Using powerpoint in teaching


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  • While PowerPoint has been around for 18 years (PowerPoint 1.0 was released in 1987), the concept of studying PowerPoint’s effectiveness in the classroom is surprisingly new . The research is kind of thin and is based mostly on student perceptions and performance in large, undergraduate lecture classes. TRUST BUT VERIFY!
  • usability :convenience for use
  • Downright:absolute بَحْت
  • أَغْرَقَ ; غَرَّقَ ; غَطَّ inundated
  • إِدْراكِيّ ; مَعْرِفِيّ
  • When in doubt, leave it out.
  • Compare three types of note taking: 1- better from teacher and sctudent, Then from teacher even if not attend third from student
  • Print fonhts score less
  • Using powerpoint in teaching

    1. 1. How can I use PowerPoint to TEACH ? a presentation by Moustapha Y. Mneimneh Summer 2005
    2. 2. In this Presentation <ul><li>We’re going to look at how you can use PowerPoint to teach. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Our goals <ul><li>Look at the process we all go through as we learn PowerPoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate student perception of PowerPoint in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>See if student performance supports that perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about PowerPoint and student note-taking. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn a little bit about PowerPoint usability. </li></ul>
    4. 4. PowerPoint is a tool that can be used well or poorly.
    5. 5. Our PowerPoint evolution <ul><li>Simple presentations, ones in which the message is more important than the medium. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Our PowerPoint evolution <ul><li>Focus shifts from the message to “gilding the lily.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content takes a back seat to the new goal of entertaining the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We spend HOURS looking for the right sounds, pictures, or backgrounds to beautify our presentations. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Why? <ul><li>PowerPoint’s bells and whistles are downright appealing . </li></ul><ul><li>We ( mistakenly ) assume that if our presentations look better, so they must be better teaching tools. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Keep in Mind <ul><li>The primary goal of any classroom PowerPoint presentation isn’t to entertain but rather to teach . </li></ul><ul><li>And there is a HUGE difference between a business PowerPoint presentation and a classroom PowerPoint presentation. </li></ul>
    9. 9. The problem with PowerPoint <ul><li>PowerPoint’s fancy backgrounds, animations, builds, transitions, etc. a businessperson can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impress you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close the sale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obscure the facts. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Advertisement
    11. 13. So, what ARE the possibilities? HORRIBLE PowerPoint presentations, ones that actually impede or inhibit learning. For example…
    12. 14. Lorem Ipsum Dolor “ Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit…” Leslie Harpold – Round 2
    13. 15. Lorem Ipsum Dolor <ul><li>Curabitur sed </li></ul><ul><li>Nullam pretium </li></ul><ul><li>Mauris metus </li></ul><ul><li>Curabitur sed </li></ul>
    14. 16. Lorem Ipsum Dolor <ul><li>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Nam erat justo, sagittis vitae, commodo ut, rhoncus lacus mit nonummy, ante. </li></ul><ul><li>Duis ligula augue, aliquam sit amet, rutrum a, gravida quis, lacus. Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis quis ipsum tincidunt vehicula. Morbi elementum dapibus est. </li></ul>
    15. 17. Lorem Ipsum Dolor?
    16. 18. Lorem Ispum Dolor! <ul><li>“ Nam erat justo, sagittis vitae, commodo ut, rhoncus nonummy, ante. Duis ligula augue, aliquam sit amet, rutrum a, gravida quis, lacus. Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis” </li></ul>
    17. 19. LOREM IPSUM DOLOR <ul><li>Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis . Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere </li></ul>Ipsum Dolor!
    18. 21. What’s the point? <ul><li>Powerpointless </li></ul><ul><li>The point I am trying to make is this: The fancier the PowerPoint presentation, the less valuable the ideas being presented. (Lovelace, 2001) </li></ul>
    19. 22. Student perception What do your students feel about you using PowerPoint to teach?
    20. 23. Student perception <ul><li>Even with the endless steam of bad PowerPoint presentations we inflict on our students, students still prefer PowerPoint presentations to presentations from transparencies (Cassady, 1998; Perry & Perry, 1998; Susskind & Gurien, 1999; West, 1977) or even from a blackboard or whiteboard. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    21. 24. Student perception <ul><li>Students believe PowerPoint has a positive effect on lectures, especially in helping them take notes and study for exams. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Students perceive professors who deliver PowerPoint lectures as being more organized. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002) </li></ul>
    22. 25. Student performance Does student perception equal reality?
    23. 26. Three types of presentations <ul><li>According to Bartsch & Cobern (2003), there are three types of teacher-created “multimedia” presentations used in most classrooms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic PowerPoint, which only includes text information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded PowerPoint, which includes pictures, sounds, movies, transitions, builds, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 27. Ready for a shock? <ul><li>There is no significant difference in scores on quizzes that come from transparencies and basic PowerPoint lectures. (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Students do 10% worse on quizzes that come from expanded PowerPoint lectures. (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003) </li></ul>
    25. 28. Wait, there’s more! <ul><li>Does adding pictures to your presentations have a positive effect on students’ enjoyment or learning of the material? </li></ul><ul><li>NOPE! (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003) </li></ul>
    26. 29. Interference <ul><li>Having related pictures in your PowerPoint presentation is neither beneficial nor harmful to the students’ enjoyment or learning of the material. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Unrelated pictures in a presentation, however, have a negative effect on students’ enjoyment and the learning of the material. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003) </li></ul>
    27. 30. For example <ul><li>PowerPoint 1.0 was actually derived from a product called “Presenter” that was developed by Forethought Inc. in early 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft purchased Presenter in August of 1987 for $14 million. </li></ul>Image source:
    28. 31. Notice the interference? <ul><li>That picture, while humorous, had nothing to do with the real content of the slide. </li></ul><ul><li>But, I’d be willing to bet that an hour from now you’ll remember the “Howard Dean kitten” picture but completely forget how much Microsoft paid for PowerPoint in 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>The slide entertains, but fails to teach. Why? Well… </li></ul>
    29. 32. Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning <ul><li>Students place </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relevant words into auditory working memory and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relevant images into visual working memory. (Mayer, 2001) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Students then organize information separately in auditory and visual memory and finally integrate these representations with prior knowledge. (Mayer , 2001) </li></ul>
    30. 33. The problem with pictures <ul><li>The on-screen text in PowerPoint is processed in visual memory because it is seen, viewed with the eyes. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant pictures do not help because they are also stored in visual memory along with the text—no new information is added over a different channel. (Bartsch & Cobern , 2003) </li></ul>
    31. 34. In short, only use pictures to teach, not to decorate or entertain.
    32. 35. PowerPoint and student notes
    33. 36. Do your students need help? <ul><li>Do your students need help taking notes? </li></ul><ul><li>In a word, YES! (Potts, 1993) </li></ul>
    34. 37. Notes and student performance
    35. 38. Giving students your notes <ul><li>The problem is that students remember a greater proportion of the information in their own notes than in provided notes. (Kiewra, Potts, 1993) </li></ul>
    36. 39. Solving the Notes Problem
    37. 40. What is a skeletal outline? Example
    38. 41. Enough about content and note-taking. Let’s talk about design.
    39. 42. Which font should you use?
    40. 43. Subjective test results <ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to read? </li></ul>
    41. 44. Serif v. sans-serif <ul><li>On paper, people prefer reading serif fonts—fonts with a “tail” (like Times New Roman. ) </li></ul><ul><li>On screens, however, prefer sans-serif fonts—fonts without a tail (like Verdana). </li></ul>
    42. 45. Friends don’t let friends use comic sans!
    43. 46. The contrast problem <ul><li>Many of PowerPoint’s built-in templates use light text (like a white or yellow) on a dark background (like blue or red). </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is that when light text is placed on a dark background, the text may seem to “glow” (or “halate”), making the text harder to read. (AT&T, 1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient light also tends to wash out PowerPoint presentations with dark backgrounds, totally throwing the contrast (and legibility) out of whack. </li></ul>
    44. 47. That’s all, folks!
    45. 48. Our key points <ul><li>Don’t detract: Stay away from PowerPoint’s bells and whistles like builds, transitions, animations, and sound effects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bells and whistles are for selling, not for teaching. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you absolutely have to use PowerPoint’s frills, only add them to slides that contain non-testable content. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only use pictures to teach, not to decorate or entertain. </li></ul>
    46. 49. Our key points <ul><li>To maximize student performance on fact-based tests, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have your students take notes during your presentation and then give your students a copy of your presentation (and lecture notes) afterward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR give your students a skeletal outline before your presentation (with lots of white space), have your students take notes during your presentation, and then give your students a copy of your presentation (and lecture notes) afterward. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 50. Our key points <ul><li>Because of diminishing attention spans, front-load the first 10 minutes of your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a sans-serif screen display font like Verdana for your on-screen presentation, and use a serif print display font like Times New Roman for your handouts. </li></ul><ul><li>Use dark text on a light background. </li></ul>
    48. 51. References The references that follow are formatted for printing, not for on-screen display.
    49. 52. References <ul><li>AT&T. (1989) Open Look: graphical user interface application style guidelines. New York: Sun Microsystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Bartsch, R. A., & Cobern, K. M. (2003). Effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures. Computers & Education, 41, 77-86. </li></ul><ul><li>Bernard, M. (2003) Criteria for optimal web design (designing for usability). </li></ul><ul><li>Cassady, J. C. (1998). Student and instructor perceptions of the efficacy of computer-aided lectures in undergraduate university courses. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 19, 175–189. </li></ul><ul><li>Connare, Vincent. Why Comic Sans? </li></ul><ul><li>Frey, B., & Birnbaum, D. J. (2002). Learners’ Perceptions of the Value of PowerPoint in Lectures. ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED467192 </li></ul><ul><li>Hartley, J., and Davies, I. K. (1986) Note-taking: A critical review. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 15, 207. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoffman, Robert. (2004) Text Readability. </li></ul><ul><li>Kiewra, K.A. (1985). Providing the instructor's notes: An effective addition to student notetaking. Educational Psychologist, 20, 33-39. </li></ul><ul><li>Lovelace, Herbert W. (2001) The Medium Is More Than The Message. Information Week, July 16, 2001. (Online) </li></ul><ul><li>Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning, p. 53. New York: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Nielsen, Jakob. (1997). Be Succinct! (Writing for the Web). Alertbox, March 15, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Perry, T., & Perry, L. A. (1998). University students’ attitudes towards multimedia presentations. British Journal of Educational Technology, 29, 375–377. </li></ul><ul><li>Potts, Bonnie. (1993). Improving the quality of student notes. ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED366645. </li></ul><ul><li>Russell, I.J., Caris, T.N., Harris, G.D., & Hendricson, W.D. (1983). Effects of three types of lecture notes on medical student achievement. Journal of Medical Education, 58, 627-636. </li></ul><ul><li>Susskind, J., & Gurien, R. A. (1999, June). Do computer-generated presentations influence psychology students’ learning and motivation to succeed? Poster session presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Society, Denver, CO. </li></ul><ul><li>West, R. L. (1997). Multimedia presentations in large classes: a field experiment. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC. </li></ul>