Designing and Integra-ng Communica-on Systems By Chalaundrai Grant October 30, 2012
Why is it important?
There are the big stories • People like Helen Keller • First person who was deaf and blind to earn a Bachelor of Arts Degree • Learning to speak enable her to escape from isola-on. Although there have been many advancements the issue of isola-on for people with disabili-es is s-ll a major issue • APer learning to speak she went on to speak on women’s rights and against war.
Other Big Stories • People like Stephen Hawking • Given only 2 1/2to live in 1963 aPer he was diagnosed with ALS (A progressive neuron disease). Needs a computerized speech synthesizer to speak. • He went on to get married despite the lost the use of most of his muscles. • He is has gained acclaim as one of the best scien-st.
Important Message • I think that this is such an important message and important for us to hear. • Just because someone needs help communica-ng or needs to have a communica-on system designed or needs help integra-ng the communica-on system doesn’t mean they are dumb.
The Big Stories • Helen Keller • Stephen Hawking
Just as important but not so large stories! • Perhaps not the big splashy stories. • Some-mes these are people who are almost invisible to the world at large. • Family members • Students in our class • Neighbours
Designing and Integra-ng Communica-on Systems Having Communica-on Not Having Communica-on Systems Systems • Gives people living with a • Leaves individuals already disability a voice. isolated even more isolated. • Enables individuals with a • Individuals with disabili-es voice to have a chance to have li]le chance to do do things that their peers things that their peers can can do. do. • Helps individuals with • Leaves individuals with disabili-es be more disabili-es dependent on independent. everyone.
Importance of Designing and Integra-ng Communica-on Systems • Chapter 1 of Assis-ve Technology in the classroom introduces us to Bernie who has cerebral palsy. • We see how a simple modiﬁca-on to one of his shoes by adap-ng a metal dowl to the bo]om of one of his shoes enables him type and communicate.
Developing A Voice • Need to give people the right resources. • In one video that I watched the father talks about how he and his wife disagreed about using prologue because she felt that the child might not talk and become to dependent on the equipment instead of using her voice. • Important to be respecaul of concerns but also important to remember that all voices sound diﬀerent and do not have to just come out of our mouths. We will not all speak the same.
The Case Against Assis-ve Technology
One size does not ﬁt all!
What is Communica-on • Communica-on is not just talking. It is a way for two or more people to have an exchange and understand what the other person wants. • Augmenta-ve Communica-on is important because it allows those whose speech is impaired the ability to communicate. • These methods include aided and unaided symbols.
Communica-on is a mul--‐modal process • Can include speech • Vocaliza-ons • Gestures • Facial Expressions • Communica-on also includes both electronic (high tech) and non-‐electronic (low tech) Assis-ve technologies.
Aided and UnAided Symbols • Unaided symbols are created using the individuals body. They can include gestures, sign and ﬁngerspelling (ASHA, 2002) • Aided symbols require concrete representa-on. Eg. Real Objects, Picture Communica-on, Symbols, Le]ers and/or words.
Beneﬁts of Augmenta-ve Communica-on • By providing a child with a variety of means to communicate, including speech, the pressure to produce speech is diminished. In the past clinicians and parents worried that giving a child another means to communicate would hinder speech development. Children who are given augmenta-ve skills develop speech as quickly as the control group and oPen surpass them. Linda Burkhart
Myths about Augmenta-ve Communica-on • It will inhabit an individuals further speech • Certain level of cogni-ve ability are required prior to augmenta-ve communica-on devices. • Student needs certain adap-ve behaviour such as eye contact and well deﬁned point of view before Augmenta-ve Communica-on can be used. • Requires some level of literacy of skill prior to using.
Current Communica-on Mode • Augmenta-ve Communica-on system does not replace the student’s current communica-on modes but rather supports and enhances it. • Students should be encouraged to use mul-ple modes of expression including gestures, signs, body language, eye gaze, vocaliza-on, facial expressions.
Augmenta-ve Communica-on Systems • Can be based on low, mid, or high tech or all three but it is important that it be based on what the individual needs. • Example people who have diﬃcult to understand speech may use a computerize device but also use facial expressions and nods. • Other people may use a language board to point to speciﬁc pictures.
Design of Augmenta-ve Communica-on System • Needs to be designed for use within the student’s environments. Again we need to remember that one size does not ﬁt all.
Design • In the design process it is important to determine what symbols are meaningful to that par-cular student. Students want to sound like their peers • Many students ﬁnd that a combina-on of photographs, and picture communica-on symbols and word/phrases work well. • There is no perfect device that can meet all of a students needs.
Vocabulary Selec-on • Unless the student has good reading skills the vocabulary selected will needed to be represented with some type of symbol.
Picture Communica-on Symbol
Boardmaker Symbols FIGURE tO.l-Sampte eoaidmaker syrnOots" Boardmaker Symbol Typlcal Meaning Degree ol lconicity "ice cream" Transparent Tootball" Transparent "run" Transparent lootball game" Translucent "l dont like that show." Transluc6nt "l am so angry!" Translucent
Communica-on for students without mobility • Automa-c Scanning – uses switch to start the scan and then waits un-l it is presented. • Step scanning – The switch is ac-vated and reac-vated to advance the cursor by item. • 2 Switch Scanning – One switch ac-vates the scan with each ac-va-on, the second switch in a diﬀerent loca-on selects the item.
Design using the SETT Process • SETT Process can help the team iden-fy which communica-on system is most appropriate in each seing. • Student (Most important) this is oPen overlooked. • Environment (Auditory, layout of space, mobility etc. • Task • Tool
Func-on of Augmenta-ve Communica-on System • Need to reﬂect the basic of the tradi-onal method of communica-on. • In other words the user has to be able to create a message using symbols that can be delivered to another person who is known as the receiver. • They in turn need to be able to respond to the message in a -mely manner.
Considera-ons when Selec-ng Augmenta-ve System • Recogni-on that students can beneﬁt from enhanced methods of communica-ons regardless of the degree of disability. It is not just beneﬁcial for some people. • Individual diﬀerences and abili-es has to inform the selec-on and design process.
Implementa-on Process • Gather relevant informa-on about student/ environment/tasks. • Establish IEP Goals – write goals into students plan. Determine measurable outcomes. • Conduct a trail make sure that it long enough and that parents are on board. Speciﬁc tasks need to be target doing the trail. Test it out in diﬀerent environments.
Implementa-on Process Con-nued • During the Trial period gather and analyze data. • Iden-fy appropriate AT solu-ons. Essen-al to make sure that you are matching student’s needs and IEP goal to technology feature. i.e. is it too complex and does the student have the ability to use the technology. • Develop implementa-on plan
Developing Implementa-on Plan • When Developing Implementa-on Plan it is important to have equipment support. • Training • Integra-on strategies • AT outcome assessment • THIS NEEDS TO BE DONE THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. • Finally adapt lessons for AT Integra-on
Successful Implementa-on Needs to be: • Collabora-ve • Systema-c • Recursive • Flexible • Based on curricular goals and students needs. • Family needs to be involved.
Challenges and Barriers to Eﬀec-ve Implementa-on • Student not interested or mo-vated to use AT that is in place. Various reason for this… perhaps it is bulky, sets them apart from their peers too much, or not enough training. • Student hasn’t been involved in the selec-on process. • Student hasn’t been trained adequately.
Team • Team doesn’t have -me to prepare for use of technology. • Team is not technically prepared. • Not everyone on team is suppor-ve. • Team doesn’t have detailed implementa-on plan isn’t in place. • Team hasn’t established speciﬁc IEP goals that will be supported with the AT.
Environment • Necessary suppor-ng technology isn’t available at the school. • School administra-on is uninformed or not suppor-ve. • The training resources aren’t available.
Technology • The features of the technology don’t ﬁt the student and the curricular goals. • Technology doesn’t func-on well. Breaks down frequently, not well maintained etc. • Technology is too diﬃcult to be implemented in a reasonable -meframe. We also have to look at cogni-ve overload of the student.
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REQUIREMENTS • Implementa-on plan has to have trails, dates, responsibili-es and data collec-on. • Essen-al that there is a follow-‐up plan to review the students process.
Student Proﬁle Fourth grade student in regular classroom. Receives special educa-on supports and services. Uses motorized wheelchair, and is nonspeaking. Uses augmenta-ve communica-on system that consists of three methods of communica-on. Unaided, aided, low-‐tech, and aided, high-‐tech. Her unaided methods include a yes/no gesture and some intelligible single-‐word responses, the aided, low tech tech method she uses is a simple call bu]on that allows her to get peoples a]en-on.