Geocoding in Geographic Information Systems
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Geocoding in Geographic Information Systems

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Discusses concepts of geocoding for geographic information retrieval (IR) systems and a "geocoding toolkit" for a paper I am working on to assist in creating ontologies and testing them in geographic ...

Discusses concepts of geocoding for geographic information retrieval (IR) systems and a "geocoding toolkit" for a paper I am working on to assist in creating ontologies and testing them in geographic information retrieval systems.

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Geocoding in Geographic Information Systems Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Geocoding in Geographic Information Retrieval Systems UT-Knoxville Geography Research Symposium 02/22/2014 Tanner Jessel School of Information Sciences
  • 2. What is Geocoding? ➲ Geography + Code = Geocode  Place + Space  Assigning geographic coordinates to a recognized location.  Location + Spatial Coordinates
  • 3. What is Geocoding? Means different things to different practitioners  Addresses  Objects  People  Animals / Habitats
  • 4. What is Geocoding?  Sometimes referred to as “Georeferencing” or “Geotagging.”  1955 – 2008 Google “ngram” illustrates trend  Interdisciplinary
  • 5. Geocode (Blue) Georeference (Red)
  • 6. Interdisciplinary
  • 7. Georeferencing Knoxville, Tennessee – what do you think of?
  • 8. Georeferencing in IR Knoxville, Tennessee – what Google thinks
  • 9. Georeferencing in IR Knoxville, Tennessee – what Bing thinks
  • 10. Georeferencing in IR Knoxville, Tennessee – what Bing thinks you think
  • 11. Georeferencing in IR ➲ How do we answer this question?  What do we mean by “Edinburgh”  What do we consider “near” Query: what castles are near Edinburgh?
  • 12. Georeferencing in IR ➲ Which castle?  Scotland?  Jamaica?
  • 13. Georeferencing in IR ➲ What is “near?”  1 km?  3 km?  20 km?
  • 14. Georeferencing in IR ➲ Match text to known “footprint,” or space an object occupies  Castle footprint is known  City footprint is known  Country footprint is known
  • 15. Geoparsing ➲ Evaluate the geographic context of an item ➲ “Castles near Edinburgh”  A physical place  Implied location  Edinburgh  Scotland  United Kingdom  Europe
  • 16. Geoparsing ➲ Possible castle names  Craigmillar Castle  Edinburgh Castle  Lauriston Castle  Tantallon Castle  Chricton Castle  Blackness Castle  Dirleton Castle
  • 17. Gazetteer ➲ Links a name to a footprint (point or area)
  • 18. Gazetteer ➲ Links a name to a footprint (point or area)
  • 19. Gazetteer ➲ Geographical Index or Dictionary
  • 20. Ontology for Geo IR ➲ Pragmatic Ontology: how entities can be grouped in a hierarchy ➲ Nation ➲ State ➲ County ➲ City ➲ Neighborhood
  • 21. Ontology for Geo IR ➲ Semantic Ontology ➲ words have different meanings to different groups  “Skin Temperature” of Atmospheric Scientists  “Surface Temperature” of Marine Scientists  Both are same data point, but mean different things to different communities of scientists ➲ Technology can handle these differences ➲ “Semantic” mediation ➲ Applies to spatial domain
  • 22. Real-World Ontology
  • 23. Ontology to Computer
  • 24. Metadata: Machine Friendly ➲ Place ➲ Time ➲ Geographic Coordinates ➲ Geographic Footprint (Area coverage) ➲ Relationships  Parent  Child  Similarities
  • 25. Geographical Information Retrieval System ➲ Spatially Aware ➲ Can handle spatial queries  Castles  Within 1 KM of  Edinburg (Scotland)
  • 26. Geographical Information Retrieval System
  • 27. Geographic Information Retrieval System Application
  • 28. Geocoding Toolkit ➲ Research effort reviewed 53 citations  Extracted tools mentioned across citations ➲ Categorized tools: Geographic IR Tools Disambiguation Tools Georeferencing Tools Error Calculation Tools Ontology Tools Algorithmic and Programming Tools Geographic IR Systems Visualization Tools Database Tools Thesauri Tools Extraction Tools
  • 29. Need? ➲ Tools for automation of geocoding / georeferencing
  • 30. Next Steps ➲ Specialized gazetteers for subject areas are needed  These reliably link place to space  They enable spatial queries ➲ Specialized ontologies for domain-specific applications are needed  These establish relationships between objects in the real and virtual worlds  They enable spatial queries
  • 31. Questions?