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Reading

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  • 1. AT for Reading Jeongsuk Jang
  • 2. CONTENTS LEARNING TO READ & READING TO LEARN THE FIVE SKILLS OF READING INSTRUCTION (NRP) INSTRUCTIONAL TOOLS COMPENSATORY TOOLS DECISION MAKING: INSTRUCTIONAL & COMPENSATORY TOOLS BEYOND READING
  • 3. The illiteracy in the world
  • 4. READING DISABILITIES Lerner, 2003 • As many as 8 of 10 students with learning disabilities have reading problems; they cannot read and understand grade-level material. • Literacy is one area in which well-applied assistive technologies can act as a lifeline to the students
  • 5. LEARNING TO READ vs READING TO LEARN • Content Literacy Skills • Support • Compensation • K4-Adults • Instruction • Remediation • Intervention • K1-K3
  • 6. INSTRUCTIONAL TOOLS LEARNING TO READ
  • 7. THE FIVE SKILLS NRP, 2000 • Phonemic awareness:Understanding the sounds of a language • Phonics:Recognizing the correspondence between sounds and letters • Fluency: Reading orally with speed, accuracy, and proper expression • Vocabulary: Understanding the meaning of words both orally and in print • Comprehension: understanding the meaning of the text
  • 8. GOOD READING APPS Meyer & Rose, 1998 • Highlight patterns among sounds, letters, and letter-sound correspondence • Provide multiple opportunities for meaningful practice • Engage students through interactive activities and interesting displays (e.g., colors, animation, and sounds) • Allow for customization for individual differences • Starfall
  • 9. INTERVENTION PROGRAM • Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) • Wilson Reading System • Read Naturally • Story Town Intervention Station • Road to the Code • Sonday System • Fast ForWord
  • 10. APPS FOR P/A & PHONICS • Present both visual displays and sounds • Speak phonemes aloud and provide practice with actual sounds • Involve slowing down, exaggerating, and altering sounds to make sound patterns easier to recognize • Fast ForWord / Earobics
  • 11. Fast ForWord
  • 12. APPS FOR FLUENCY • Include modeling fluent reading • Provide opportunities for repeated oral reading with support and feedback for appropriate speed, accuracy, and expression • Provide audio recording reading rates • Represent improvement in graph form • Help students identify unfamiliar words • Read Naturally Software Edition
  • 13. APPS FOR VOCABULARY • “Computer vocabulary instruction shows positive learning gain over traditional methods” NRP, 2002 • Vocabulary related to text, not isolated • Multiple exposure to words in rich contexts • Auditory access to text-based practice, adjustable response time, and adjustable visual display • ClozePro V.2/ Clicker 6
  • 14. ClozePro for vocabulary
  • 15. APPS FOR COMPREHENSION • Provide appropriate reading materials • Let students listen to the story being read • Let they read along with a visual display that has been adjusted to meet their individual preferences, • Observe on-screen characters model reading comprehension strategies • Provide quick access to definitions of unfamiliar vocabulary • Practice using the reading comprehension strategies • Thinking Reader
  • 16. Achieve3000: Web-based subscription service
  • 17. PEDAGOGY for READING MATERIALS • Students learn better when they can choose the resources to help them learn. Scott Windham,2009 • Let students choose their own reading materials that match their interests for deep engagement Rothman, 2004 • e-books; Reading A-Z, Scholastic Book Wizard, Raz-Kids
  • 18. COMPENSATORY TOOLS READING TO LEARN
  • 19. LOW-TECH FOR READING ATTO, 2005 • Different-colored highlighter pens • Sticky notes • Book holder • Pencil eraser or rubber-tipped head or chin stick • Page Up • Glasses
  • 20. ALTERNATE FORMATS • Provide access to instructional materials • File Types & Playback Devices • e-Text: a computer file (e.g..doc, .docx, rtf, .txt, html) • DAISY books: provide full text and synchronized audio played on portable DAISY compatible playback device • PDF FILES • MP3: audio-only format • Large Print • BRF (Braille Format): read by BrailleNote
  • 21. TECH TO ACCESS ALTERNATE FORMATS • Text Readers • Scan/Read System • Scan/Read for Students who are blind or visually impaired • National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard
  • 22. TEXT READERS • Convert text from MS Word Documents, Emails, Web Pages and PDF Files into natural-sounding speech • Create audio files for use on iPods, iPhones, and other portable audio devices and have automatic iTunes syncing • Help students with reading disabilities, business people, (ESL) students at all levels, writers, lawyers, etc. • Text Aloud, Read Out:Loud, Read2Go, and Blio
  • 23. TextAloud
  • 24. SCAN/READ SYSTEMS • A combination of the use of a computer, a scanner, optical character recognition software, and speech output • Provide options to change the appearance of the visual display, to set the reading speed, and talking dictionary • The Kentucky Project – “Freed thousands of Kentucky students with learning disabilities from the stigma and failure” Hasselbring & Goin,2004 – Students with disabilities are more likely to reread text several times for clarity when using it than when listening to the text being read aloud by a teacher • Read & Write Gold, Kurzwell3000, and WYNN, ClaroRead Plus
  • 25. Internet Sites Offering e-TEXT • Bookshare. Org • Electronic Text Center at The University of Virginia • Eserver • Google Book Search • Internet Public Library 2 • Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who are Blind or Visually Impaired • Project Gutenberg
  • 26. SCAN/READ FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE BLIND • Kurzweil 1000 and OpenBook • Hot Keys • KNFB Reader Mobile: text-to-speech technology • Intel Reader • ZoomReader
  • 27. Intel® Reader ● Converts text to speech by taking a picture. ● Read on the spot, or store text for later listening. ● Needs no additional equipment, networking, or special software ● $599.00
  • 28. Dorrie with print disabilities
  • 29. Sarah with reading comprehension difficulty
  • 30. RECORDED BOOKS • Learning Ally • Digital books- DAISY format • CD or a download from the Internet • Users can start the book at any place, insert bookmarks, navigate from one page/chapter to another, or from one bookmark/heading to the next • A portable CD player: Victor Reader Wave and Victor Reader Stream
  • 31. AUDIOBOOKS • Using iPads and MP3 • Public libraries, bookstores, and download (Audible.com, Amazon.com, or Itunes) • Bestsellers and popular fiction and nonfiction • AudibleKids.com
  • 32. ADAPTED BOOKS • Students with multiple disabilities/reading below grade level • A lack of appropriate materials: age appropriate, engaging, and written at a level the students can understand • Start-to-Finish Books – a paperback book to read, – an audiobook to listen to, and – a computer book that provides visual and auditory supports
  • 33. DECISION MAKING: INSTRUCTIONAL & COMPENSATORY TOOLS • Edyburn, 2003 – “Technology should be considered as a compensatory tool when a student routinely fails to attain appropriate levels of academic performance” (p. 19) – Appropriate compensatory tools let students “experience success and achieve the functional outcome expected in their academic classes” (p. 20)
  • 34. AT FOR READING • Provide multiple means to scaffold reading success • Support all of the components of the five skills as identified by the NRP • Meet the reading needs of students with and without disabilities
  • 35. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, & POLITICAL CHALLENGES
  • 36. Tech Worth Spreading Negroponte takes OLPC to Colombia
  • 37. “Forget what you may have heard about a digital divide or worries that the world is splintering into ‘info haves’ and ‘info have-nots.’ The fact is, technology fosters equality, and it's often the relatively cheap and mundane devices that do the most good” Bill Clinton, 2012, Time Thank You

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