Transportation Excellence Through Research

Research Impacts
Better—Faster—Cheaper
July 2011
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Table of Contents
Introduction ..................................................
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Bridge Repair and Strengthening Study, Part 1 ...................................
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Field Investigation of Subgrade Lime Modification ...............................
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Nondestructive Testing of Defective ASTM A 514 Steel on the I-275 Twin Bridges...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Mn/DOT Combined Smoothness Specification ........................................
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Eliminating Barriers to Transit-Oriented Development ............................
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT).......................................
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Investigation of the use of tear-off shingles in asphalt concrete ...............
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Introduction
This document is the 2011 collection of High Value Research highl...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

The University of Alabama (UA)

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Feasibility...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Determine debt capacity
Establish minimum requirement for private equity inves...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Feasibility of Developing a Pilot Car Train...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Producing teaching materials and a plan to teach the
certification course if i...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Auburn University (Alabama)

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Development of...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

first of this particular land use model to be employed in the United
States. A...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

An Evaluation of the Benefits of the Alabam...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

recurring congestion (i.e. incidents) rather than typical daily congestion
ass...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Alaska Department of Transportation (AKDOT)

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

(OpenSEES) into a useable design program to generate the
displacement capacity...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Stabilizing Marginal Soils with Geofibers a...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT)

PROJECT INFORMATION
Projec...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

scenarios as guidance for decision making involving the purchase of
new buses ...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

and market needs, reduce risk, and minimize cost. In summary,
the study sugges...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

The results of the testing program found that the hybrid dieselelectric buses ...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

CTTransit Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus In-Service

CTTransit 2003 Hybrid Electric Bu...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

CTTransit Nova Artic Bus
Impact, or Potential Impact, of
Implementing Research...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Evaluation of Stormwater Quality Associated...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

surface. Thus, to assess whether stormwater best management
practices (BMPs) s...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Sample Collection Apparatus.
Apparatus was deployed in an asphalt stormwater c...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Evaluation of Alternative Fuel Light Trucks...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

fuel vehicles were purchased to meet EPACT requirements. In 2000, the
national...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

retrofitted vehicles was approximately 57 miles.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

New Technologies for Photolog Image and Dat...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

improvement in general viewing applications, as well as potentially allow
for ...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

(c)
Sequential Photolog Images

(d)

Impact, or Potential Impact, of
Implement...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT)

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

and enhancing the safety of commercial trucking in Florida.

Air Brake Animati...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Travel Time Reliability Modeling for Florid...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Inlet Protection Devices and Their Effectiv...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Culvert Clogged with Construction Runoff
Impact, or Potential Impact, of
Imple...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

The ACS Statistical Analyzer

ID

BDK85 977...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Use of Aggregate Screenings as a Substitute...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Limestone Mine Screenings
Impact, or Potential Impact, of
Implementing Researc...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT)

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Development and Evaluation of Devices Desig...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

19th & 20th Century Trolley System Contextu...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

growth and development of trolley lines in Georgia, and culturally
relevant in...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Idaho Transportation Department (ITD)

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

2009...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

The survey report contained a number of recommendations to improve
ITD custome...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT)

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Titl...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

Illinois stream data online |
The Illinois Department of Transportation commis...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

PROJECT INFORMATION
Project Title

Development and Application of Safety Perfo...
Transportation Excellence Through Research

develop SPFs and calculate PSIs for all state routes and intersections.

Impac...
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  1. 1. Transportation Excellence Through Research Research Impacts Better—Faster—Cheaper July 2011
  2. 2. Transportation Excellence Through Research Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 10 The University of Alabama (UA) ................................................................................................. 11 Feasibility Study Guideline for Public Private Partnership Projects, Volumes I and II ............................. 11 Feasibility of Developing a Pilot Car Training and Certification Program in Alabama .............................. 13 Auburn University (Alabama) ..................................................................................................... 15 Development of an Integrated Economic, Land Use & Transportation Forecasting Model for the State of Alabama ................................................................................................................................................. 15 An Evaluation of the Benefits of the Alabama Service and Assistance Patrol ......................................... 17 Alaska Department of Transportation (AKDOT) ....................................................................... 19 Alaska DOT and PF Pile Extension Pier Pushover Program .................................................................. 19 Stabilizing Marginal Soils with Geofibers and Synthetic Fluid ................................................................. 21 Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) .......................................................... 22 A Study of Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut and Demonstration and Evaluation of Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit ................................................................................................................. 22 Evaluation of Stormwater Quality Associated with Milling of HMA Surfaces ........................................... 28 Evaluation of Alternative Fuel Light Trucks and Automobiles ................................................................. 31 New Technologies for Photolog Image and Data Acquisition.................................................................. 34 Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) .......................................................................... 37 Web-based Safety Inspector Training and Certification Program ........................................................... 37 Travel Time Reliability Modeling for Florida ............................................................................................ 39 Inlet Protection Devices and Their Effectiveness .................................................................................... 40 The ACS Statistical Analyzer.................................................................................................................. 42 Use of Aggregate Screenings as a Substitute for Silica Sand in Portland Cement ................................. 43 Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT)........................................................................ 45 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 2
  3. 3. Transportation Excellence Through Research Bridge Repair and Strengthening Study, Part 1 ...................................................................................... 45 Development and Evaluation of Devices Designed to Minimize Deer-vehicle Collisions (Phase II) ........ 46 19th & 20th Century Trolley System Contextual Study ........................................................................... 47 Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) .................................................................................... 49 2009 Customer Satisfaction Survey ....................................................................................................... 49 Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT)............................................................................ 51 Implementation and Evaluation of the Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Web Application for Computing Basin Characteristics and Flood Peaks in Illinois.................................................................. 51 Development and Application of Safety Performance Functions for Illinois ............................................. 53 Evaluation of 3D Laser Scanning for Construction Application ............................................................... 55 Queue and User‘s Cost in Highway Work Zones .................................................................................... 57 Simple Cost-Effective Scour Sensor....................................................................................................... 59 Conference Proceedings: Midwest Transportation Air Quality Summit ................................................... 61 Improving the Safety of Moving Lane Closures – Phase II ..................................................................... 63 Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) ........................................................................ 66 Implementation of Laterally Loaded Piles in Multi-Layered Soils ............................................................ 66 Assessment of Delivery Risks in Transportation Projects ....................................................................... 68 Identification and Implementation of Best Management Practices for Erosion and Sediment Control That Conform to Indiana Storm Water Quality Regulations and Guidance ..................................................... 70 Improving Safety in High-Speed Work Zones: A Super 70 Study ........................................................... 72 Real-Time Socio-Economic Data for Travel Demand ............................................................................. 74 Saw-Cutting Guidelines for Concrete Pavements: Examining the Requirements for Time and Depth of Saw Cutting ............................................................................................................................................ 76 Use of Steel Slag in Subgrade Applications ........................................................................................... 78 Construction of Embankments and Fills using Lightweight Materials ...................................................... 80 Automated Pavement Condition Data Collection Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Reliability ..... 82 Safety Impacts of Design Exceptions ..................................................................................................... 84 Travel Time Reliability in Indiana ............................................................................................................ 86 Classification of Marl soils ...................................................................................................................... 88 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 3
  4. 4. Transportation Excellence Through Research Field Investigation of Subgrade Lime Modification .................................................................................. 90 Construction of Embankments and Fill using Ash................................................................................... 91 Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) ................................................................................ 93 Investigation of Improved Utility Cut Repair Techniques to Reduce Settlement in Repaired Areas, Phase II ............................................................................................................................................................. 93 Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR)-Emulsion and Comparison Against CIR-Foam Results from Phase II ............................................................................................................ 95 Pavement Markings and Safety .............................................................................................................. 97 Biofuel Co-Product Uses for Pavement Geo-Materials Stabilization ....................................................... 99 Development of Non-Petroleum Based Binders for Use in Flexible Pavements.................................... 101 Improving Concrete Overlay Construction ............................................................................................ 103 Use of Video Feedback in Urban Teen Drivers..................................................................................... 105 Multiple-Blade Snowplow Project ......................................................................................................... 107 Comprehensive Bridge Deck Deterioration Mapping of Nine Bridges by Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies ........................................................................................................................................ 109 Design, Construction, and Field Testing of an Ultra High Performance Concrete Pi-Girder Bridge ....... 111 Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT)....................................................................... 113 Use of Surface and Borehole Ground Penetrating Radar in Geologic and Engineering Investigations of Transportation Projects ........................................................................................................................ 113 Development of Recommended Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts in Weak Rocks Based on O-Cell Tests .................................................................................................................................................... 115 Stream Realignment Design Using a reference Reach......................................................................... 117 A Study of Fluvial Geomorphology Aspects of Hydraulic Design .......................................................... 119 Lateral Capacity of Rock Sockets in Limestone Under Cyclic and Repeated Loading .......................... 121 Evaluation of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems and Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks ........................................................................................................................................ 122 Kentucky Transportation Cabinet ............................................................................................ 124 Shear Repair of P/C Box Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced (CFRP) Fabric ................................. 124 Change Orders and Lessons Learned.................................................................................................. 126 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 4
  5. 5. Transportation Excellence Through Research Nondestructive Testing of Defective ASTM A 514 Steel on the I-275 Twin Bridges over the Ohio River in Campbell County.................................................................................................................................. 128 Factors Affecting Asphalt Pavement Density and the Effect on Long-Term Performance ..................... 130 Evaluation of Pavement Marking Performance ..................................................................................... 131 Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt .......................................................................................................... 132 Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD), Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) ................................................................................. 134 Development and Performance Assessment of an FRP Strengthened Balsa-Wood Bridge Deck for Accelerated Construction ..................................................................................................................... 134 Accelerated Loading Evaluation of Subbase Layers in Pavement Performance ................................... 136 Updating LADOTD Policy on Vibration Monitoring ................................................................................ 138 Evaluation of Surface Resistivity Measurements as an Alternative to the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test for Quality Assurance and Acceptance ......................................................................................... 140 Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT).................................................................. 142 Bridge Safety Initiative: Slab Bridge Load Rating using AASHTO Methodology and Finite Element Analysis................................................................................................................................................ 142 A Financial Impact Assessment of LD 1725: Stream Crossings ........................................................... 144 Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) ...................................................................... 146 Evaluation of Laboratory Tests to Quantify Frictional Properties of Aggregates.................................... 146 Soil Slope Failure Investigation Management System .......................................................................... 148 Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT), Office of Research and Best Practices (ORBP) ....................................................................................................................................... 150 ECR Bridge Decks: Damage Detection and Assessment of Remaining Service Life for Various Overlay Repair Options ..................................................................................................................................... 150 Effects of Debonded Strands on the Production and Performance of Prestressed Concrete Beams .... 152 Development of New Test Procedures for Measuring Fine and Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravities .. 154 Improving Drivers‘ Ability to Safely and Effectively Use Roundabouts: Educating the Public to Navigate Roundabouts ........................................................................................................................................ 156 Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) .............................................................. 158 TH-36 Full Closure Construction: Evaluation of Traffic Operations Alternatives ................................... 158 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 5
  6. 6. Transportation Excellence Through Research Mn/DOT Combined Smoothness Specification ..................................................................................... 160 Development of an Advanced Structural Monitoring System ................................................................ 162 Sign Retroreflectivity – A Minnesota Toolkit ......................................................................................... 164 Minnesota‘s Best Practices for Traffic Sign Maintenance/ Management Handbook .............................. 166 Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT)................................................................ 168 Summary of Lessons Learned from the MDOT MEPDG Materials Library ........................................... 168 Incorporation of MDOT‘s Faulting Calculation Algorithm into ProVAL FHWA Software ........................ 170 Sediment Management Alternatives for the Ports of Biloxi, Gulfport, Bienville, and Pascagoula .......... 172 Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) .................................................................. 173 Bathymetric Surveys at Highway Bridges Crossing the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, using a Multibeam Echo Sounder, 2010 ........................................................................................................... 173 Evaluation of an Adaptive Traffic Signal System: Route 291 in Lee's Summit, Missouri ....................... 174 Diverging Diamond Interchange Performance Evaluation (I-44 & Route 13) and Diverging Diamond Lessons Learned document ................................................................................................................. 176 Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Technologies ............................................................................. 178 MTI Geotechnical Research Program .................................................................................................. 180 Spalling Solution of Precast-Prestressed Bridge Deck Panels.............................................................. 182 Calibration of Live Load Factor in LRFD Design Guidelines ................................................................. 183 Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) ....................................................................... 184 Highways for Life Culvert Rehabilitation Project/ NH-HFL 8-1(30)23 MacDonald Pass Guardrail/Erosion184 Steep Cut Slope Composting: Field Trials and Evaluation .................................................................... 186 Montana Rest Area Usage: Data Acquisition and Usage Estimation .................................................... 188 New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) ...................................................... 190 Development and Implementation of Interactive Stormwater Outreach Model and Related Materials .. 190 In-Service Performance Monitoring of a CFRP-Reinforced HPC Bridge Deck ...................................... 192 New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) .............................................................. 194 Heavy Metal Contamination in Highway Marking Glass Beads............................................................. 194 Incorporating Alternative Energy into NJDOT‘s Physical Plant ............................................................. 196 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 6
  7. 7. Transportation Excellence Through Research Eliminating Barriers to Transit-Oriented Development .......................................................................... 198 IR Scan of Concrete Admixtures and Structural Steel Paints................................................................ 199 Design and Evaluation of Bridges for Scour Using HEC 18 .................................................................. 201 New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) .................................................... 203 Performance of Gravel Aggregates in Superpave Mixes with 100/95 Angularity................................... 203 HydroTracker Sub-surface Moisture Meter ........................................................................................... 205 Solar Transit Stops on Central Avenue ................................................................................................ 207 North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) ........................................................ 209 Behavior of Micropiles in Bridge Bent Applications ............................................................................... 209 Precipitation Alert: Ongoing Maintenance of Precipitation Alert and Visualization Tool in Support of NCDOT‘s Storm Water Quality Monitoring ........................................................................................... 211 Reducing stormwater flows and pollution from ocean outfalls at Kure Beach NC using Dune Infiltration Systems ............................................................................................................................................... 213 Local Calibration of the MEPDG for Flexible Pavement Design ............................................................ 215 Development of Undercut Criteria and Alternatives for Subgrade Stabilization ..................................... 217 Superstreet Benefits and Capacities .................................................................................................... 219 Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) ........................................................................... 221 Forensic Investigation of AC and PCC Pavements with Extended Service Life .................................... 221 Cost Benefit Analysis of Including Microsurfacing in Pavement Treatment Strategies and Pavement Design .................................................................................................................................................. 223 Analysis of Public Benefits for Pennsylvania Rail Freight Funding........................................................ 225 Impacts of Vanpooling in Pennsylvania ................................................................................................ 227 Concrete Overlay Field Application ...................................................................................................... 229 Determining Structural Benefits of PennDOT-Approved Geogrids in Pavement Design ....................... 231 South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) ....................................................... 232 Evaluating the Effect of Slab Curling on IRI for South Carolina Concrete Pavements........................... 232 South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) .......................................................... 234 Application of Paleoflood Investigations in the Black Hills .................................................................... 234 Development of a Maintenance Decision Support System ................................................................... 236 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 7
  8. 8. Transportation Excellence Through Research Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT)........................................................................ 238 Aggregate Resistance to Polishing and Its Relationship to Skid Resistance......................................... 238 Develop Guidelines and Procedures for Stabilization of Sulfate Soils ................................................... 240 Rapid Field Detection of Sulfate and Organic Content in Soils ............................................................. 242 Estimating Texas Motor Vehicle Operating Costs................................................................................. 244 Longer Combination Vehicles & Road Trains for Texas? ..................................................................... 245 Equipment Replacement Optimization ................................................................................................. 246 Evaluation of Superheavy Load Criteria for Bridges ............................................................................. 247 Development of Field Performance Evaluation Tools and Program for Pavement Marking Materials ... 248 Mitigation Methods for Temporary Concrete Traffic Barrier Effects on Flood Water Flows ................... 250 Super 2 Design for Higher Traffic Volumes .......................................................................................... 252 Optimizing the Design of Permeable Friction Courses (PFC) ............................................................... 253 Transportation Research Board (TRB) .................................................................................... 255 Advancing Bridge Specifications .......................................................................................................... 255 AASHTO Asset Management Guide: Volumes I and II ......................................................................... 257 Highway Capacity Manual .................................................................................................................... 259 Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) ........................................................................... 260 Construction Machine Control Guidance Implementation Strategy ....................................................... 260 Failure of Surface Courses Beneath Pavement Markings .................................................................... 261 Infrasound Avalanche Monitoring System Research Evaluation ........................................................... 262 Assessing Corrosion of MSE Wall Reinforcement ................................................................................ 264 Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) ...................................................................... 266 Determining the maintenance superintendent and facility needs for residencies in the Virginia Department of Transportation............................................................................................................... 266 Examination of an implemented asphalt permeability specification....................................................... 268 Analysis of Full-Depth Reclamation Trial Sections in Virginia ............................................................... 270 Condition assessment and determination of methods for evaluating corrosion damage in piles encapsulated in protective jackets on the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel ........................................... 272 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 8
  9. 9. Transportation Excellence Through Research Investigation of the use of tear-off shingles in asphalt concrete ............................................................ 274 Best practices in traffic operations and safety: Phase II – Zig-zag pavement markings ........................ 276 Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) .................................................. 278 Precast Systems for Rapid Construction of Bridges ............................................................................. 278 Identifying High Risk Locations of Animal-Vehicle Collisions on Washington State Highways .............. 280 Bituminous Surface Treatment Protocol ............................................................................................... 281 State Highways as Main Streets: A Study of Community Design and Visioning.................................... 282 Quantifying Incident Induced Travel Delays ......................................................................................... 284 Incident Response Evaluation .............................................................................................................. 286 Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT).............................................................. 288 Rapid Bridge Construction Technology – Precast Elements for Substructures ..................................... 288 Best Practices on Mega-Projects and ARRA Projects .......................................................................... 290 Evaluation of Intelligent Compaction Technology for Roadway Subgrades & Structural Layers ........... 292 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 9
  10. 10. Transportation Excellence Through Research Introduction This document is the 2011 collection of High Value Research highlights from across the Nation. These highlights, which were compiled for the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Research Advisory Committee summer meeting, showcase projects that are providing ―Transportation Excellence Through Research.‖ The highlights encompass a variety of research with topics ranging from pavements and bridge construction, to deer-vehicle collisions, to Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit. States that submitted projects include: Alabama, Alaska, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. See the Federal Highway Administration‘s (FHWA) Telling the R&T Story for FHWA‘s project highlights. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 10
  11. 11. Transportation Excellence Through Research The University of Alabama (UA) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Feasibility Study Guideline for Public Private Partnership Projects, Volumes I and II ID 930-722R Project Cost $116,567 Duration 25 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency UA Submitter Contact Dr. Jay Lindly; Dr. Qingbin Cui Submitter E-mail jlindly@eng.ua.edu; cui@umd.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jeffery W. Brown Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail brownje@dot.state.al.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project For many state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), a shortage of transportation funds requires the agencies to combat the shortage by implementing innovative programs. Nationwide, Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in transportation projects are increasingly gaining acceptance as an alternative to the traditional approaches of project delivery and public financing. Due to the complexity of scale of PPP projects, it remains a challenging task for state DOTs to identify PPP opportunity while protecting public interest. The research study presents a framework for PPP feasibility study at the early phase of project development. The PPP feasibility study procedure included five components: namely prescreening checklist, debt financing test, equity financing evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and capital structure optimization. The integrated analysis framework would help state DOTs: Evaluate PPP maturity Identify risk factors and implementation barriers Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 11
  12. 12. Transportation Excellence Through Research Determine debt capacity Establish minimum requirement for private equity investment Determine equity and public fund needs Evaluate and compare public and private financing plans Optimize capital structure under uncertainty A financing analysis process model was developed and refined for the guideline. An Excel-based software package named P3FAST was developed. A case study was performed to demonstrate the analysis process and outcome. The analysis was compared with three types of PPP models and evaluated to achieve a feasible financing structure. Some of the recommendations from the study were as follows: ALDOT could integrate the partnership program into the multimodal transportation development process. Highway, rail and transit projects could all be developed through various PPP formats. Successful PPP projects in essence root in an appropriate allocation of project risks between public and private partners. Identifying, evaluating, pricing, and allocating those risks are still challenging work and deserve further investigation. PPP project governance becomes an increasingly important issue that requires public agencies to integrate good governance standards into PPP practices including participation, decency, transparency, accountability, fairness, efficiency and sustainable development. The guidebook on good governance practices in PPPs; however, has not been established. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://utca.eng.ua.edu/projects/final_reports/08403-FinalReport_.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 12
  13. 13. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Feasibility of Developing a Pilot Car Training and Certification Program in Alabama ID 930-669 Project Cost $108,034 Duration 4.25 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency The University of Alabama Submitter Contact Dr. Jay Lindly Submitter E-mail jlindly@eng.ua.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jeffery W. Brown Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail brownje@dot.state.al.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project In response to a devastating, early-morning crash involving an escorted, oversize/overweight load and a train in Glendale, California in January 2000, the National Transportation Safety Board produced a Safety Recommendation (Blakey 2001, 3). The recommendation stated that pilot car drivers perform ―a safety-sensitive function and are an integral component of many oversize/overweight vehicle movements; consequently, it is important that they be trained and qualified‖. However, when the recommendation was released in 2001, only 8 states required pilot car escort driver certification for oversize/overweight loads. The State of Alabama does not currently require pilot car driver certification. Only 11 states currently require this type of certification. However, the Permit and Operations section within the Maintenance Bureau of ALDOT made a request to investigate certification within Alabama and reciprocity of certification with neighboring states. Three key areas were identified and addressed through the research study efforts. The areas were as follows: Modifying the escort driver section §32-9-29, Code of Alabama (1975) to update them and to make them more uniform with other southeastern states. Suggested modifications were written, but would not be placed into effect in Alabama without being adopted under the Administrative Procedures Act. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 13
  14. 14. Transportation Excellence Through Research Producing teaching materials and a plan to teach the certification course if it is authorized. A 28-page training booklet was completed. Educating truckers about the permit requirements and pilot car requirements for oversize/overweight loads, in addition to other trucking issues. The Truckers Guide to Permits, Weights and other Commercial Vehicle Regulations was completed. It is a 28page document with input from 5 agencies essential to freight transportation and is ready for publication. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://utca.eng.ua.edu/projects/project_descriptions/10401%20RiP .pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 14
  15. 15. Transportation Excellence Through Research Auburn University (Alabama) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development of an Integrated Economic, Land Use & Transportation Forecasting Model for the State of Alabama ID 930-766 Project Cost $250,000 Duration 13 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Auburn University Submitter Contact Dr. Michael Clay Submitter E-mail Clay@byu.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jeffery W. Brown Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail brownje@dot.state.al.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Data development and concern over what it might entail constrain many smaller and medium-sized Metropolitan Planning Organizations‘ (MPO) ambitions to develop an integrated transportation/land use modeling framework. Yet growing demands for more detailed answers to evolving questions that such frameworks can answer will likely only increase with time as local policymakers and federal requirements grow more demanding in the infrastructure selection and justification process. In 2007 the ALDOT in cooperation with the Montgomery Area MPO and Auburn University initiated a research project to explore the potential of developing an integrated transportation/land use model framework for use in transportation planning throughout the state. The Montgomery area was selected as the ―test bed‖ of those efforts which culminated in 2009 with the development of rich geospatial datasets. Both the Montgomery MPO and ALDOT recognized the need and jointly sponsored research to evaluate the viability of a complex integrated transportation/land use framework given limited data and resources. In 2009 ALDOT initiated a second phase research project to implement Cube Land as the land use model component of an integrated transportation/land use model. The Montgomery case study was the Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 15
  16. 16. Transportation Excellence Through Research first of this particular land use model to be employed in the United States. A predecessor of Cube Land was successfully employed in Santiago, Chile under the name MUSSA (Martinez, 2007). Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The research project successfully demonstrated that a medium-sized MPO had most of the data to build such a model, and that disaggregate data, normally cost prohibitive for such an agency, could be acquired and augmented for minimal cost. By reducing data development costs and schedule, opportunities exist for such agencies to address the complex interactions between land use policies and transportation infrastructure improvements over time and facilitate a more informed project selection process. Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 16
  17. 17. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title An Evaluation of the Benefits of the Alabama Service and Assistance Patrol ID 930-635 Project Cost $89,307 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency The Highway Research Center, Auburn University Submitter Contact Dr. Rod Turochy; Dr. Steven Jones Submitter E-mail rodturochy@auburn.edu; sjones@eng.ua.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alabama Department of Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Jeffery W. Brown Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail brownje@dot.state.al.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The Alabama Service and Assistance Patrol (A.S.A.P.) is a freeway service patrol operated by the Alabama Department of Transportation in the Birmingham region of Alabama. This patrol of service vehicles travels continuously on approximately 112 miles of freeway on weekdays, and responds to incidents such as crashes, and vehicle breakdowns, rendering assistance from basic services to motorists to temporary traffic control. The A.S.A.P. program provides benefits to the public through reductions of travel time delay, vehicle emissions, and secondary or follow-on crashes. The program also provides basic services to motorists such as fuel, air, and emergency starting. The economic values of these benefits were estimated in order to conduct an evaluation of the economic effectiveness of the program. This study, which was the first comprehensive study that addressed all categories of benefits since program inception in 1997, provided an economic evaluation of the program using assist and program cost data that was provided by ALDOT for a 12-month period (July 2004 – June 2005). Four categories of benefits were evaluated during the research: mobility, safety, environmental, and customer service. The mobility benefits, the most commonly studied category, consist of the value of travel time saved due to the operations of the A.S.A.P. program. Since previous studies have shown that a substantial percentage of traffic congestion and resulting delay are due to non- Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 17
  18. 18. Transportation Excellence Through Research recurring congestion (i.e. incidents) rather than typical daily congestion associated with volume and capacity relationships, a detailed and thorough approach was developed to estimate the mobility benefits of the A.S.A.P. program. Analysis of benefits related to emissions reduction warranted a high level of detail due to the original motivation and funding for the A.S.A.P. program. The program was originally supported through the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) federal funding category. The focus of CMAQ funds was to support projects and programs that improve air quality. Safety benefits are those associated with secondary crashes avoided through the operations of the program. Quantification of safety benefits in prior studies has been relatively limited and predicated on many assumptions. Attempts to relate incident durations and clearances to actual changes in rates or occurrences of secondary crashes were identified challenges. Environmental benefits are those attributable to reduced emissions. The value of services directly provided to motorists through the program constitutes the customer service benefits. Finally, customer service benefits were valued economically through the use of values provided in several studies of other programs. These values were then adjusted across time and location to the study period for the current effort (2004-2005). An additional guiding principle in the analyses was the use of range-based rather than deterministic results. Due to the assumptions that needed to be made to establish values of these categories, a range of benefits, rather than a single value, was reported, except for the environmental benefits. Since the environmental benefits were based directly on the simulation model and assumptions did not need to be made about socioeconomic values, a single value was reported. These values are summarized in Table 8-1. The range of economic benefits, as well as most likely values, were estimated in each of the four categories described above. The ratio of benefits to program costs during the study period, for each category, is shown Table ES-1. The overall benefit-cost ratio was found to be between 3.5:1 and 33:1, with a most likely value of approximately 15:1. This demonstrates that the benefits of the A.S.A.P. program greatly exceed the investment in the program. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 18
  19. 19. Transportation Excellence Through Research Alaska Department of Transportation (AKDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Alaska DOT and PF Pile Extension Pier Pushover Program ID T2-07-14 Project Cost $80,000 Duration 2.5 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency AKDOT Submitter Contact Angela Parsons; Elmer Marx Submitter E-mail angela.parsons@alaska.gov; elmer.marx@alaska.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization University of Alaska, Fairbanks Sponsoring Agency Contact N/A Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail N/A RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Unlike the current American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications, the AASHTO Guide Specification for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design is a displacement-based seismic design methodology. This methodology allows for the direct comparison of the earthquake induced deformations to the bridge‘s displacement capacity. Unfortunately, although the displacement-based approach is more accurate and appropriate, the computational requirements are challenging and cannot be easily be performed without the aid of computer automation. No reliable commercial software program is available to calculate a structure‘s displacement capacity. The AKDOT has sponsored research to investigate the full-scale performance of the standard bridge pier used in Alaska. The project was successful and the results have been incorporated into all new bridge designs resulting in greatly improved performance while also reducing bridge cost. The researchers on this project had developed computer programs (without Department assistance) capable of accurately predicting the displacement capacity of bridge piers. These programs were developed as research tools and are not useable by design engineers. This project has adopted the existing ―academic‖ software Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 19
  20. 20. Transportation Excellence Through Research (OpenSEES) into a useable design program to generate the displacement capacity (pushover response) of typical Alaska style bridge piers. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ine.uaf.edu/autc/projects/alaska-bridge-bent-pushover-softwareincluding-concrete-confinement/ http://rip.trb.org/browse/dproject.asp?n=13618 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 20
  21. 21. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Stabilizing Marginal Soils with Geofibers and Synthetic Fluid ID AUTC207117 Project Cost $400,000 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Alaska Department of Transportation (AKDOT) and Public Facilities (PF) Submitter Contact James Sweeney Submitter E-mail jim.sweeney@Alaska.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alaska University Transportation Center Sponsoring Agency Contact N/A Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail N/A RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Many soils encountered in Western Alaska are marginal and lack the required engineering properties for pavement base courses, subbase courses, subgrades and building foundations. Alternatives include importing costly quality soils and stabilizing locally available soils. Traditional stabilization techniques require large amounts of additives to improve the engineering properties of soils. Moreover, many of these techniques require specialized skills and equipment to ensure adequate performance. Recently researchers have used geofibers and synthetic fluid to improve very loose sandy soils. This technology requires minimal installation equipment. The stabilization of soils with the combination of geofibers and synthetic fluid and the application of the technology in transportation infrastructure have not been thoroughly investigated. A systematic experimental study is underway on various local marginal soils. An early research attempt on a local soil (Bethel silty sand) showed the use of geofiber and synthetic fluid can significantly increase the bearing capacity and strength of the soil. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results This study will directly benefit a wide range of transportation construction projects. The technology is very promising as it allows engineers to use locally available materials, and thus providing a significant reduction in overall construction costs. Web Links (if available) http://ine.uaf.edu/autc/files/2011/02/INE_AUTC_RR07_03.pdf (Note this is the report of the preceding pilot project.) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 21
  22. 22. Transportation Excellence Through Research Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title A Study of Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut and Demonstration and Evaluation of Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit ID CT-222-42-03-15; CT-170-1884-F-05-10; JH 03-8 Report No. JHR 05-304 Project Cost $166,618 (plus $1,023,756, the purchase price of two busses at $511,878 per bus) Duration 15 years, 6 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ConnDOT Submitter Contact Ravi V. Chandran Submitter E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project spans a period of over fifteen years during which time CTTransit™ has been a national leader in testing and adopting new and emerging bus propulsion technologies. The goal of the project was to identify, for future bus fleet replacement, the next generation of transit buses; these buses must have improved fuel economy, produce fewer emissions, and be cost effective and reliable when compared to the standard heavy-duty, clean-diesel powered buses. Project partners include the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT), CTTransit™, the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering (CASE) and the University of Connecticut (UConn). In 2000, ConnDOT and CTTransit™ were interested in introducing new bus propulsion technologies into the CTTransit™ bus fleet that would meet both transportation and environmental needs. ConnDOT/CTTransit™ asked CASE in 2000 to evaluate available and emerging bus propulsion technology, and to suggest bus purchase Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 22
  23. 23. Transportation Excellence Through Research scenarios as guidance for decision making involving the purchase of new buses (A Study of Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut, February 2001). Then, in 2002, ConnDOT/CTTransit™ asked CASE to update the initial CASE study (Study Update: Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut, March 2003). These studies were useful to ConnDOT/CTTransit™ in designing an initial pilot program for the acquisition and testing of two 2003-model year, 40-foot hybrid diesel-electric buses, and two virtually identical 2002-model-year, 40-foot, standard clean-diesel buses. The pilot program included an 18-month testing program that was developed by CTTransit™ and reviewed by a CASE committee that resulted in a report (Review of CTTransit Diesel Bus Research Program, March 2003) that provided guidance to CTTransit™ for its consideration. The testing program included the measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions with the assistance of and evaluation by two UConn professors. It is believed that this was the first time ever that emissions comparisons between hybrid-electric buses and similar conventional diesel buses were made on-board buses, on routes that represent in-service conditions. As such, this program was a unique opportunity that evaluated buses operating in real-world conditions. The testing program involved operating the two hybrid buses and two cleandiesel buses in virtually identical conditions on equivalent routes each day, duplicating revenue service in all cases. Emissions were measured using on-board equipment. The testing program was completed in December 2004. The experience gained from the pilot program provided CTTransit™ with internal expertise to continue to examine innovative emerging technologies for additional bus fleet acquisitions. In 2007, CTTransit™ st acquired its 1 fuel cell-hybrid bus which has operated on a circulator route in Hartford, CT, for the past 3 3/4 years. Experience gained with this initial fuel cell-hybrid bus resulted in the acquisition of four additional fuel cell-hybrid buses that were placed into revenue service in late 2010. CTTransit™ also purchased thirty-one 40-foot hybrid buses and ten 60foot articulated hybrid buses in 2010 that are just now being placed into revenue service. The company is also in the process of replacing all 16 of its Transportation Supervisor vehicles with hybrid models. The following represents a summary of the recommendations of the studies and results of the testing program that comprise the foundation of this project: CASE Study: A Study of Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut (February 2001) (http://ctcase.org/reports/bus_propulsion.pdf]: The study examined several bus propulsion technologies including: existing diesel system technology; ―clean diesel‖; hybrid dieselelectric; compressed natural gas (CNG); and fuel cell-based. The study offered recommendations that provided several options that were designed to reduce emissions, match service Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 23
  24. 24. Transportation Excellence Through Research and market needs, reduce risk, and minimize cost. In summary, the study suggested the purchase of some hybrid diesel-electric buses paired with state-of-the-art ―clean diesel‖ buses with the possibility of moving more aggressively into ultra-low-sulfur fuel buses fitted with advanced exhaust treatment systems. CASE Study Update: Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut (March 2003) [Report No. CT-222-42-03-15 (http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/CT-222-4203-15.pdf)]: This study identified that current markets and findings were similar to those found in the 2001 study. However, several issues and developments occurred since issuance of the original report that were of interest. The reported reliability of first generation hybrid diesel-electric buses was significantly poorer than equivalent conventional diesel buses and the number of suppliers remained small. CASE found that the inherent technical and operational advantages of hybrid diesel-electric buses merited continued exploration of this option, with expectation that future generations of these buses would overcome the reliability issues experienced with the first generation buses. Therefore, it was recommended that CTTransit™ continue to concentrate its bus acquisition program on the purchase of conventional diesel buses, equipped with state-of-the-art exhaust gas treatment systems and operated using ultra-low-sulfur fuel; and continue to explore hybrid dieselelectric technology by purchasing a small number of such buses, and evaluating their operation on CTTransit™ bus routes. CTTransit™ Demonstration and Evaluation of Hybrid DieselElectric Transit Buses: The 18-month testing program (July 2003 – December 2004) included testing of two 2003-modelyear 40-foot hybrid diesel-electric buses, and two virtually identical 2002-model-year, 40-foot standard clean-diesel buses in identical conditions on equivalent routes each day, duplicating revenue service. Emissions were measured using on-board equipment. The program included two broad categories of testing. CTTransit™ tracked fuel usage, oil usage, mean time between road calls and maintenance costs. Two professors from the UConn, Baki M. Cetegen, Professor of Mechanical Engineering (CTTransit Hybrid and Conventional Bus Gas Emission Measurement Test Report [2005]) (available on CD), conducted the testing of gaseous emissions (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and unburned hydrocarbons), and Britt A. Holmén, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering [Particulate Matter Emissions from Hybrid Diesel-Electric and Conventional Diesel Transit Buses: Fuel and Aftertreatment Effects [2005] [Report No. JHR 05-304 (http://docs.trb.org/01011179.pdf)]] conducted the testing of particulate matter, including both total particulate mass and a detailed measurement of the size distribution of the particles. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 24
  25. 25. Transportation Excellence Through Research The results of the testing program found that the hybrid dieselelectric buses were very reliable and achieved 10% better fuel economy than the comparable clean-diesel buses. For any given fuel/exhaust gas treatment situation, the gaseous emissions and particle mass and number emissions were virtually identical for the hybrid diesel-electric buses and the base clean-diesel buses when averaged over the real-world driving routes used in the program. For both bus types, the gas and particle emissions were essentially unaffected by the change to ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. In addition, the gaseous emissions were unaffected by the addition of the diesel particulate filter. For both bus types, and in all cases, particulate emissions were greatly reduced by the addition of the diesel particulate filter in the exhaust system. For the particle size range of 10 – 130 nanometers – a size range of great current interest due to public health concerns – the reductions in particle number concentration were on the order of 99% (i.e., a reduction of 100 times). The hybrid diesel-electric buses had a lower life cycle cost, when the current Federal Transit Administration (FTA) 80% purchase subsidy was considered. Also, as determined from customer surveys, the hybrid diesel electric buses were rated very favorably by both bus operators and customers. CASE Report: Demonstration and Evaluation of Hybrid DieselElectric Transit Buses (October 2005) [Report No. CT-1701884-F-05-10 (http://docs.trb.org/01015091.pdf)]: This report summarized the findings of the CTTransit™ testing program and concluded that CTTransit™ should continue to evaluate the operation of its hybrid diesel-electric buses especially with regard to fuel economy and maintenance history; consider follow-up study of cost, reliability, and emissions after several years of operation to evaluate aging of both the hybrid and base (clean-diesel) buses; consider purchase of additional hybrid buses of newer and different designs in study quantities to better understand if the expected inherent advantages of a hybrid design will be realized; continue to purchase conventional clean-diesel buses, fitted with state-of-the-art exhaust systems, including particulate matter filters operated on ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel for a majority of bus fleet acquisitions. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 25
  26. 26. Transportation Excellence Through Research CTTransit Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus In-Service CTTransit 2003 Hybrid Electric Bus CTTransit 2011 Hybrid Electric Bus Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 26
  27. 27. Transportation Excellence Through Research CTTransit Nova Artic Bus Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ctcase.org/reports/bus_propulsion.pdf http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/CT-222-42-0315.pdf http://docs.trb.org/01015091.pdf http://docs.trb.org/01011179.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 27
  28. 28. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Stormwater Quality Associated with Milling of HMA Surfaces ID JHR 10-322 Project Cost $57,702 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ConnDOT Submitter Contact Ravi V. Chandran Submitter E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization ConnDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Ravi V. Chandran Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Background The common practice of milling old pavement from roadways prior to placing a new wearing surface has the potential to increase contaminant loads released from roadway surfaces during rain events. It is commonly recognized that runoff from undisturbed roadway surfaces constitute an important non-point source of contaminants to surface waters in the US (US EPA 1995). Materials on the roadway surface that are deposited from the atmosphere, vehicle emissions and vehicle component (e.g., brakes) and tire wear are washed from the surface by precipitation and suspended or dissolved in the stormwater (FHWA 1999). Typical stormwater constituents of concern include suspended solids that may clog receiving water bodies and heavy metals that may be toxic to aquatic organisms (US EPA 1995). Other contaminants may include nutrients and oil and grease (FHWA 1999). The extent to which these roadway contaminants may contribute to stormwater quality from milled roadway surfaces is unknown. Possible milled surface stormwater quality impacts could include an increased suspended solids load resulting from fine particles generated during milling. Anecdotal reports suggest oily sheens on waterways around milled surfaces that may result from fine asphalt particles from the road surface. Obviously, any generation of runoff from the milled surface requires that a rainfall event occur prior to placement of the new pavement surface, but this occurrence may be high given that a several-day to week interval can pass between pavement removal and placement of a new wearing Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 28
  29. 29. Transportation Excellence Through Research surface. Thus, to assess whether stormwater best management practices (BMPs) should be integrated into pavement milling activities, and to provide insight to develop such BMPs, if required, there is an urgent need to characterize the release of roadway-derived contaminants from milled pavement surfaces. Objective(s) The objective of the proposed research was to characterize differences in water quality parameters between stormwater runoff from milled roadway surfaces and unaltered roadway surfaces. Conclusions and Recommendations Milling of HMA surfaces had no direct impact on water quality of roadway runoff obtained from these surfaces. Stormwater quality of runoff obtained from milled roadway surfaces differed little from runoff from unaltered roadway surfaces. Comparisons of road surface flushing mechanisms and event mean concentrations of water quality parameters yielded similar values for both milled and unaltered roadway surfaces. The one exception was event mean total suspended solids that were greater for milled surfaces; however, correlation of high total suspended solids with the occurrence of particle-associated lead in the milled surface runoff suggested a roadside source of solids, not residual HMA particles generated during milling. The coincident observations of suspended solids and lead at milled locations may suggest alterations of stormwater conveyance systems and structures. For example, removal of asphalt curbing may allow overland flow from disturbed soil embankments onto the road surface, contributing to roadway runoff. Therefore, milling activities should proceed with consideration not to create new hydraulic connections with adjacent roadside areas that do not drain onto the road surface. Scheduling of roadway resurfacing projects in Connecticut need not be modified for weather conditions to minimize impacts on water quality of stormwater generated during the project duration. The lack of trends in total suspended solids or heavy metal event mean concentrations with precipitation suggest that rain storm intensity was not a factor in storm water quality. The somewhat higher event mean total suspended solids concentrations for milled surfaces were within ranges reported for other, unaltered road surfaces. The timing of the milling season with summer in Connecticut results in localized convective rainfall events characterized by sporadic generation of rainfall runoff that is short in duration. Milled roadway surfaces that employ catch basin and storm drain runoff conveyance systems may not yield any stormwater during summer convective storm events because water accumulation on the road surface must be great enough to overtop drainage structures. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 29
  30. 30. Transportation Excellence Through Research Sample Collection Apparatus. Apparatus was deployed in an asphalt stormwater conveyance gutter (1) to await initiation after 60 mm/h precipitation intensity detected by a tipping bucket rain gauge (2). Stormwater flow was measured with an H-flume equipped with a bubble flow meter (3). Flow exiting the flume via a dump cup (4) was sampled using a 12-position automated sampler contained within a secure box (5). Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/JHR_10322_JH_06-9.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 30
  31. 31. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Alternative Fuel Light Trucks and Automobiles ID CT-2223-1-04-6; CT-2223-2-05-3; CT-2223-F-08-8 Project Cost $614,600 Duration 10 years, 1 month SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ConnDOT Submitter Contact Ravi V. Chandran Submitter E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization ConnDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Ravi V. Chandran Sponsoring Agency Contact’s Email Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The goal of the project was to gather first- and second-hand data and information about the performance of alternative fuel (ALT-Fuel) light trucks and automobiles; analyze and synthesize the materials; and, develop findings to aid State and Federal officials in their planning for future government fleets to comply with Section 507(o), the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1992 (EPACT). Background In 2005, the State fleet consisted of 4,041 passenger vehicles. The DOT was assigned 221 of these vehicles. In addition, the DOT owned and operated 2,099 specialty vehicles (528 buses, 713 dump trucks, 344 pickups, etc.). Both the Department of Administrative Services (DAS) and DOT must comply with EPACT requirements to purchase specified minimum percentages of cars and light trucks that operate on fuels other than gasoline or diesel fuel. EPACT excludes emergency vehicles from these requirements. Compliance with EPACT strengthens US energy security by reducing dependency on foreign oil. In 1996, Department of Energy (DOE) regulations were modified, but the basic goals remained intact. In 1998, DAS purchased 70 dual-fuel compressed natural gas (CNG)/gasoline sedans that met the federal 15% fleet-purchase requirement. In 1999 and 2000, larger purchases were carried out to comply with 25% and 50% fleet-purchase requirements. After 2000, flex- Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 31
  32. 32. Transportation Excellence Through Research fuel vehicles were purchased to meet EPACT requirements. In 2000, the national consumption of alternative fuels was 0.2% of total transportation fuels in the US. CNG represented 29.5% of all alternative fuels in the US. In 1998, the Department initiated research project SPR-2223, titled ―Evaluation of Alternative Fuel Light Trucks and Automobiles,‖ to gather field data and performance information on vehicles operated in Connecticut that are powered from electricity and CNG, to assist both State and Federal Officials with information about these options, which could be used to comply with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1992, Section 507(o). Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicle A 1998 Chevy Cavalier Sedan, bi-fuel compressed natural gas vehicle, that was part of the state fleet, was selected for evaluation. It was operated under various weather conditions, trip lengths, and fuel types to document the performance, practicality, and limitations of operating this type of vehicle in Connecticut. From November 1998 to May 2003, the Research staff accumulated 27,000 miles on the subject vehicle. Production of the bi-fuel Chevy Cavalier was discontinued after the 2004 model year. In conclusion, the bi-fuel CNG Chevy Cavalier did function as described by the automobile manufacturer‘s literature. The bi-fuel capability of this vehicle worked well and provided a means of operating fleet automobiles on an alternative fuel. However, the limited CNG supply infrastructure in Connecticut, together with no requirement to report the amount of CNG fuel consumed by fleet operations and the lack of price-differential incentives between the two fuels in Connecticut limited the acceptance of CNG vehicles in the State Fleet. Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery-Electric Vehicle (BEV) ConnDOT and The Connecticut Rideshare Company of Greater Hartford (Rideshare) previously partnered to evaluate electric subcompact cars that utilized lead acid batteries. Nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries, popular in European electric vehicles, were anticipated to provide longer and more reliable service. The accuracy of marketing claims of battery electric vehicle (BEV) and battery manufacturers was uncertain. There was a need to obtain and disseminate some first-hand information about the practicality of this Alt-Fuel option. ConnDOT partnered with Rideshare to retrofit three subcompact BEVs with nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries to conduct the two-phase study. The vehicles used were 1995 General Motors Geo Metro(s) retrofitted by the Solectria Corporation. For Phase 2, thin-film photovoltaic laminates were integrated in the NiCd BEVs in order to provide power to offset the small power losses experienced while parked and unplugged. The study accumulated data from more than 550 individual trips, spanning a distance of nearly 35,000 miles over an eight year period. While researchers were able to attain the 70 mile range in Phase 1, they were unable to replicate the results in Phase 2, as the nominal range of the Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 32
  33. 33. Transportation Excellence Through Research retrofitted vehicles was approximately 57 miles. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicle Bi-Fuel System Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery-Electric Vehicle (BEV) Under the Hood of a Battery-Electric Vehicle (BEV) Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://docs.trb.org/00978608.pdf http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/CT-2223-2-05-3.pdf http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/CT-2223-F-08-8.pdf http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/SPR2223_Evaluation_of_Alternative_Fuel_Light_Trucks_and_Automobiles.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 33
  34. 34. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title New Technologies for Photolog Image and Data Acquisition ID N/A Project Cost $500,000 Duration On-Going Project [February 2003 – Present] SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ConnDOT Submitter Contact Ravi V. Chandran Submitter E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization ConnDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Ravi V. Chandran Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Background Since 1973, ConnDOT has acquired ground-based images and data with state-of-the-art photolog vehicles. The photolog program in ConnDOT, administered by the Data Services Section (DSS) of the Division of Research, has been successful due to the emphasis placed on maintaining data quality and internal marketing, which includes distributing acquired information to as many ―clients‖ as will derive benefit from it. Over the years, Department-wide photolog retrieval tools had evolved from film viewing stations used through the 1970s and early 1980s, to thirty-four PC-controlled Photolog Laser Videodisc (PLV) workstations employed from the mid 1980s through the 1990s. In 2003, ConnDOT‘s photolog cameras captured images at a low 640x480 pixel resolution, which precluded clear viewing for many applications. For example, researchers at FHWA and the University of Connecticut (UConn) were attempting to employ pattern recognition to automatically extract lane, pavement markings, sign, and curb attributes from photolog images, but had met with limited success due to the low image resolution. Although many aspects of photologging had undergone upgrading and improvements, imaging improvements had not been addressed at ConnDOT since 1997. DSS became aware of technologies, such as high resolution digital cameras and high-definition (HD) cameras that could provide photolog‘s client-base immediate Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 34
  35. 35. Transportation Excellence Through Research improvement in general viewing applications, as well as potentially allow for many new applications. A research project was created to investigate and implement high definition/high resolution imaging for photolog applications. Objective(s) The project implemented an upgraded, optimal, driver‘s-eye-view imaging solution for desktop retrieval at ConnDOT, other State agencies, UConn and the Connecticut University System. Conclusions and Recommendations HDTV images, bridge under-clearance, and incremental indexing and image distribution are the latest in a series of improvements to photolog in ConnDOT. As described herein, savings from these technologies are impressive even in a small state. States with larger areas should realize equal, or more substantial, savings; therefore, it appears to make sound economic sense for state transportation agencies to place a high priority and adequate resources to continually improve and upgrade their ground-based image and data acquisition systems, as well as, provide widely-accessible local area network (LAN) and non-LAN access to HDTV photolog images and data. The photolog images are available to approximately 500 Department personnel who can view condition of roadways and their surroundings from their computer desktops without having to go into the field. ConnDOT‘s photolog usage saves the State an estimated $2 million annually in fleet vehicle use and man-hours spent in the field and 2.4 million miles driven. This delivers an impressive 3:1 benefit/cost ratio, based on the annual operating budget, for this Departmental function. Photolog has become a mainstream tool used daily by all ConnDOT Bureaus, other State agencies (including the Department of Environmental Protection, State Agricultural Experiment Station, State Police, and University System), Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs), municipalities, and private sector clients. Based on ConnDOT‘s experience, the old adage ―a picture is worth a thousand words‖ can be extended to include a thousand practical applications and millions of dollars saved. Successful use of this technology is dependent upon proper network storage and bandwidth sufficient to carry images across a LAN efficiently. (a) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper (b) 35
  36. 36. Transportation Excellence Through Research (c) Sequential Photolog Images (d) Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) www.ct.gov/dot/photolog Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 36
  37. 37. Transportation Excellence Through Research Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Web-based Safety Inspector Training and Certification Program ID BD548-19 Project Cost $575,644 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Florida Department of Transportation Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Florida Department of Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s Email Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The Office of Motor Carrier Compliance (OMCC) assists FDOT in fulfilling its mission to provide a safe transportation system by performing commercial vehicle safety and weight enforcement inspections. Safety inspectors must be knowledgeable of regulations established by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. OMCC‘s training academy conducts training and certification programs for potential and current safety inspectors. However, the programs had been experiencing an unacceptable failure rate of over 25 percent. To improve graduation rates, researchers at the University of Central Florida‘s Center for Advanced Transportation Simulation Systems and the Institute for Simulation and Training designed a web-based program to assist training and certification of safety inspectors. The program teaches inspectors how to apply regulations, exceptions, and other criteria during a safety inspection. It allows participants to study mechanical parts and features practice scenarios, quick reference aids, and simulated walk-around inspections. Graduation failure rates during the training academy phase of the program dropped to zero, and evaluation scores during the field training officer program phase resulted in three of the past four classes achieving a 100 percent pass rate, thereby increasing safety inspector job performance Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 37
  38. 38. Transportation Excellence Through Research and enhancing the safety of commercial trucking in Florida. Air Brake Animation from Web-Based Training Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_MCCO/FDOT_BD548-19_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 38
  39. 39. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Travel Time Reliability Modeling for Florida ID BDK77 977-02 Project Cost $100,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency FDOT Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The confidence level that travelers have for arriving at their destination within a certain period of time is a performance measure called travel time reliability. Determining how to measure, quantify, predict, and report travel time reliability is difficult. This study improved the methodology and tools developed in previous FDOT research for estimating and reporting reliability on the Strategic Intermodal System (SIS), and applied those tools to estimate various travel time reliability measures for the Florida SIS freeway system. Methodology and spreadsheets were updated to consider incident durations longer than one hour. Various intelligent transportation system (ITS) strategies were evaluated and recommendations formulated on how the impacts of these strategies can be incorporated into the reliability estimation method. The Florida SIS was segmented into sections for travel time reliability analysis, and the Crash Analysis Reporting System (CARS) database was used to obtain incident information by milepost. Study results provide FDOT with improved tools for estimating and reporting travel time reliability on the SIS. The tools can be used to prioritize roadway improvement projects, estimate impacts of various types of programs or improvements on the expected reliability, enhance reporting requirements, and help freight shippers to schedule trips. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_PL/FDOT_BDK77%20977-02_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 39
  40. 40. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Inlet Protection Devices and Their Effectiveness ID BDK78 977-03 Project Cost $160,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency FDOT Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Sediments and nutrients generated and transported during construction activities block stormwater conveyance systems, plug culverts, fill navigable channels, adversely impact wetlands and wildlife, and suppress aquatic life. Researchers at the Stormwater Management Academy, University of Central Florida tested curb and drop inlet protection devices (IPDs) used in Florida during construction activities to determine their effectiveness. Researchers found that both curb and drop IPDs reduce runoff but to different degrees and with unique removal rates. They found that the removal efficiency of nutrients, turbidity, and alkalinity for a curb inlet IPD consisting of rolled up recycled synthetic material wrapped in a net with 2-inch diameter orifices was higher than average of all products tested. For drop inlet devices, researchers determined that placing a product upstream of the inlet to attenuate flow and a product beneath the grate to filter water is more efficient at removing pollutants than a product placed on top of the grate. All IPDs tested require proper installation and maintenance to increase effectiveness and reduce flooding. Researchers recommend that products used for sediment and erosion control meet specific standards before being permitted, and that turbidity and total solids removal benchmarks be established. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 40
  41. 41. Transportation Excellence Through Research Culvert Clogged with Construction Runoff Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_RD/FDOT_BDK78_97703_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 41
  42. 42. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title The ACS Statistical Analyzer ID BDK85 977-02 Project Cost $100,000 Duration 21 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency FDOT Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The American Community Survey (ACS) is a separate part of the 2010 U.S. Census program and replaces the U.S. Census long form. Through continuous sampling, the data gathered with the ACS gives communities detailed population and housing characteristics to help communities determine where to locate services and allocate resources. Transportation planners rely on the commuting and socio-demographic data captured with the ACS to estimate future demand, make long range transportation plans, and apply for federal and state funding for transit projects. However, they face challenges in correctly estimating transportation demand because of the large margin of error inherent in ACS estimates. To help transportation planners more precisely estimate future demand, researchers developed a tool called the ACS Statistical Analyzer. The analyzer is an Excel-based template that allows transportation planners using ACS estimates to assess more precisely relative reliability, confidence interval, and margin of error. Using the analyzer, planners can efficiently compare pairs of estimates in terms of their statistical differences and account for sampling errors associated with the ACS estimates. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Implementation of the ACS Statistical Analyzer is expected to decrease technical barriers for transportation planners and all other users of ACS data, giving them increased precision in their analysis . Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_PTO/FDOT_BDK85_977-02_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 42
  43. 43. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Use of Aggregate Screenings as a Substitute for Silica Sand in Portland Cement ID BDL13 977-01 Project Cost $138,856 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency FDOT Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Researchers at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University investigated whether screenings – a major byproduct of the crushed rock industry – are a suitable substitute for sand in Portland cement concrete (PCC) mortar. They studied the properties of screenings from several Florida mines and their effects on the quality of mortar and PCC made with them. A comprehensive study of these properties and formulations was related to compressive strength through mathematical models. Studies of PCC examined the influence of the angularity of fine aggregate, blends of screenings and silica sand, cement content, water-to-cement ratio, sand-to-total-aggregate ratio, and fly ash, based on a control mix of FDOT Class IV concrete. Researchers found that screenings can be an acceptable substitute for natural sand in PCC. The screenings used in this study can replace up to 50 percent of natural sand in PCC for structural concrete, especially when durability is not a primary concern. For nonstructural elements, a 100 percent replacement is possible. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 43
  44. 44. Transportation Excellence Through Research Limestone Mine Screenings Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results These findings will benefit FDOT by making available a new material that has cost advantages over natural sand and benefit the environment by requiring fewer disposal sites. Rock industries will benefit through finding a new market for their stockpiles. Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_SMO/FDOT_BDL13_977-01_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 44
  45. 45. Transportation Excellence Through Research Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Bridge Repair and Strengthening Study, Part 1 ID 08-05 Project Cost $350,406 Duration 30 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency GDOT Submitter Contact Supriya Kamatkar Submitter E-mail skamatkar@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization GDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Supriya Kamatkar Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail skamatkar@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This research is to examine the structural performance of three methods for in-place shear strengthening, repair, and upgrade of bridge components in Georgia. The methods are: (1) external clamping system with post-tensioned rods including the development of all stainless steel post-tensioned rod system; (2) polymer composite system with carbon fiber reinforcement; and (3) polymer composite system with stainless steel fiber reinforcement. The research primarily focuses on the pier caps and is divided into two parts. The on-going Part 1 covers, the laboratory investigation, and the future Part 2 will cover the field implementation. GDOT is currently strengthening concrete bridges to reduce or remove weight restrictions and/or to provide ten or more years of service life until they can be replaced. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results This research will provide the Office of Bridge Design (includes Bridge Maintenance) with alternative methods for in-place strengthening, repair and upgrade of deficient bridge structures. It is estimated that approximately 700 bridges could benefit from strengthening, primarily bent caps or reinforced concrete deck girders. Use of these methods in bridge strengthening and repairs has a potential of saving millions of dollars. Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 45
  46. 46. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development and Evaluation of Devices Designed to Minimize Deer-vehicle Collisions (Phase II) ID 07-02 Project Cost $298,854 Duration 45 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency GDOT Submitter Contact David Jared Submitter E-mail djared@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization GDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact David Jared Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail djared@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project In this study, the research team (1) evaluated the behavioral responses of captive white-tailed deer to visual and physical barriers designed to minimize deer-vehicle collisions; and (2) determined the effects of exclusion fencing on movements of free-ranging deer, and (3) further tested visual capabilities of deer; all as related to potential mitigation strategies for deer-vehicle collisions. The team tested the efficacy of several fencing designs and that of a layer of rip-rap rock for restricting movements of captive deer. Woven-wire fences >2.1-m tall and 1.2-m woven-wire fences with a top-mounted outrigger were most effective. The team studied movements of free-ranging deer before and after construction of 1.6 km of 2.4-m woven-wire and 1.6 km of 1.2-m wovenwire with a top-mounted outrigger. Fencing did not affect deer home range size, and deer often circumvented fence ends. Daily deer movements in response to fencing were reduced by 98% and 90% for the 2.4-m and outrigger designs, respectively. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The outrigger design has potential for reducing collisions because of its relative affordability and ability to function as a 1-way barrier. The overall cost of the outrigger design installation was 20% less than the standard 2.4 woven-wire design installation ($3,200/mile). Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.ga.gov/doingbusiness/research/projects/Pages/Reports.a spx Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 46
  47. 47. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title 19th & 20th Century Trolley System Contextual Study ID 10-02 Project Cost $70,630 Duration 18 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency GDOT Submitter Contact David Jared Submitter E-mail djared@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization GDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact David Jared Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail djared@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Trolley tracks survive beneath the paved streets of Atlanta and several other Georgia cities. Currently remains associated with Georgia‘s early trolley lines, including the tracks, are considered potentially eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). This consideration is in part due to a general lack of information about trolley track construction and use. Therefore anytime a piece of track, or other associated material, is found it must be assessed as to whether or not it is eligible for listing in the NRHP. The scope of this project is to develop (1) a GIS/Microstation database of trolley lines around the city of Atlanta to (a) identify and plan for these resources during the concept stage of project development; and (b) facilitate the identification of other historic resources potentially impacted by transportation projects; (2) a contextual study of Georgia‘s trolley system that will help GDOT and other state agencies to determine the historical significance of trolley resources and their attributes; and (3) an educational, public website for outreach and dissemination of the contextual study and GIS/Microstation database. The project deliverables will provide (1) scalability to statewide inventory of historic trolley resources; (2) enhanced mapping and spatial data analysis to support project planning and preconstruction; and (3) improved coordination with other agencies or consulting parties. Added benefits to the general public, beyond the project planning/preconstruction benefits, are an accessible history of the Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 47
  48. 48. Transportation Excellence Through Research growth and development of trolley lines in Georgia, and culturally relevant information to communities with trolley line resources. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 48
  49. 49. Transportation Excellence Through Research Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title 2009 Customer Satisfaction Survey ID RP197 Project Cost $50,000 Duration 10 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ITD Submitter Contact Ned Parrish Submitter E-mail ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization ITD, Research Program Sponsoring Agency Contact Ned Parrish Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project ITD‘s Customer Service Council requested a telephone survey to gauge customer satisfaction with department services and to identify opportunities to improve customer service. This was the first survey of its kind done by ITD, and it established a baseline against which the department‘s performance can be monitored over time. The survey was done by the University of Idaho‘s Social Science Research Unit. They obtained survey responses from a random sample of more than 1,600 Idahoans, which included both land line and cell phone numbers. The survey covered a wide range of topics including highway maintenance and construction, DMV services, alternative transportation, public involvement and communications, and customer service. The survey results were presented to ITD‘s leadership team, the Idaho Transportation Board, and the House and Senate Transportation Committees. The survey report was also included on the performance dashboard on ITD‘s website (http://itd.idaho.gov/Dashboard_New/). At the completion of the study, ITD management requested that similar customer surveys be done every two years. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 49
  50. 50. Transportation Excellence Through Research The survey report contained a number of recommendations to improve ITD customer service. Based on the survey results: ITD‘s DMV Division has increased awareness of its highly rated online services and expanded county participation in online registration renewal services. The number of online registration renewals increased from about 110,000 in 2008 (prior to the survey) to approximately 137,500 in 2010. The department‘s 511 staff has expanded marketing of its services and added new services, including information on transit routes and scheduling. ITD‘s Customer Service Council initiated efforts to develop public feedback capabilities on the department‘s website. ITD‘s new long-range plan as a management tool highlighted the survey as a management tool be used for continuous improvement. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.itd.idaho.gov/planning/research/archived/reports/RP%20197 %20-%20ITD%202009%20Customer%20Satisfaction%20Survey.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 50
  51. 51. Transportation Excellence Through Research Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Implementation and Evaluation of the Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Web Application for Computing Basin Characteristics and Flood Peaks in Illinois ID R27-6 Project Cost $120,000 Duration 28 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency IDOT Submitter Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Submitter E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization IDOT, Bureau of Materials and Physical Research, Illinois Center for Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project For Illinois, the software StreamStats is an integral aspect of the state‘s water resources planning and management. When operating the program, a user can prompt the application to compute basin characteristics and peak discharges (flood magnitudes) for streams and waterways throughout Illinois. Since Web-based applications are only as good as they are statistically valid, IDOT commissioned researchers from the United States Geological Survey‘s Illinois Water Science Center to examine the validity of results obtained through Illinois StreamStats. Specifically, the researchers tested how accurate flood peak discharge estimates were in the application. Published peak discharge estimates were compared against computations in StreamStats for a random sample of 170 stream-flow gauging stations in Illinois. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 51
  52. 52. Transportation Excellence Through Research Illinois stream data online | The Illinois Department of Transportation commissioned the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to create a Web application based off the gauge-based hydrologic method reported in 2004 (also called the USGS regression equations). States implementing StreamStats Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ict.illinois.edu/publications/report%20files/FHWA-ICT-10-063.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 52
  53. 53. Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development and Application of Safety Performance Functions for Illinois ID R27-20 Project Cost $140,000 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency IDOT Submitter Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Submitter E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization IDOT, Bureau of Materials and Physical Research, Illinois Center for Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Sponsoring Agency Contact’s Email Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The State of Illinois recognizes the need to take a new approach to highway safety analysis. This is especially necessary in light of the nation‘s emphasis on decreasing traffic related fatalities and serious injuries and Illinois‘ Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) goal of zero fatalities. Because resources are limited, it is critical to identify those roadways that are underperforming in regard to safety that have the largest potential from improvement through the implementation of safety countermeasures. Illinois had the National Highway Institute (NHI) class, New Approaches to Highway Safety Analysis, which introduced engineers to the concept of Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). SPFs are statistical models that describe the relationship among crash frequency, crash severity, crash type, traffic volumes, roadway geometric design, and other factors. SPFs provide a realistic and accurate prediction of crash frequency as a function of traffic volume and roadway geometries for different types of roadway sites (e.g., segments, intersections) over a network. The SPFs, often used together with the Empirical Bayesian method, can be used to calculate a roadway site‘s Potential for Safety Improvement (PSI) and thus help identify those locations that have the highest potential for improvement. Ultimately, sites with highest PSI values could be given priority during the safety project planning process. IDOT and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) worked together to Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 53
  54. 54. Transportation Excellence Through Research develop SPFs and calculate PSIs for all state routes and intersections. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ict.illinois.edu/publications/report%20files/FHWA-ICT-10-066.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 54

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