1. Save the WaterBy:Feras AL-WazzanAhmad AI-SubhiNizar Al-ajmaiSaud AI-FawazHazem Al-Derbas
2. Before we go into on how to save water we shouldknow what is water first. Water is a chemicalsubstance with the chemical formula H 2 0. Awater molecule contains one oxygen andtwo hydrogen atoms connectedby covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient .conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth withits solid state, ice, and gaseous state (watervapor or steam). Water also exists inliquid state near hydrophilic surfaces. Undernomenclature used to name chemicalcompounds, Dehydrogenate monoxide is thescientific name for water, though it is almostnever used.Is water importuned for living creatures and whereis it found? Water covers 70.9% of the Earthssurface, and is vital for all known formsof life. On Earth, 96.5% of the planets water isfound in oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% inglaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica andGreenland, a small fraction in other large
3. water bodies, and 0.001 % inthe air as vapor, clouds(formed of solid andliquid water particles suspended in air),and precipitation. Only 2.5% of the Earthswater is freshwater, and 98.80/0 of that water isin ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of allfreshwater is in rivers, lakes, and theatmosphere, and an even smaller amount ofthe Earths freshwater (0.003%) is containedwithin biological bodies and manufacturedproducts.Safe drinking water is essential to humans andother life forms. Access to safe drinking waterhas improved over the last decades in almostevery part of the world, but approximately onebillion people still lack access to safe waterand over 2.5 billion lack access to adequatesanitation. There is a clear correlation betweenaccess to safe water and GDP percapita. However, some observers haveestimated that by 2025 more than half ofthe world population will be facing water-basedvulnerability. A recent report (November 2009)suggests that by 2030, in some developingregions of the world, water demand willexceed supply by 50%. Water plays an
4. important role in the world economy, as itfunctions as a solvent for a wide variety ofchemical substances and facilitates industrialcooling and transportation. Approximately 70%of the fresh water used by humans goesto agriculture.Seeing as we live in KSA Saudi Arabia is one ofthe driest regions in the world, with noperennial rivers. Water is obtained from fourdistinct sources: · non-renewable groundwater from the deep fossil aquifers· desalinated water· surface water· renewable groundwater from shallow alluvial aquifersOnly the last two sources are renewable. Theirvolume, however, is minimal. Current levels ofgroundwater extraction far exceed the level ofnatural recharge: Groundwater is being"mined". For example, the AI-Ahsaaquifer inthe Eastern Province experienced a drop of150 meters over the past 25 years. Since theusable volume of the aquifers is not known, itis not clear how long groundwater mining canbe sustained.
5. Now by following some steps you could help save the world by saving our water at home."Water conservation in the household":1. Check faucets and pipes forJeaksA small drip from a worn faucet washer canwaste 20 gallons of water per day. Largerleaks can waste hundreds of gallons.2. Dont use the toilet as an ashtray orwastebasketEvery time you flush a cigarette facial tissueor other small bit of trash, five to sevengallons of water is wasted.3. Check your toilets for leaksPut a little food coloring in your toilet tank. If,without flushing, the color begins to appearin the bowl within 30 minutes, you have aleak that should be repaired immediately.Most replacement parts are inexpensive andeasy to install.4. Use your water meter to check for hiddenwater leaksRead the house water meter before and
6. after a two-hour period when no water isbeing used. If the meter does not readexactly the same, there is a leak.5 .. Installwater.. saving shower heads andlow..flow faucet aeratorsInexpensive water-saving low-flow showerheads or restrictors are easy for thehomeownectoinstall. Also, long, hotshowers can use five to ten gallons everyunneeded minute. Limit your showers to thetime it takesto soap up, wash down andrinse off. "Low-flow" means it uses less than2.5 gallons per minute.You can easily installa ShowerStart showerhead, or add aShowerStarlconverter to existing . .showerheads,whichautomatically pauses arunning shower once it gets warm.Also, allhouseh61dfaucetsshould be.fitwith aerators. This single best home waterconservation method is also the cheapest!6. Put plastic bottles or float booster in yourtoilet tankTo cut down on water waste, put an inch or
7. two of sand or pebbles inside each of twoplastic bottles to weigh them down. Fill thebottles with water, screw the lids on,and putthem in your toilettank, safely away frorn theoperating mechanisms. Or, buy aninexpensive tank bank orfloat booster. Thismay save ten or more gallons of water perday.Be sure at least 3 gallons of water remain inthe tank so it will flush properly. If there isnot enough water to get a proper flush,users will hold the lever down too long or domultiple flushes to get rid of waste. Twoflushings at 1.4 gallons is worse than asingle 2.0 gallon flush. A better suggestionwould be to buy an adjustable toilet flapper . .that allow for adjustment of their per ·flushuse. Then the user can adjust the flush rateto the minimum per flush settingthat .achieves a single good flush each time.For new installations, consider buying "lowflush" toilets, which use 1 to 2 gallons perflush instead of the usual 3 to 5 gallons.
8. Replacing an 18 liter per flush toilet with anultra-low volume (UL V) 6 liter flush modelrepresents a 70% savings in water flushedandwiiJcut indoor water use by about 30%.7. Insulate your water pipes.Its easy and inexpensive to insulate yourwater pipes with pre-slit foam pipeinsulation. Youll get hot water faster plusavoid wasting water while it heats up.8. Take shorter showers.One way to cutdown on water use is to turnoff the shower after soaping up, and thenturn it back on to rinse. A four-minuteshower uses approximately 20 to 40 gallonsof water.9. Turn off the water after you wet yourtoothbrushThere is no need to keep the water runningwhile brushing your teeth. Just wet yourbrush and fill a glass for mouth rinsing.10. Rinse your razor in the sinkFill the sink with a few inches of warm water.
9. This will rinse your razor just as well asrunning water, with far less waste of water.11. Use your dishwasher and clotheswasher for only full loadsAutomatic dishwashers and clothes washersshould be fully loaded for optimum waterconservation. Most makers of dishwashingsoap recommend not pre-rinsing disheswhich is a big water savings.With clothes washers, avoid the permanentpress cycle, which uses an added 20 liters( 5 gallons) for the extra rinse. For partialloads,adjust water levels to match the sizeof the load. Replace old clothes washers.Nevv Energy Star rated washers use 35 -50% less water and 50% less energy perload. If youre in the market for a newclothes washer, consider buying a water-saving frontload washer.12. Minimize use of kitchen sink garbagedisposal unitsIn-sink carburetors require lots of water tooperate properly, and also add considerablyto the volume of solids in a septic tank which
10. .--, ., can lead to maintenance problems. Start a compost pile as an alte rnate .m.ethodof ... . ,. .., . disposing . foodwaste. 13. When washing dishes by hand, dont -- leave thewatei running for rinsing If you have a double-basin, fill one with soapy water and one with rinse water. If you .have a single-basin sink, gather washed dishes in a dish rack and rinse them with a spray device or a pan full of hot water. Dual~ swivel aerators are available to make this easier. If using a dishwasher, there is · .usually no need to pre-rinse the dishes. 14. Dont let the faucet run while you clean vegetablesII Just rinse them ina stoppered sink or a pan of clean water. Use a dual~setting aerator.I ~1 ~ 15. Keep a boUle of drinking water in thej - fridge.I - Running tap water to cool it off for drinkingI _. water is wasteful. Store drinking water in the1 - fridge in a safe drinking bottle. If you are filling water bottles to bring along on outdoor -----------===~~==~~~~~====~~--~--~---
11. not to water when its windy - wind can blowsprinklers off target and speed evap()ration.22. Add organic matter and use efficientwatering systems for shrubs flower beds and lawnsAdding organic material to your soil will helpincrease its absorption and water retention.Are.as which are already planted can be topdressed with compost or organic matter.You can greatly reduce the amount of waterused for shrubs, beds and lawns by:- the strategic placement of soaker hoses- installing a rain barrel water catchmentsystem-- installing a simple drip-irrigation systemAvoid over...watering plants and shrubs, as thiscan actually diminish plant health and causeyellowing of the leaves.When hand watering, use a variable spraynozzle for targeted watering.23. Dont run the hose while washing your car
12. Clean the car using a pail of soapy water. Usethe hose only for rinsing- this simple practicecan save as much as 150 gallons whenwashing a car. Use a spray nozzle whenrinsing for more efficient use of water. BettE3 r.yet, use a waterless car ""ashingsystem; thereare several brands, such as EcoTouch, whichare now on the market.24. Use a broom, .not a hose, to cleandriveways and sidewalks25. Check for leaks in pipes, hoses, faucets pand couplingsLeaks outside the house may not seem as badsince they"re not as visible. But they can bejust as wasteful as leaks indoors. Checkfrequently to keep them drip-free. Use hosewashers at spigots and hose connections toeliminate leaks.Water conservation comes naturally wheneveryone in the family is aware of itsimportance, and parents take the time to teachchildren some of the simple water-saving
13. methods around the home which can make abig difference. Bad) 1..1 ~~ Dish . . ,ra shillg: "• •1: I .. -~. •;4! lili Faucet ",r.:.. " 7"
14. Links used in this research paper:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water suphttp://en.wikipedia.org!wiki!Waterply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia#Water usehttp://www.google.com.sa!imgres?q=save+water&um=l&hl=ar&safe=active&sa=N&tbm=isch&tbnid=KxVVfM HK RIDuM:&imgrefurl=http://khmx.radio.com/2010/10/15/support-houstons-efforts-to-save-water-and-compost/&docid=M3q3rv9ImzLhgM&imgurl=http://cbskilt.files.wordpress.com/2010/1O/savewater.ipg%253Fw%253D385%2526h%253D284&w=385&h=284&~i=XK9ST4aSDJLN4QSCnbCJDw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=343&sig=113078171736073564674&page=2&tbnh=140&tbnw=187&start=19&ndsp=26&ved=lt:429,r:4,s:19&tx=106&ty=6O&biw=1366&bih=667