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  • 1. Designing  and  Integra-ng  Communica-on  Systems   By  Chalaundrai  Grant   October  30,  2012  
  • 2. Why  is  it  important?  
  • 3. There  are  the  big  stories  •  People  like  Helen  Keller  •  First  person  who  was  deaf  and  blind  to  earn  a   Bachelor  of  Arts  Degree  •  Learning  to  speak  enable  her  to  escape  from   isola-on.  Although  there  have  been  many   advancements  the  issue  of  isola-on  for  people   with  disabili-es  is  s-ll  a  major  issue  •  APer  learning  to  speak  she  went  on  to  speak   on  women’s  rights  and  against  war.  
  • 4. Other  Big  Stories  •  People  like  Stephen  Hawking  •  Given  only  2  1/2to  live  in  1963  aPer  he  was   diagnosed  with  ALS    (A  progressive  neuron   disease).    Needs  a  computerized  speech   synthesizer  to  speak.  •  He  went  on  to  get  married  despite  the  lost  the   use  of  most  of  his  muscles.  •  He  is  has  gained  acclaim  as  one  of  the  best   scien-st.  
  • 5. Important  Message  •  I  think  that  this  is  such  an  important  message   and  important  for  us  to  hear.  •     Just  because  someone  needs  help   communica-ng  or  needs  to  have  a   communica-on  system  designed  or  needs   help  integra-ng  the  communica-on  system   doesn’t  mean  they  are  dumb.    
  • 6. The  Big  Stories  •  Helen  Keller  •  Stephen  Hawking  
  • 7. Just  as  important  but  not  so  large   stories!  •  Perhaps  not  the  big  splashy  stories.  •  Some-mes  these  are  people  who  are  almost   invisible  to  the  world  at  large.    •  Family  members  •  Students  in  our  class  •  Neighbours  
  • 8. Designing  and  Integra-ng   Communica-on  Systems  Having  Communica-on   Not  Having  Communica-on  Systems   Systems  •  Gives  people  living  with  a   •  Leaves  individuals  already   disability  a  voice.   isolated  even  more  isolated.  •  Enables  individuals  with  a   •  Individuals  with  disabili-es   voice  to  have  a  chance  to   have  li]le  chance  to  do   do  things  that  their  peers   things  that  their  peers  can   can  do.   do.  •  Helps  individuals  with   •  Leaves  individuals  with   disabili-es  be  more   disabili-es  dependent  on   independent.   everyone.  
  • 9. Importance  of  Designing  and  Integra-ng  Communica-on  Systems   •  Chapter  1  of  Assis-ve  Technology   in  the  classroom  introduces  us  to   Bernie  who  has  cerebral  palsy.   •  We  see  how  a  simple  modifica-on   to  one  of  his  shoes  by  adap-ng  a   metal  dowl  to  the  bo]om  of  one   of  his  shoes  enables  him  type  and   communicate.      
  • 10. Developing  A  Voice  •  Need  to  give  people  the  right  resources.  •  In  one  video  that  I  watched  the  father  talks  about   how  he  and  his  wife  disagreed  about  using   prologue  because  she  felt  that  the  child  might   not  talk  and  become  to  dependent  on  the   equipment  instead  of  using  her  voice.  •  Important  to  be  respecaul  of  concerns  but  also   important  to  remember  that  all  voices  sound   different  and  do  not  have  to  just  come  out  of  our   mouths.  We  will  not  all  speak  the  same.  
  • 11. The  Case  Against  Assis-ve  Technology  
  • 12. One  size  does  not  fit  all!  
  • 13. What  is  Communica-on  •  Communica-on  is  not  just  talking.    It  is  a  way   for  two  or  more  people  to  have  an  exchange   and  understand  what  the  other  person  wants.  •  Augmenta-ve  Communica-on  is  important   because  it  allows  those  whose  speech  is   impaired  the  ability  to  communicate.  •  These  methods  include  aided  and  unaided   symbols.  
  • 14. Communica-on  is  a  mul--­‐modal   process  •  Can  include  speech  •  Vocaliza-ons  •  Gestures  •  Facial  Expressions  •  Communica-on  also  includes  both  electronic   (high  tech)  and  non-­‐electronic  (low  tech)   Assis-ve  technologies.  
  • 15. Aided  and  UnAided  Symbols  •  Unaided  symbols  are  created  using  the   individuals  body.    They  can  include  gestures,   sign  and  fingerspelling  (ASHA,  2002)  •  Aided  symbols  require  concrete   representa-on.  Eg.  Real  Objects,  Picture   Communica-on,  Symbols,  Le]ers  and/or   words.  
  • 16. Benefits  of  Augmenta-ve   Communica-on  •  By  providing  a  child  with  a  variety  of  means  to   communicate,  including  speech,  the  pressure   to  produce  speech  is  diminished.    In  the  past   clinicians  and  parents  worried  that  giving  a   child  another  means  to  communicate  would   hinder  speech  development.    Children  who   are  given  augmenta-ve  skills  develop  speech   as  quickly  as  the  control  group  and  oPen   surpass  them.    Linda  Burkhart    
  • 17. Myths  about  Augmenta-ve   Communica-on  •  It  will  inhabit  an  individuals  further  speech  •  Certain  level  of  cogni-ve  ability  are  required   prior  to  augmenta-ve  communica-on  devices.  •  Student  needs  certain  adap-ve  behaviour  such  as   eye  contact  and  well  defined  point  of  view  before   Augmenta-ve  Communica-on  can  be  used.  •  Requires  some  level  of  literacy  of  skill  prior  to   using.  
  • 18. Current  Communica-on  Mode  •  Augmenta-ve  Communica-on  system  does   not  replace  the  student’s  current   communica-on  modes  but  rather  supports   and  enhances  it.  •  Students  should  be  encouraged  to  use   mul-ple  modes  of  expression  including   gestures,  signs,  body  language,  eye  gaze,   vocaliza-on,  facial  expressions.  
  • 19. Augmenta-ve  Communica-on   Systems  •  Can  be  based  on  low,  mid,  or  high  tech  or  all   three  but  it  is  important  that  it  be  based  on   what  the  individual  needs.  •  Example  people  who  have  difficult  to   understand  speech  may  use  a  computerize   device  but  also  use  facial  expressions  and   nods.  •  Other  people  may  use  a  language  board  to   point  to  specific  pictures.  
  • 20. Design  of  Augmenta-ve   Communica-on  System    •  Needs  to  be  designed  for  use  within  the   student’s  environments.    Again  we  need  to   remember  that  one  size  does  not  fit  all.  
  • 21. Design  •  In  the  design  process  it  is  important  to   determine  what  symbols  are  meaningful  to   that  par-cular  student.  Students  want  to   sound  like  their  peers  •  Many  students  find  that  a  combina-on  of   photographs,  and  picture  communica-on   symbols  and  word/phrases  work  well.  •  There  is  no  perfect  device  that  can  meet  all  of   a  students  needs.  
  • 22. Vocabulary  Selec-on  •  Unless  the  student  has  good  reading  skills  the   vocabulary  selected  will  needed  to  be   represented  with  some  type  of  symbol.  
  • 23. Picture  Communica-on  Symbol  
  • 24. Boardmaker  Symbols   FIGURE tO.l-Sampte eoaidmaker syrnOots" Boardmaker Symbol Typlcal Meaning Degree ol lconicity "ice cream" Transparent Tootball" Transparent "run" Transparent lootball game" Translucent "l dont like that show." Transluc6nt "l am so angry!" Translucent
  • 25. Communica-on  for  students  without   mobility  •  Automa-c  Scanning  –  uses  switch  to  start  the   scan  and  then  waits  un-l  it  is  presented.  •  Step  scanning  –  The  switch  is  ac-vated  and   reac-vated  to  advance  the  cursor  by  item.  •  2  Switch  Scanning  –  One  switch  ac-vates  the   scan  with  each  ac-va-on,  the  second  switch   in  a  different  loca-on  selects  the  item.  
  • 26. Design  using  the  SETT  Process  •  SETT  Process  can  help  the  team  iden-fy  which   communica-on  system  is  most  appropriate  in   each  seing.  •  Student  (Most  important)  this  is  oPen   overlooked.      •  Environment  (Auditory,  layout  of  space,   mobility  etc.  •  Task  •  Tool  
  • 27. Func-on  of  Augmenta-ve   Communica-on  System  •  Need  to  reflect  the  basic  of  the  tradi-onal   method  of  communica-on.  •  In  other  words  the  user  has  to  be  able  to   create  a  message  using  symbols  that  can  be   delivered  to  another  person  who  is  known  as   the  receiver.  •  They  in  turn  need  to  be  able  to  respond  to  the   message  in  a  -mely  manner.  
  • 28. Considera-ons  when  Selec-ng   Augmenta-ve  System  •  Recogni-on  that  students  can  benefit  from   enhanced  methods  of  communica-ons   regardless  of  the  degree  of  disability.    It  is  not   just  beneficial  for  some  people.  •  Individual  differences  and  abili-es  has  to   inform  the  selec-on  and  design  process.  
  • 29. Implementa-on  Process  •  Gather  relevant  informa-on  about  student/ environment/tasks.  •  Establish  IEP  Goals  –  write  goals  into  students   plan.  Determine  measurable  outcomes.  •  Conduct  a  trail  make  sure  that  it  long  enough   and  that  parents  are  on  board.  Specific  tasks   need  to  be  target  doing  the  trail.    Test  it  out  in   different  environments.  
  • 30. Implementa-on  Process  Con-nued  •  During  the  Trial  period  gather  and  analyze   data.  •  Iden-fy  appropriate  AT  solu-ons.    Essen-al  to   make  sure  that  you  are  matching  student’s   needs  and  IEP  goal  to  technology  feature.    i.e.   is  it  too  complex  and  does  the  student  have   the  ability  to  use  the  technology.  •  Develop  implementa-on  plan  
  • 31. Developing  Implementa-on  Plan  •  When  Developing  Implementa-on  Plan  it  is   important  to  have  equipment  support.  •  Training  •  Integra-on  strategies  •  AT  outcome  assessment    •  THIS  NEEDS  TO  BE  DONE  THROUGHOUT  THE   YEAR.  •  Finally  adapt  lessons  for  AT  Integra-on  
  • 32. Successful  Implementa-on  Needs  to   be:  •  Collabora-ve  •  Systema-c  •  Recursive  •  Flexible  •  Based  on  curricular  goals  and  students  needs.  •  Family  needs  to  be  involved.  
  • 33. Challenges  and  Barriers  to  Effec-ve   Implementa-on  •  Student  not  interested  or  mo-vated  to  use  AT   that  is  in  place.    Various  reason  for  this… perhaps  it  is  bulky,  sets  them  apart  from  their   peers  too  much,  or  not  enough  training.  •  Student  hasn’t  been  involved  in  the  selec-on   process.  •  Student  hasn’t  been  trained  adequately.    
  • 34. Team  •  Team  doesn’t  have  -me  to  prepare  for  use  of   technology.  •  Team  is  not  technically  prepared.  •  Not  everyone  on  team  is  suppor-ve.  •  Team  doesn’t  have  detailed  implementa-on   plan  isn’t  in  place.  •  Team  hasn’t  established  specific  IEP  goals  that   will  be  supported  with  the  AT.  
  • 35. Environment  •  Necessary  suppor-ng  technology  isn’t   available  at  the  school.  •  School  administra-on  is  uninformed  or  not   suppor-ve.  •  The  training  resources  aren’t  available.  
  • 36. Technology  •  The  features  of  the  technology  don’t  fit  the   student  and  the  curricular  goals.  •  Technology  doesn’t  func-on  well.    Breaks   down  frequently,  not  well  maintained  etc.  •  Technology  is  too  difficult  to  be  implemented   in  a  reasonable  -meframe.    We  also  have  to   look  at  cogni-ve  overload  of  the  student.  
  • 37. IMPLEMENTATION  PLAN   REQUIREMENTS  •  Implementa-on  plan  has  to  have  trails,  dates,   responsibili-es  and  data  collec-on.  •  Essen-al  that  there  is  a  follow-­‐up  plan  to   review  the  students  process.  
  • 38. Student  Profile  Fourth  grade  student  in  regular  classroom.  Receives  special  educa-on  supports  and  services.      Uses  motorized  wheelchair,  and  is  nonspeaking.  Uses  augmenta-ve  communica-on  system  that  consists  of  three  methods  of  communica-on.  Unaided,  aided,  low-­‐tech,  and  aided,  high-­‐tech.    Her  unaided  methods  include  a  yes/no  gesture  and  some  intelligible  single-­‐word  responses,  the  aided,  low  tech  tech  method  she  uses  is  a  simple  call  bu]on  that  allows  her  to  get  peoples  a]en-on.