Access to technology presentationPresentation Transcript
Access to Technology EDPY 563 Oct. 2, 2012
I teach, therefore you learn…YouTube Clip:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6AWYIit1uNk&feature=related
Using What You Have:• Many adjustments and programs already available within many computer systems – Optimize Visual Display – Replace Sounds With Visual Cues – Change How The Mouse/Keyboard Works – Speech Recognition• Most schools use Windows or MAC
Flexibility In Use:Things to Consider:• Many computers can be operated without using a mouse – Good for students with fine motor difficulties, limited range of motion, and those with tracking difficulties – Down side? Increased cognitive load• Difference between Windows and Mac – Number of buttons on the mouse• Size of the monitors, keyboards, etc.
Operating System Features Adhering to Flexibility-In-Use PrincipleFlexibility-In-Use Operating System Features Student CharacteristicsGuidelineProvide choice in Control computer with mouse or Keyboard use supports students who have:method of use keyboard • Poor fine motor control • Limited range of motion • Difficulty in visually tracking mouse pointerAccommodate left- One-button mouse; functions of the Able to use only one handand right-handed two-button mouse can be switchedusersTake into account Enlarged Icons Low visionvariations in Visual perceptual issuesprecision and Hand-eye coordinationaccuracy of mouse Hand tremorsuse Poor fine motor control Cognitive deficitsAdaptability to user’s Set speed of mouse travel Increase mouse speed for student withpace Set timing for double click limited range of motion Set keyboard for repeat delay Decrease mouse speed for students with: Set keyboard repeat speed • Visual tracking difficulty • Difficulty raising head to monitor the movement of the mouse Increase repeat delay for students with:
Keyboard and Mouse Modifications:Goal:• To increase productivity and decrease frustrationBenefits:• May avoid need for expensive specialized equipment• “Appear” the same as their peers
Keyboard Modifications:StickyKeys• Allows the person to press one key at a time, when normally simultaneous combinations are requiredSlow Keys• Ignores brief key strokesMouseKeys• Direct mouse pointer using number padOn-Screen Keyboard• Use the mouse to select the key on the screen
Sensory Impairments:Hard of Hearing and Deafness:• Visual cues to identify something is happeningVisual Impairment and Blindness:• High-contrast color schemes• Increase font size, screen magnification• Auditory signals• Text-to-speech
Assistive Technology for Computer Access:• Continuum of low tech to high tech• Recommendation to start with low tech, and work up to high tech if needed• No hard-and-fast rules, do what works!
Low Tech:• No electronic components• Generally low-cost• Examples: – Keyboard labels – Selecting/pointing devices – Keyguards – Moisture guards – Magnifying lenses – Equipment to position computer components
Low Tech:Selecting/Pointing Devices• Help with isolating a single key• Can be controlled by hands or head • Mouthsticks, headsticks, chinsticks• Purchased from commercial vendors, or can be home-made - dowelling, pencils, markers
Low Tech:Key Guards:• Placed over a regular keyboard• Increase accuracy, only one key pressed at a time• Often used in conjunction with pointing/selecting device
Low Tech:Moisture Guards:• Polyurethane covers that fit over a keyboard• Can be transparent, large-print, high contrast• Durable, or one-time use
Alternative Input Devices:• Mouse Alternatives• Trackballs• Joysticks• Touch Screens• Head Pointing System• Eye-Gaze Systems• Alternative Keyboards• Expanded Keyboards• Mini-Keyboards• One-Handed Keyboards• On-Screen Keyboards• Customizable Keyboards• Switches• Speech Recognition
Alternative Input DevicesMouse Alternatives:• Graphical User Interface (GUI) – Introduction of the mouse pointer• Keyboard shortcuts can be useful to some, but not to others
Alternate Input DevicesTrackballs• Can be used by a hand, foot or other body part• Typically have 1 to 3 buttons• Divided into 3 categories: 1) Mini-trackballs 2) Standard trackballs 3) Large trackballs
Alternative Input DevicesJoy Sticks• Used to direct the mouse pointer• Recommended for students with limited range of motion• Adaptations: – Special handles – Key guards – Drag-lock button – Switch receptacles
Alternative Input DevicesTouch Screens• Input through touching the computer monitor• Good for young children, severe disabilities and autism• Cause-and-effect relationship
Alternative Input DevicesEye-Gaze Systems• Use student’s eye movements to direct mouse pointer• Device may be on the computer, or attached to special glasses or goggles worn by the student
Alternative KeyboardsExpanded Keyboards• Keyboards with a larger surface area
Alternative KeyboardsMini-Keyboards• Keyboards smaller than standard• Typically have different layout of keys• Different keyboards for different purposes
Alternative KeyboardsOne-handed Keyboards• QWERTY, Dvorak, and chorded keyboards• Designed for people with good finger dexterity in one hand• Good for use with either hand
Alternative KeyboardsOn-Screen Keyboards• Keys are pressed by using a mouse to select
Alternative KeyboardsCustomizable Keyboards• Can be altered to meet specific student needs• Can be programmed to have a single key stroke represent a letter, group of letters, word, sentence or short phrase• Three main types: 1) Standard QWERTY with additional programmable keys 2) Customizable keyboards with interchangeable overlays 3) Customizable on-screen keyboards
Single Switches• If the student can reliably use a single movement (flex a fist, move head to side, etc.) they might benefit from a switch• Single switches send signals to the computer to imitate a single mouse click, or “Enter” command• Scanning devices move from item to item on the computer screen
Speech Recognition• User speaks into a microphone which is then converted to text on the computer• Discrete speech programs• Continuous speech programs• Speaker-dependent• Speaker-independent
Alternative Output OptionsScreen Magnification• Provides enlarged view of what’s on the screen
Alternative Output OptionsScreen Readers• Auditory output for all or part of what’s on the screen• Customizable to individual needs
Alternative Output OptionsRefreshable Braille• Device sits in front of computer• Uses dots to communicate (same as traditional Braille)• Series of pins rise and fall to communicate what is on the page
Alternative Output DevicesBraille Embossers• Also known as Braille printers• Provide students with a hard copy of text from computer in Braille form
Issues In Selection of Access Methods• IDEA mandates that assistive technology be considered for all students with special needs – What does consider mean?
Assistive Technology Decision Makingand Judgement:1) Team Approach2) Focus on Student Needs and Abilities3) Examine Tasks to be Completed4) Consider the Environment5) Trial Use of AT6) Provide Necessary Supports7) Assessment as an Ongoing Process
Team Approach• Occupational therapists• Physical therapists• Speech Language Pathologists• Maybe an AT specialist?• Teachers and assistants• Parents and the student know best!
Focus on Student Needs and Abilities• Must be student-centred• Once goals are established, abilities should be explored – Consider learning type – Phonetic/decoding skills – Memory skills – Mouse control – Would they benefit from a switch?
Examination of Tasks to Be Completed:• What will the student need to complete? – Reading texts? – Writing papers?
Consider the Environment• Consider all locations the student visits during the day• Power source• Attitudinal Environment
Trial Use of Assistive Technology• AT that is good for one is not good for all• Best option is to let the student try it first• Will the technology be feasible in the student’s environment
Providing Necessary Supports• Familiarization with the AT• Be ready for technical problems – have a plan!• Factor in a training period
Assessment as an Ongoing Process• How is that working for you?• Continual monitoring
SETT Framework• Student – What does the student need to do that they can’t right now? – Special needs – Current abilities• Environment – Arrangement – Support – Materials and equipment – Access – Attitudes and Expectations
SETT Framework• Tasks – IEP goals – Involvement• Tools – Is the technology necessary for success? – Brainstorm ideas to meet student needs – Plan and document trials – Collect data
Final Thoughts:• YouTube (again)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X92Cd6jicko
Take Home Message:• Always consider the student, what they need, what they’re comfortable with• Think about what you already have access to, and try it out• Low tech before high tech• Input devices and output devices• Decision-making framework