What is Writing? HANDWRITING - Holding a pen and moving your hand from left to right, leaving marks on paper. But there’s more!
Major Elements of Writing Task Environment – problem/assignment Writer’s Long Term Memory – stored knowledge of topic, audience, and writing plans Writing Process Itself – Planning (stages of writing), Translating, and Reviewing
Writing Problems that Students with Disabilities FacePlanning – they don’t know howSpelling – problems spelling words, identifyingerrorsTranscription processes – Spelling andHandwriting Lack knowledge about what makes good writing and specific writing strategies
Specific StrugglesStudents who are deaf and communicate mostlyusing Sign Language – Low literacy levels becauseEnglish is a Second language for them.Students with Physical Disabilities (CP, MD, etc.) –forming letters correctly and quickly and wordalignment on paper.Some Students with Autism, Down Syndrome orvisual-motor LDs - dysgraphia due to poor finemotor coordination.
Specific Struggles...cont’dNote-Taking – Complicated for many students withLDs. Skills needed: Read and Write at the same time Organize ideas that are presented Distinguish what is important from what is not Do everything above at the same time
Low-Tech Tools forHandwriting DifficultiesPencil GripSlanted desk/table topAnchor paper on a clipboardPaper with raised or bold lines – helps studentswith LD and/or visual impairmentsRubber stamps –Math, Writing, Pictures,Namesetc.
Pre-Writing Tools Graphic Organizers & Concept Maps – paper and computer software – i.e. Inspiration &Mindview 3 Templates
Drafting Tools Word Processing Applications – MS Word, Google Docs Benefits: Legibility of Text Publish in different formats Easy to change/revise Supporting applications for Spelling, grammar, concept mapping
Changes without Rewriting Allow For…No stress about Spelling duringCompositionLess stress about organization /sequencingMore emphasis on content
Word Prediction ApplicationsThese programs make an educated guess aboutwhat word the writer wants to type and gives alist of choices. Co:Writer by Don Johnston WordQ by goQ Software WriteOnline by Crick Software (web-based, talking) Google Scribe by Google
Speech Recognition Speaker says the word into a microphone and the software recognizes words and writes them on the screen. Dragon NaturallySpeakingby Nuance SpeakQ by goQ Software MacSpeech Dictate by Nuance
Reviewing Text-to-Speech applications – Write:OutLoud Helps students with poor reading skills Text is read aloud by “chunks” Speed & Voice can be adjusted Text being read can be highlighted
Editing Spell-Checks – Standard vs. Phonetic dictionaries Talking Spell-Checks Thesauruses Grammar Checkers
Sharing/Publishing Newsletters Story-writing programs – graphics, video, sound with text PowerPoint Presentations provides engaging environment for pre-writing (organization) provides an alternative to writing a paper but still is able to show knowledge.
Sharing/Publishing …cont. Internet Discussion boards Blogs – “Web Log” or Journal – w/ student comments Kidblog Wikis- Students can add and edit info on the site
Note-Taking Mid-High Level TechPortable Note-takers – Neo (2), CalcuScribeSmartpen – Pulse Pen and Echo Pen by LiveScribeBraille Note Takers – Braille Lite M40 and BrailleNote byHuman WareCapturing Devices – Mimio, SmartBoard, and PrometheanActivBoardCART $$$– Communicative Access Realtime Translation forDeaf/Hard of Hearing students – word by word translation C-Print $ - produces paraphrased records of class lectures.
Assistive Tech Plus… “Assistive technology will succeed in helping students improve their writing skills only if it is paired with good teaching strategies.” (Dell, 2012, p49). Training needed in: The Writing Process – www.readwritethink.org Specific Tech tools How to use these tech tools to enhance the writing process