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Geocoding in Geographic
Information Retrieval Systems
UT-Knoxville Geography Research Symposium
02/22/2014
Tanner Jessel
S...
What is Geocoding?
➲ Geography + Code = Geocode
 Place + Space
 Assigning geographic coordinates to a recognized
locatio...
What is Geocoding?
Means different things to different
practitioners
 Addresses
 Objects
 People
 Animals / Habitats
What is Geocoding?
 Sometimes referred to as “Georeferencing” or
“Geotagging.”
 1955 – 2008 Google “ngram” illustrates t...
Geocode (Blue) Georeference (Red)
Interdisciplinary
Georeferencing
Knoxville, Tennessee – what do you think of?
Georeferencing in IR
Knoxville, Tennessee – what Google thinks
Georeferencing in IR
Knoxville, Tennessee – what Bing thinks
Georeferencing in IR
Knoxville, Tennessee – what Bing thinks you
think
Georeferencing in IR
➲ How do we answer this question?
 What do we mean by “Edinburgh”
 What do we consider “near”
Query...
Georeferencing in IR
➲ Which castle?
 Scotland?
 Jamaica?
Georeferencing in IR
➲ What is “near?”
 1 km?
 3 km?
 20 km?
Georeferencing in IR
➲ Match text to known “footprint,” or space an
object occupies
 Castle footprint is known
 City foo...
Geoparsing
➲ Evaluate the geographic context of an item
➲ “Castles near Edinburgh”
 A physical place
 Implied location
...
Geoparsing
➲ Possible castle names
 Craigmillar Castle
 Edinburgh Castle
 Lauriston Castle
 Tantallon Castle
 Chricto...
Gazetteer
➲ Links a name to a footprint (point or area)
Gazetteer
➲ Links a name to a footprint (point or area)
Gazetteer
➲ Geographical Index or Dictionary
Ontology for Geo IR
➲ Pragmatic Ontology: how entities can be
grouped in a hierarchy
➲ Nation
➲ State
➲ County
➲ City
➲ Ne...
Ontology for Geo IR
➲ Semantic Ontology
➲ words have different meanings to different
groups
 “Skin Temperature” of Atmosp...
Real-World Ontology
Ontology to Computer
Metadata: Machine Friendly
➲ Place
➲ Time
➲ Geographic Coordinates
➲ Geographic Footprint (Area coverage)
➲ Relationships
...
Geographical Information Retrieval
System
➲ Spatially Aware
➲ Can handle spatial queries
 Castles
 Within 1 KM of
 Edin...
Geographical Information Retrieval
System
Geographic Information Retrieval
System Application
Geocoding Toolkit
➲ Research effort reviewed 53 citations
 Extracted tools mentioned across citations
➲ Categorized tools...
Need?
➲ Tools for automation of geocoding /
georeferencing
Next Steps
➲ Specialized gazetteers for subject areas are
needed
 These reliably link place to space
 They enable spatia...
Questions?
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Geocoding in Geographic Information Systems

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Discusses concepts of geocoding for geographic information retrieval (IR) systems and a "geocoding toolkit" for a paper I am working on to assist in creating ontologies and testing them in geographic information retrieval systems.

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Transcript of "Geocoding in Geographic Information Systems"

  1. 1. Geocoding in Geographic Information Retrieval Systems UT-Knoxville Geography Research Symposium 02/22/2014 Tanner Jessel School of Information Sciences
  2. 2. What is Geocoding? ➲ Geography + Code = Geocode  Place + Space  Assigning geographic coordinates to a recognized location.  Location + Spatial Coordinates
  3. 3. What is Geocoding? Means different things to different practitioners  Addresses  Objects  People  Animals / Habitats
  4. 4. What is Geocoding?  Sometimes referred to as “Georeferencing” or “Geotagging.”  1955 – 2008 Google “ngram” illustrates trend  Interdisciplinary
  5. 5. Geocode (Blue) Georeference (Red)
  6. 6. Interdisciplinary
  7. 7. Georeferencing Knoxville, Tennessee – what do you think of?
  8. 8. Georeferencing in IR Knoxville, Tennessee – what Google thinks
  9. 9. Georeferencing in IR Knoxville, Tennessee – what Bing thinks
  10. 10. Georeferencing in IR Knoxville, Tennessee – what Bing thinks you think
  11. 11. Georeferencing in IR ➲ How do we answer this question?  What do we mean by “Edinburgh”  What do we consider “near” Query: what castles are near Edinburgh?
  12. 12. Georeferencing in IR ➲ Which castle?  Scotland?  Jamaica?
  13. 13. Georeferencing in IR ➲ What is “near?”  1 km?  3 km?  20 km?
  14. 14. Georeferencing in IR ➲ Match text to known “footprint,” or space an object occupies  Castle footprint is known  City footprint is known  Country footprint is known
  15. 15. Geoparsing ➲ Evaluate the geographic context of an item ➲ “Castles near Edinburgh”  A physical place  Implied location  Edinburgh  Scotland  United Kingdom  Europe
  16. 16. Geoparsing ➲ Possible castle names  Craigmillar Castle  Edinburgh Castle  Lauriston Castle  Tantallon Castle  Chricton Castle  Blackness Castle  Dirleton Castle
  17. 17. Gazetteer ➲ Links a name to a footprint (point or area)
  18. 18. Gazetteer ➲ Links a name to a footprint (point or area)
  19. 19. Gazetteer ➲ Geographical Index or Dictionary
  20. 20. Ontology for Geo IR ➲ Pragmatic Ontology: how entities can be grouped in a hierarchy ➲ Nation ➲ State ➲ County ➲ City ➲ Neighborhood
  21. 21. Ontology for Geo IR ➲ Semantic Ontology ➲ words have different meanings to different groups  “Skin Temperature” of Atmospheric Scientists  “Surface Temperature” of Marine Scientists  Both are same data point, but mean different things to different communities of scientists ➲ Technology can handle these differences ➲ “Semantic” mediation ➲ Applies to spatial domain
  22. 22. Real-World Ontology
  23. 23. Ontology to Computer
  24. 24. Metadata: Machine Friendly ➲ Place ➲ Time ➲ Geographic Coordinates ➲ Geographic Footprint (Area coverage) ➲ Relationships  Parent  Child  Similarities
  25. 25. Geographical Information Retrieval System ➲ Spatially Aware ➲ Can handle spatial queries  Castles  Within 1 KM of  Edinburg (Scotland)
  26. 26. Geographical Information Retrieval System
  27. 27. Geographic Information Retrieval System Application
  28. 28. Geocoding Toolkit ➲ Research effort reviewed 53 citations  Extracted tools mentioned across citations ➲ Categorized tools: Geographic IR Tools Disambiguation Tools Georeferencing Tools Error Calculation Tools Ontology Tools Algorithmic and Programming Tools Geographic IR Systems Visualization Tools Database Tools Thesauri Tools Extraction Tools
  29. 29. Need? ➲ Tools for automation of geocoding / georeferencing
  30. 30. Next Steps ➲ Specialized gazetteers for subject areas are needed  These reliably link place to space  They enable spatial queries ➲ Specialized ontologies for domain-specific applications are needed  These establish relationships between objects in the real and virtual worlds  They enable spatial queries
  31. 31. Questions?
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