significant difference in scores on quizzes that come from transparencies and basic PowerPoint lectures. (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Students do 10% worse on quizzes that come from expanded PowerPoint lectures. (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003) </li></ul>
    25. 28. Wait, there’s more! <ul><li>Does adding pictures to your presentations have a positive effect on students’ enjoyment or learning of the material? </li></ul><ul><li>NOPE! (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003) </li></ul>
    26. 29. Interference <ul><li>Having related pictures in your PowerPoint presentation is neither beneficial nor harmful to the students’ enjoyment or learning of the material. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Unrelated pictures in a presentation, however, have a negative effect on students’ enjoyment and the learning of the material. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003) </li></ul>
    27. 30. For example <ul><li>PowerPoint 1.0 was actually derived from a product called “Presenter” that was developed by Forethought Inc. in early 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft purchased Presenter in August of 1987 for $14 million. </li></ul>Image source: albinoblacksheep.com
    28. 31. Notice the interference? <ul><li>That picture, while humorous, had nothing to do with the real content of the slide. </li></ul><ul><li>But, I’d be willing to bet that an hour from now you’ll remember the “Howard Dean kitten” picture but completely forget how much Microsoft paid for PowerPoint in 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>The slide entertains, but fails to teach. Why? Well… </li></ul>
    29. 32. Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning <ul><li>Students place </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relevant words into auditory working memory and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relevant images into visual working memory. (Mayer, 2001) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Students then organize information separately in auditory and visual memory and finally integrate these representations with prior knowledge. (Mayer , 2001) </li></ul>
    30. 33. The problem with pictures <ul><li>The on-screen text in PowerPoint is processed in visual memory because it is seen, viewed with the eyes. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant pictures do not help because they are also stored in visual memory along with the text—no new information is added over a different channel. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003) </li></ul>
    31. 34. In short, only use pictures to teach, not to decorate or entertain.
    32. 35. PowerPoint and student notes
    33. 36. Do your students need help? <ul><li>Do your students need help taking notes? </li></ul><ul><li>In a word, YES! (Potts, 1993) </li></ul>
    34. 37. Notes and student performance
    35. 38. Giving students your notes <ul><li>The problem is that students remember a greater proportion of the information in their own notes than in provided notes. (Kiewra, Potts, 1993) </li></ul>
    36. 39. Solving the Notes Problem
    37. 40. What is a skeletal outline? Example
    38. 41. Enough about content and note-taking. Let’s talk about design.
    39. 42. Which font should you use?
    40. 43. Subjective test results <ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul>
    41. 44. Serif v. sans-serif <ul><li>On paper, people prefer reading serif fonts—fonts with a “tail” (like Times New Roman. ) </li></ul><ul><li>On screens, however, prefer sans-serif fonts—fonts without a tail (like Verdana). </li></ul>
    42. 45. Friends don’t let friends use comic sans!
    43. 46. The contrast problem <ul><li>Many of PowerPoint’s built-in templates use light text (like a white or yellow) on a dark background (like blue or red). </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is that when light text is placed on a dark background, the text may seem to “glow” (or “halate”), making the text harder to read. (AT&T, 1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient light also tends to wash out PowerPoint presentations with dark backgrounds, totally throwing the contrast (and legibility) out of whack. </li></ul>
    44. 47. That’s all, folks!
    45. 48. Our key points <ul><li>Don’t detract: Stay away from PowerPoint’s bells and whistles like builds, transitions, animations, and sound effects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bells and whistles are for selling, not for teaching. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you absolutely have to use PowerPoint’s frills, only add them to slides that contain non-testable content. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only use pictures to teach, not to decorate or entertain. </li></ul>
    46. 49. Our key points <ul><li>To maximize student performance on fact-based tests, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have your students take notes during your presentation and then give your students a copy of your presentation (and lecture notes) afterward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR give your students a skeletal outline before your presentation (with lots of white space), have your students take notes during your presentation, and then give your students a copy of your presentation (and lecture notes) afterward. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 50. Our key points <ul><li>Because of diminishing attention spans, front-load the first 10 minutes of your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a sans-serif screen display font like Verdana for your on-screen presentation, and use a serif print display font like Times New Roman for your handouts. </li></ul><ul><li>Use dark text on a light background. </li></ul>
    48. 51. References The references that follow are formatted for printing, not for on-screen display.
    49. 52. References <ul><li>AT&T. (1989) Open Look: graphical user interface application style guidelines. New York: Sun Microsystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Bartsch, R. A., & Cobern, K. M. (2003). Effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures. Computers & Education, 41, 77-86. </li></ul><ul><li>Bernard, M. (2003) Criteria for optimal web design (designing for usability). http://psychology.wichita.edu/optimalweb/text.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Cassady, J. C. (1998). Student and instructor perceptions of the efficacy of computer-aided lectures in undergraduate university courses. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 19, 175–189. </li></ul><ul><li>Connare, Vincent. Why Comic Sans? http://www.connare.com/comic.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Frey, B., & Birnbaum, D. J. (2002). Learners’ Perceptions of the Value of PowerPoint in Lectures. ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED467192 </li></ul><ul><li>Hartley, J., and Davies, I. K. (1986) Note-taking: A critical review. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 15, 207. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoffman, Robert. (2004) Text Readability. http://edtechfm.sdsu.edu/bhoffman/type/font/intro.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Kiewra, K.A. (1985). Providing the instructor's notes: An effective addition to student notetaking. Educational Psychologist, 20, 33-39. </li></ul><ul><li>Lovelace, Herbert W. (2001) The Medium Is More Than The Message. Information Week, July 16, 2001. (Online) </li></ul><ul><li>Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning, p. 53. New York: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Nielsen, Jakob. (1997). Be Succinct! (Writing for the Web). Alertbox, March 15, 1997. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9703b.html </li></ul><ul><li>Perry, T., & Perry, L. A. (1998). University students’ attitudes towards multimedia presentations. British Journal of Educational Technology, 29, 375–377. </li></ul><ul><li>Potts, Bonnie. (1993). Improving the quality of student notes. ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED366645. </li></ul><ul><li>Russell, I.J., Caris, T.N., Harris, G.D., & Hendricson, W.D. (1983). Effects of three types of lecture notes on medical student achievement. Journal of Medical Education, 58, 627-636. </li></ul><ul><li>Susskind, J., & Gurien, R. A. (1999, June). Do computer-generated presentations influence psychology students’ learning and motivation to succeed? Poster session presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Society, Denver, CO. </li></ul><ul><li>West, R. L. (1997). Multimedia presentations in large classes: a field experiment. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC. </li></ul>
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