000high value-research-final-20111
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

000high value-research-final-20111

on

  • 728 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
728
Views on SlideShare
728
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

000high value-research-final-20111 000high value-research-final-20111 Document Transcript

  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Research Impacts Better—Faster—Cheaper July 2011
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 10 The University of Alabama (UA) ................................................................................................. 11 Feasibility Study Guideline for Public Private Partnership Projects, Volumes I and II ............................. 11 Feasibility of Developing a Pilot Car Training and Certification Program in Alabama .............................. 13 Auburn University (Alabama) ..................................................................................................... 15 Development of an Integrated Economic, Land Use & Transportation Forecasting Model for the State of Alabama ................................................................................................................................................. 15 An Evaluation of the Benefits of the Alabama Service and Assistance Patrol ......................................... 17 Alaska Department of Transportation (AKDOT) ....................................................................... 19 Alaska DOT and PF Pile Extension Pier Pushover Program .................................................................. 19 Stabilizing Marginal Soils with Geofibers and Synthetic Fluid ................................................................. 21 Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) .......................................................... 22 A Study of Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut and Demonstration and Evaluation of Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit ................................................................................................................. 22 Evaluation of Stormwater Quality Associated with Milling of HMA Surfaces ........................................... 28 Evaluation of Alternative Fuel Light Trucks and Automobiles ................................................................. 31 New Technologies for Photolog Image and Data Acquisition.................................................................. 34 Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) .......................................................................... 37 Web-based Safety Inspector Training and Certification Program ........................................................... 37 Travel Time Reliability Modeling for Florida ............................................................................................ 39 Inlet Protection Devices and Their Effectiveness .................................................................................... 40 The ACS Statistical Analyzer.................................................................................................................. 42 Use of Aggregate Screenings as a Substitute for Silica Sand in Portland Cement ................................. 43 Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT)........................................................................ 45 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 2
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Bridge Repair and Strengthening Study, Part 1 ...................................................................................... 45 Development and Evaluation of Devices Designed to Minimize Deer-vehicle Collisions (Phase II) ........ 46 19th & 20th Century Trolley System Contextual Study ........................................................................... 47 Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) .................................................................................... 49 2009 Customer Satisfaction Survey ....................................................................................................... 49 Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT)............................................................................ 51 Implementation and Evaluation of the Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Web Application for Computing Basin Characteristics and Flood Peaks in Illinois.................................................................. 51 Development and Application of Safety Performance Functions for Illinois ............................................. 53 Evaluation of 3D Laser Scanning for Construction Application ............................................................... 55 Queue and User‘s Cost in Highway Work Zones .................................................................................... 57 Simple Cost-Effective Scour Sensor....................................................................................................... 59 Conference Proceedings: Midwest Transportation Air Quality Summit ................................................... 61 Improving the Safety of Moving Lane Closures – Phase II ..................................................................... 63 Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) ........................................................................ 66 Implementation of Laterally Loaded Piles in Multi-Layered Soils ............................................................ 66 Assessment of Delivery Risks in Transportation Projects ....................................................................... 68 Identification and Implementation of Best Management Practices for Erosion and Sediment Control That Conform to Indiana Storm Water Quality Regulations and Guidance ..................................................... 70 Improving Safety in High-Speed Work Zones: A Super 70 Study ........................................................... 72 Real-Time Socio-Economic Data for Travel Demand ............................................................................. 74 Saw-Cutting Guidelines for Concrete Pavements: Examining the Requirements for Time and Depth of Saw Cutting ............................................................................................................................................ 76 Use of Steel Slag in Subgrade Applications ........................................................................................... 78 Construction of Embankments and Fills using Lightweight Materials ...................................................... 80 Automated Pavement Condition Data Collection Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Reliability ..... 82 Safety Impacts of Design Exceptions ..................................................................................................... 84 Travel Time Reliability in Indiana ............................................................................................................ 86 Classification of Marl soils ...................................................................................................................... 88 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 3
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Field Investigation of Subgrade Lime Modification .................................................................................. 90 Construction of Embankments and Fill using Ash................................................................................... 91 Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) ................................................................................ 93 Investigation of Improved Utility Cut Repair Techniques to Reduce Settlement in Repaired Areas, Phase II ............................................................................................................................................................. 93 Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR)-Emulsion and Comparison Against CIR-Foam Results from Phase II ............................................................................................................ 95 Pavement Markings and Safety .............................................................................................................. 97 Biofuel Co-Product Uses for Pavement Geo-Materials Stabilization ....................................................... 99 Development of Non-Petroleum Based Binders for Use in Flexible Pavements.................................... 101 Improving Concrete Overlay Construction ............................................................................................ 103 Use of Video Feedback in Urban Teen Drivers..................................................................................... 105 Multiple-Blade Snowplow Project ......................................................................................................... 107 Comprehensive Bridge Deck Deterioration Mapping of Nine Bridges by Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies ........................................................................................................................................ 109 Design, Construction, and Field Testing of an Ultra High Performance Concrete Pi-Girder Bridge ....... 111 Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT)....................................................................... 113 Use of Surface and Borehole Ground Penetrating Radar in Geologic and Engineering Investigations of Transportation Projects ........................................................................................................................ 113 Development of Recommended Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts in Weak Rocks Based on O-Cell Tests .................................................................................................................................................... 115 Stream Realignment Design Using a reference Reach......................................................................... 117 A Study of Fluvial Geomorphology Aspects of Hydraulic Design .......................................................... 119 Lateral Capacity of Rock Sockets in Limestone Under Cyclic and Repeated Loading .......................... 121 Evaluation of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems and Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks ........................................................................................................................................ 122 Kentucky Transportation Cabinet ............................................................................................ 124 Shear Repair of P/C Box Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced (CFRP) Fabric ................................. 124 Change Orders and Lessons Learned.................................................................................................. 126 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 4
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Nondestructive Testing of Defective ASTM A 514 Steel on the I-275 Twin Bridges over the Ohio River in Campbell County.................................................................................................................................. 128 Factors Affecting Asphalt Pavement Density and the Effect on Long-Term Performance ..................... 130 Evaluation of Pavement Marking Performance ..................................................................................... 131 Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt .......................................................................................................... 132 Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD), Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) ................................................................................. 134 Development and Performance Assessment of an FRP Strengthened Balsa-Wood Bridge Deck for Accelerated Construction ..................................................................................................................... 134 Accelerated Loading Evaluation of Subbase Layers in Pavement Performance ................................... 136 Updating LADOTD Policy on Vibration Monitoring ................................................................................ 138 Evaluation of Surface Resistivity Measurements as an Alternative to the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test for Quality Assurance and Acceptance ......................................................................................... 140 Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT).................................................................. 142 Bridge Safety Initiative: Slab Bridge Load Rating using AASHTO Methodology and Finite Element Analysis................................................................................................................................................ 142 A Financial Impact Assessment of LD 1725: Stream Crossings ........................................................... 144 Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) ...................................................................... 146 Evaluation of Laboratory Tests to Quantify Frictional Properties of Aggregates.................................... 146 Soil Slope Failure Investigation Management System .......................................................................... 148 Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT), Office of Research and Best Practices (ORBP) ....................................................................................................................................... 150 ECR Bridge Decks: Damage Detection and Assessment of Remaining Service Life for Various Overlay Repair Options ..................................................................................................................................... 150 Effects of Debonded Strands on the Production and Performance of Prestressed Concrete Beams .... 152 Development of New Test Procedures for Measuring Fine and Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravities .. 154 Improving Drivers‘ Ability to Safely and Effectively Use Roundabouts: Educating the Public to Navigate Roundabouts ........................................................................................................................................ 156 Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) .............................................................. 158 TH-36 Full Closure Construction: Evaluation of Traffic Operations Alternatives ................................... 158 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 5
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Mn/DOT Combined Smoothness Specification ..................................................................................... 160 Development of an Advanced Structural Monitoring System ................................................................ 162 Sign Retroreflectivity – A Minnesota Toolkit ......................................................................................... 164 Minnesota‘s Best Practices for Traffic Sign Maintenance/ Management Handbook .............................. 166 Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT)................................................................ 168 Summary of Lessons Learned from the MDOT MEPDG Materials Library ........................................... 168 Incorporation of MDOT‘s Faulting Calculation Algorithm into ProVAL FHWA Software ........................ 170 Sediment Management Alternatives for the Ports of Biloxi, Gulfport, Bienville, and Pascagoula .......... 172 Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) .................................................................. 173 Bathymetric Surveys at Highway Bridges Crossing the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, using a Multibeam Echo Sounder, 2010 ........................................................................................................... 173 Evaluation of an Adaptive Traffic Signal System: Route 291 in Lee's Summit, Missouri ....................... 174 Diverging Diamond Interchange Performance Evaluation (I-44 & Route 13) and Diverging Diamond Lessons Learned document ................................................................................................................. 176 Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Technologies ............................................................................. 178 MTI Geotechnical Research Program .................................................................................................. 180 Spalling Solution of Precast-Prestressed Bridge Deck Panels.............................................................. 182 Calibration of Live Load Factor in LRFD Design Guidelines ................................................................. 183 Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) ....................................................................... 184 Highways for Life Culvert Rehabilitation Project/ NH-HFL 8-1(30)23 MacDonald Pass Guardrail/Erosion184 Steep Cut Slope Composting: Field Trials and Evaluation .................................................................... 186 Montana Rest Area Usage: Data Acquisition and Usage Estimation .................................................... 188 New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) ...................................................... 190 Development and Implementation of Interactive Stormwater Outreach Model and Related Materials .. 190 In-Service Performance Monitoring of a CFRP-Reinforced HPC Bridge Deck ...................................... 192 New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) .............................................................. 194 Heavy Metal Contamination in Highway Marking Glass Beads............................................................. 194 Incorporating Alternative Energy into NJDOT‘s Physical Plant ............................................................. 196 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 6
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Eliminating Barriers to Transit-Oriented Development .......................................................................... 198 IR Scan of Concrete Admixtures and Structural Steel Paints................................................................ 199 Design and Evaluation of Bridges for Scour Using HEC 18 .................................................................. 201 New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) .................................................... 203 Performance of Gravel Aggregates in Superpave Mixes with 100/95 Angularity................................... 203 HydroTracker Sub-surface Moisture Meter ........................................................................................... 205 Solar Transit Stops on Central Avenue ................................................................................................ 207 North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) ........................................................ 209 Behavior of Micropiles in Bridge Bent Applications ............................................................................... 209 Precipitation Alert: Ongoing Maintenance of Precipitation Alert and Visualization Tool in Support of NCDOT‘s Storm Water Quality Monitoring ........................................................................................... 211 Reducing stormwater flows and pollution from ocean outfalls at Kure Beach NC using Dune Infiltration Systems ............................................................................................................................................... 213 Local Calibration of the MEPDG for Flexible Pavement Design ............................................................ 215 Development of Undercut Criteria and Alternatives for Subgrade Stabilization ..................................... 217 Superstreet Benefits and Capacities .................................................................................................... 219 Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) ........................................................................... 221 Forensic Investigation of AC and PCC Pavements with Extended Service Life .................................... 221 Cost Benefit Analysis of Including Microsurfacing in Pavement Treatment Strategies and Pavement Design .................................................................................................................................................. 223 Analysis of Public Benefits for Pennsylvania Rail Freight Funding........................................................ 225 Impacts of Vanpooling in Pennsylvania ................................................................................................ 227 Concrete Overlay Field Application ...................................................................................................... 229 Determining Structural Benefits of PennDOT-Approved Geogrids in Pavement Design ....................... 231 South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) ....................................................... 232 Evaluating the Effect of Slab Curling on IRI for South Carolina Concrete Pavements........................... 232 South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) .......................................................... 234 Application of Paleoflood Investigations in the Black Hills .................................................................... 234 Development of a Maintenance Decision Support System ................................................................... 236 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 7
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT)........................................................................ 238 Aggregate Resistance to Polishing and Its Relationship to Skid Resistance......................................... 238 Develop Guidelines and Procedures for Stabilization of Sulfate Soils ................................................... 240 Rapid Field Detection of Sulfate and Organic Content in Soils ............................................................. 242 Estimating Texas Motor Vehicle Operating Costs................................................................................. 244 Longer Combination Vehicles & Road Trains for Texas? ..................................................................... 245 Equipment Replacement Optimization ................................................................................................. 246 Evaluation of Superheavy Load Criteria for Bridges ............................................................................. 247 Development of Field Performance Evaluation Tools and Program for Pavement Marking Materials ... 248 Mitigation Methods for Temporary Concrete Traffic Barrier Effects on Flood Water Flows ................... 250 Super 2 Design for Higher Traffic Volumes .......................................................................................... 252 Optimizing the Design of Permeable Friction Courses (PFC) ............................................................... 253 Transportation Research Board (TRB) .................................................................................... 255 Advancing Bridge Specifications .......................................................................................................... 255 AASHTO Asset Management Guide: Volumes I and II ......................................................................... 257 Highway Capacity Manual .................................................................................................................... 259 Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) ........................................................................... 260 Construction Machine Control Guidance Implementation Strategy ....................................................... 260 Failure of Surface Courses Beneath Pavement Markings .................................................................... 261 Infrasound Avalanche Monitoring System Research Evaluation ........................................................... 262 Assessing Corrosion of MSE Wall Reinforcement ................................................................................ 264 Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) ...................................................................... 266 Determining the maintenance superintendent and facility needs for residencies in the Virginia Department of Transportation............................................................................................................... 266 Examination of an implemented asphalt permeability specification....................................................... 268 Analysis of Full-Depth Reclamation Trial Sections in Virginia ............................................................... 270 Condition assessment and determination of methods for evaluating corrosion damage in piles encapsulated in protective jackets on the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel ........................................... 272 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 8
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Investigation of the use of tear-off shingles in asphalt concrete ............................................................ 274 Best practices in traffic operations and safety: Phase II – Zig-zag pavement markings ........................ 276 Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) .................................................. 278 Precast Systems for Rapid Construction of Bridges ............................................................................. 278 Identifying High Risk Locations of Animal-Vehicle Collisions on Washington State Highways .............. 280 Bituminous Surface Treatment Protocol ............................................................................................... 281 State Highways as Main Streets: A Study of Community Design and Visioning.................................... 282 Quantifying Incident Induced Travel Delays ......................................................................................... 284 Incident Response Evaluation .............................................................................................................. 286 Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT).............................................................. 288 Rapid Bridge Construction Technology – Precast Elements for Substructures ..................................... 288 Best Practices on Mega-Projects and ARRA Projects .......................................................................... 290 Evaluation of Intelligent Compaction Technology for Roadway Subgrades & Structural Layers ........... 292 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 9
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Introduction This document is the 2011 collection of High Value Research highlights from across the Nation. These highlights, which were compiled for the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Research Advisory Committee summer meeting, showcase projects that are providing ―Transportation Excellence Through Research.‖ The highlights encompass a variety of research with topics ranging from pavements and bridge construction, to deer-vehicle collisions, to Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit. States that submitted projects include: Alabama, Alaska, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. See the Federal Highway Administration‘s (FHWA) Telling the R&T Story for FHWA‘s project highlights. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 10
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research The University of Alabama (UA) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Feasibility Study Guideline for Public Private Partnership Projects, Volumes I and II ID 930-722R Project Cost $116,567 Duration 25 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency UA Submitter Contact Dr. Jay Lindly; Dr. Qingbin Cui Submitter E-mail jlindly@eng.ua.edu; cui@umd.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jeffery W. Brown Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail brownje@dot.state.al.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project For many state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), a shortage of transportation funds requires the agencies to combat the shortage by implementing innovative programs. Nationwide, Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in transportation projects are increasingly gaining acceptance as an alternative to the traditional approaches of project delivery and public financing. Due to the complexity of scale of PPP projects, it remains a challenging task for state DOTs to identify PPP opportunity while protecting public interest. The research study presents a framework for PPP feasibility study at the early phase of project development. The PPP feasibility study procedure included five components: namely prescreening checklist, debt financing test, equity financing evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and capital structure optimization. The integrated analysis framework would help state DOTs: Evaluate PPP maturity Identify risk factors and implementation barriers Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 11
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Determine debt capacity Establish minimum requirement for private equity investment Determine equity and public fund needs Evaluate and compare public and private financing plans Optimize capital structure under uncertainty A financing analysis process model was developed and refined for the guideline. An Excel-based software package named P3FAST was developed. A case study was performed to demonstrate the analysis process and outcome. The analysis was compared with three types of PPP models and evaluated to achieve a feasible financing structure. Some of the recommendations from the study were as follows: ALDOT could integrate the partnership program into the multimodal transportation development process. Highway, rail and transit projects could all be developed through various PPP formats. Successful PPP projects in essence root in an appropriate allocation of project risks between public and private partners. Identifying, evaluating, pricing, and allocating those risks are still challenging work and deserve further investigation. PPP project governance becomes an increasingly important issue that requires public agencies to integrate good governance standards into PPP practices including participation, decency, transparency, accountability, fairness, efficiency and sustainable development. The guidebook on good governance practices in PPPs; however, has not been established. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://utca.eng.ua.edu/projects/final_reports/08403-FinalReport_.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 12
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Feasibility of Developing a Pilot Car Training and Certification Program in Alabama ID 930-669 Project Cost $108,034 Duration 4.25 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency The University of Alabama Submitter Contact Dr. Jay Lindly Submitter E-mail jlindly@eng.ua.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jeffery W. Brown Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail brownje@dot.state.al.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project In response to a devastating, early-morning crash involving an escorted, oversize/overweight load and a train in Glendale, California in January 2000, the National Transportation Safety Board produced a Safety Recommendation (Blakey 2001, 3). The recommendation stated that pilot car drivers perform ―a safety-sensitive function and are an integral component of many oversize/overweight vehicle movements; consequently, it is important that they be trained and qualified‖. However, when the recommendation was released in 2001, only 8 states required pilot car escort driver certification for oversize/overweight loads. The State of Alabama does not currently require pilot car driver certification. Only 11 states currently require this type of certification. However, the Permit and Operations section within the Maintenance Bureau of ALDOT made a request to investigate certification within Alabama and reciprocity of certification with neighboring states. Three key areas were identified and addressed through the research study efforts. The areas were as follows: Modifying the escort driver section §32-9-29, Code of Alabama (1975) to update them and to make them more uniform with other southeastern states. Suggested modifications were written, but would not be placed into effect in Alabama without being adopted under the Administrative Procedures Act. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 13
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Producing teaching materials and a plan to teach the certification course if it is authorized. A 28-page training booklet was completed. Educating truckers about the permit requirements and pilot car requirements for oversize/overweight loads, in addition to other trucking issues. The Truckers Guide to Permits, Weights and other Commercial Vehicle Regulations was completed. It is a 28page document with input from 5 agencies essential to freight transportation and is ready for publication. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://utca.eng.ua.edu/projects/project_descriptions/10401%20RiP .pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 14
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Auburn University (Alabama) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development of an Integrated Economic, Land Use & Transportation Forecasting Model for the State of Alabama ID 930-766 Project Cost $250,000 Duration 13 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Auburn University Submitter Contact Dr. Michael Clay Submitter E-mail Clay@byu.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jeffery W. Brown Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail brownje@dot.state.al.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Data development and concern over what it might entail constrain many smaller and medium-sized Metropolitan Planning Organizations‘ (MPO) ambitions to develop an integrated transportation/land use modeling framework. Yet growing demands for more detailed answers to evolving questions that such frameworks can answer will likely only increase with time as local policymakers and federal requirements grow more demanding in the infrastructure selection and justification process. In 2007 the ALDOT in cooperation with the Montgomery Area MPO and Auburn University initiated a research project to explore the potential of developing an integrated transportation/land use model framework for use in transportation planning throughout the state. The Montgomery area was selected as the ―test bed‖ of those efforts which culminated in 2009 with the development of rich geospatial datasets. Both the Montgomery MPO and ALDOT recognized the need and jointly sponsored research to evaluate the viability of a complex integrated transportation/land use framework given limited data and resources. In 2009 ALDOT initiated a second phase research project to implement Cube Land as the land use model component of an integrated transportation/land use model. The Montgomery case study was the Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 15
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research first of this particular land use model to be employed in the United States. A predecessor of Cube Land was successfully employed in Santiago, Chile under the name MUSSA (Martinez, 2007). Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The research project successfully demonstrated that a medium-sized MPO had most of the data to build such a model, and that disaggregate data, normally cost prohibitive for such an agency, could be acquired and augmented for minimal cost. By reducing data development costs and schedule, opportunities exist for such agencies to address the complex interactions between land use policies and transportation infrastructure improvements over time and facilitate a more informed project selection process. Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 16
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title An Evaluation of the Benefits of the Alabama Service and Assistance Patrol ID 930-635 Project Cost $89,307 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency The Highway Research Center, Auburn University Submitter Contact Dr. Rod Turochy; Dr. Steven Jones Submitter E-mail rodturochy@auburn.edu; sjones@eng.ua.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alabama Department of Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Jeffery W. Brown Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail brownje@dot.state.al.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The Alabama Service and Assistance Patrol (A.S.A.P.) is a freeway service patrol operated by the Alabama Department of Transportation in the Birmingham region of Alabama. This patrol of service vehicles travels continuously on approximately 112 miles of freeway on weekdays, and responds to incidents such as crashes, and vehicle breakdowns, rendering assistance from basic services to motorists to temporary traffic control. The A.S.A.P. program provides benefits to the public through reductions of travel time delay, vehicle emissions, and secondary or follow-on crashes. The program also provides basic services to motorists such as fuel, air, and emergency starting. The economic values of these benefits were estimated in order to conduct an evaluation of the economic effectiveness of the program. This study, which was the first comprehensive study that addressed all categories of benefits since program inception in 1997, provided an economic evaluation of the program using assist and program cost data that was provided by ALDOT for a 12-month period (July 2004 – June 2005). Four categories of benefits were evaluated during the research: mobility, safety, environmental, and customer service. The mobility benefits, the most commonly studied category, consist of the value of travel time saved due to the operations of the A.S.A.P. program. Since previous studies have shown that a substantial percentage of traffic congestion and resulting delay are due to non- Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 17
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research recurring congestion (i.e. incidents) rather than typical daily congestion associated with volume and capacity relationships, a detailed and thorough approach was developed to estimate the mobility benefits of the A.S.A.P. program. Analysis of benefits related to emissions reduction warranted a high level of detail due to the original motivation and funding for the A.S.A.P. program. The program was originally supported through the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) federal funding category. The focus of CMAQ funds was to support projects and programs that improve air quality. Safety benefits are those associated with secondary crashes avoided through the operations of the program. Quantification of safety benefits in prior studies has been relatively limited and predicated on many assumptions. Attempts to relate incident durations and clearances to actual changes in rates or occurrences of secondary crashes were identified challenges. Environmental benefits are those attributable to reduced emissions. The value of services directly provided to motorists through the program constitutes the customer service benefits. Finally, customer service benefits were valued economically through the use of values provided in several studies of other programs. These values were then adjusted across time and location to the study period for the current effort (2004-2005). An additional guiding principle in the analyses was the use of range-based rather than deterministic results. Due to the assumptions that needed to be made to establish values of these categories, a range of benefits, rather than a single value, was reported, except for the environmental benefits. Since the environmental benefits were based directly on the simulation model and assumptions did not need to be made about socioeconomic values, a single value was reported. These values are summarized in Table 8-1. The range of economic benefits, as well as most likely values, were estimated in each of the four categories described above. The ratio of benefits to program costs during the study period, for each category, is shown Table ES-1. The overall benefit-cost ratio was found to be between 3.5:1 and 33:1, with a most likely value of approximately 15:1. This demonstrates that the benefits of the A.S.A.P. program greatly exceed the investment in the program. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 18
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Alaska Department of Transportation (AKDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Alaska DOT and PF Pile Extension Pier Pushover Program ID T2-07-14 Project Cost $80,000 Duration 2.5 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency AKDOT Submitter Contact Angela Parsons; Elmer Marx Submitter E-mail angela.parsons@alaska.gov; elmer.marx@alaska.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization University of Alaska, Fairbanks Sponsoring Agency Contact N/A Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail N/A RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Unlike the current American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications, the AASHTO Guide Specification for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design is a displacement-based seismic design methodology. This methodology allows for the direct comparison of the earthquake induced deformations to the bridge‘s displacement capacity. Unfortunately, although the displacement-based approach is more accurate and appropriate, the computational requirements are challenging and cannot be easily be performed without the aid of computer automation. No reliable commercial software program is available to calculate a structure‘s displacement capacity. The AKDOT has sponsored research to investigate the full-scale performance of the standard bridge pier used in Alaska. The project was successful and the results have been incorporated into all new bridge designs resulting in greatly improved performance while also reducing bridge cost. The researchers on this project had developed computer programs (without Department assistance) capable of accurately predicting the displacement capacity of bridge piers. These programs were developed as research tools and are not useable by design engineers. This project has adopted the existing ―academic‖ software Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 19
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research (OpenSEES) into a useable design program to generate the displacement capacity (pushover response) of typical Alaska style bridge piers. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ine.uaf.edu/autc/projects/alaska-bridge-bent-pushover-softwareincluding-concrete-confinement/ http://rip.trb.org/browse/dproject.asp?n=13618 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 20
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Stabilizing Marginal Soils with Geofibers and Synthetic Fluid ID AUTC207117 Project Cost $400,000 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Alaska Department of Transportation (AKDOT) and Public Facilities (PF) Submitter Contact James Sweeney Submitter E-mail jim.sweeney@Alaska.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Alaska University Transportation Center Sponsoring Agency Contact N/A Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail N/A RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Many soils encountered in Western Alaska are marginal and lack the required engineering properties for pavement base courses, subbase courses, subgrades and building foundations. Alternatives include importing costly quality soils and stabilizing locally available soils. Traditional stabilization techniques require large amounts of additives to improve the engineering properties of soils. Moreover, many of these techniques require specialized skills and equipment to ensure adequate performance. Recently researchers have used geofibers and synthetic fluid to improve very loose sandy soils. This technology requires minimal installation equipment. The stabilization of soils with the combination of geofibers and synthetic fluid and the application of the technology in transportation infrastructure have not been thoroughly investigated. A systematic experimental study is underway on various local marginal soils. An early research attempt on a local soil (Bethel silty sand) showed the use of geofiber and synthetic fluid can significantly increase the bearing capacity and strength of the soil. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results This study will directly benefit a wide range of transportation construction projects. The technology is very promising as it allows engineers to use locally available materials, and thus providing a significant reduction in overall construction costs. Web Links (if available) http://ine.uaf.edu/autc/files/2011/02/INE_AUTC_RR07_03.pdf (Note this is the report of the preceding pilot project.) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 21
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title A Study of Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut and Demonstration and Evaluation of Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit ID CT-222-42-03-15; CT-170-1884-F-05-10; JH 03-8 Report No. JHR 05-304 Project Cost $166,618 (plus $1,023,756, the purchase price of two busses at $511,878 per bus) Duration 15 years, 6 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ConnDOT Submitter Contact Ravi V. Chandran Submitter E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project spans a period of over fifteen years during which time CTTransit™ has been a national leader in testing and adopting new and emerging bus propulsion technologies. The goal of the project was to identify, for future bus fleet replacement, the next generation of transit buses; these buses must have improved fuel economy, produce fewer emissions, and be cost effective and reliable when compared to the standard heavy-duty, clean-diesel powered buses. Project partners include the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT), CTTransit™, the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering (CASE) and the University of Connecticut (UConn). In 2000, ConnDOT and CTTransit™ were interested in introducing new bus propulsion technologies into the CTTransit™ bus fleet that would meet both transportation and environmental needs. ConnDOT/CTTransit™ asked CASE in 2000 to evaluate available and emerging bus propulsion technology, and to suggest bus purchase Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 22
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research scenarios as guidance for decision making involving the purchase of new buses (A Study of Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut, February 2001). Then, in 2002, ConnDOT/CTTransit™ asked CASE to update the initial CASE study (Study Update: Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut, March 2003). These studies were useful to ConnDOT/CTTransit™ in designing an initial pilot program for the acquisition and testing of two 2003-model year, 40-foot hybrid diesel-electric buses, and two virtually identical 2002-model-year, 40-foot, standard clean-diesel buses. The pilot program included an 18-month testing program that was developed by CTTransit™ and reviewed by a CASE committee that resulted in a report (Review of CTTransit Diesel Bus Research Program, March 2003) that provided guidance to CTTransit™ for its consideration. The testing program included the measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions with the assistance of and evaluation by two UConn professors. It is believed that this was the first time ever that emissions comparisons between hybrid-electric buses and similar conventional diesel buses were made on-board buses, on routes that represent in-service conditions. As such, this program was a unique opportunity that evaluated buses operating in real-world conditions. The testing program involved operating the two hybrid buses and two cleandiesel buses in virtually identical conditions on equivalent routes each day, duplicating revenue service in all cases. Emissions were measured using on-board equipment. The testing program was completed in December 2004. The experience gained from the pilot program provided CTTransit™ with internal expertise to continue to examine innovative emerging technologies for additional bus fleet acquisitions. In 2007, CTTransit™ st acquired its 1 fuel cell-hybrid bus which has operated on a circulator route in Hartford, CT, for the past 3 3/4 years. Experience gained with this initial fuel cell-hybrid bus resulted in the acquisition of four additional fuel cell-hybrid buses that were placed into revenue service in late 2010. CTTransit™ also purchased thirty-one 40-foot hybrid buses and ten 60foot articulated hybrid buses in 2010 that are just now being placed into revenue service. The company is also in the process of replacing all 16 of its Transportation Supervisor vehicles with hybrid models. The following represents a summary of the recommendations of the studies and results of the testing program that comprise the foundation of this project: CASE Study: A Study of Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut (February 2001) (http://ctcase.org/reports/bus_propulsion.pdf]: The study examined several bus propulsion technologies including: existing diesel system technology; ―clean diesel‖; hybrid dieselelectric; compressed natural gas (CNG); and fuel cell-based. The study offered recommendations that provided several options that were designed to reduce emissions, match service Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 23
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research and market needs, reduce risk, and minimize cost. In summary, the study suggested the purchase of some hybrid diesel-electric buses paired with state-of-the-art ―clean diesel‖ buses with the possibility of moving more aggressively into ultra-low-sulfur fuel buses fitted with advanced exhaust treatment systems. CASE Study Update: Bus Propulsion Technologies Applicable in Connecticut (March 2003) [Report No. CT-222-42-03-15 (http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/CT-222-4203-15.pdf)]: This study identified that current markets and findings were similar to those found in the 2001 study. However, several issues and developments occurred since issuance of the original report that were of interest. The reported reliability of first generation hybrid diesel-electric buses was significantly poorer than equivalent conventional diesel buses and the number of suppliers remained small. CASE found that the inherent technical and operational advantages of hybrid diesel-electric buses merited continued exploration of this option, with expectation that future generations of these buses would overcome the reliability issues experienced with the first generation buses. Therefore, it was recommended that CTTransit™ continue to concentrate its bus acquisition program on the purchase of conventional diesel buses, equipped with state-of-the-art exhaust gas treatment systems and operated using ultra-low-sulfur fuel; and continue to explore hybrid dieselelectric technology by purchasing a small number of such buses, and evaluating their operation on CTTransit™ bus routes. CTTransit™ Demonstration and Evaluation of Hybrid DieselElectric Transit Buses: The 18-month testing program (July 2003 – December 2004) included testing of two 2003-modelyear 40-foot hybrid diesel-electric buses, and two virtually identical 2002-model-year, 40-foot standard clean-diesel buses in identical conditions on equivalent routes each day, duplicating revenue service. Emissions were measured using on-board equipment. The program included two broad categories of testing. CTTransit™ tracked fuel usage, oil usage, mean time between road calls and maintenance costs. Two professors from the UConn, Baki M. Cetegen, Professor of Mechanical Engineering (CTTransit Hybrid and Conventional Bus Gas Emission Measurement Test Report [2005]) (available on CD), conducted the testing of gaseous emissions (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and unburned hydrocarbons), and Britt A. Holmén, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering [Particulate Matter Emissions from Hybrid Diesel-Electric and Conventional Diesel Transit Buses: Fuel and Aftertreatment Effects [2005] [Report No. JHR 05-304 (http://docs.trb.org/01011179.pdf)]] conducted the testing of particulate matter, including both total particulate mass and a detailed measurement of the size distribution of the particles. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 24
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research The results of the testing program found that the hybrid dieselelectric buses were very reliable and achieved 10% better fuel economy than the comparable clean-diesel buses. For any given fuel/exhaust gas treatment situation, the gaseous emissions and particle mass and number emissions were virtually identical for the hybrid diesel-electric buses and the base clean-diesel buses when averaged over the real-world driving routes used in the program. For both bus types, the gas and particle emissions were essentially unaffected by the change to ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. In addition, the gaseous emissions were unaffected by the addition of the diesel particulate filter. For both bus types, and in all cases, particulate emissions were greatly reduced by the addition of the diesel particulate filter in the exhaust system. For the particle size range of 10 – 130 nanometers – a size range of great current interest due to public health concerns – the reductions in particle number concentration were on the order of 99% (i.e., a reduction of 100 times). The hybrid diesel-electric buses had a lower life cycle cost, when the current Federal Transit Administration (FTA) 80% purchase subsidy was considered. Also, as determined from customer surveys, the hybrid diesel electric buses were rated very favorably by both bus operators and customers. CASE Report: Demonstration and Evaluation of Hybrid DieselElectric Transit Buses (October 2005) [Report No. CT-1701884-F-05-10 (http://docs.trb.org/01015091.pdf)]: This report summarized the findings of the CTTransit™ testing program and concluded that CTTransit™ should continue to evaluate the operation of its hybrid diesel-electric buses especially with regard to fuel economy and maintenance history; consider follow-up study of cost, reliability, and emissions after several years of operation to evaluate aging of both the hybrid and base (clean-diesel) buses; consider purchase of additional hybrid buses of newer and different designs in study quantities to better understand if the expected inherent advantages of a hybrid design will be realized; continue to purchase conventional clean-diesel buses, fitted with state-of-the-art exhaust systems, including particulate matter filters operated on ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel for a majority of bus fleet acquisitions. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 25
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research CTTransit Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus In-Service CTTransit 2003 Hybrid Electric Bus CTTransit 2011 Hybrid Electric Bus Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 26
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research CTTransit Nova Artic Bus Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ctcase.org/reports/bus_propulsion.pdf http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/CT-222-42-0315.pdf http://docs.trb.org/01015091.pdf http://docs.trb.org/01011179.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 27
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Stormwater Quality Associated with Milling of HMA Surfaces ID JHR 10-322 Project Cost $57,702 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ConnDOT Submitter Contact Ravi V. Chandran Submitter E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization ConnDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Ravi V. Chandran Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Background The common practice of milling old pavement from roadways prior to placing a new wearing surface has the potential to increase contaminant loads released from roadway surfaces during rain events. It is commonly recognized that runoff from undisturbed roadway surfaces constitute an important non-point source of contaminants to surface waters in the US (US EPA 1995). Materials on the roadway surface that are deposited from the atmosphere, vehicle emissions and vehicle component (e.g., brakes) and tire wear are washed from the surface by precipitation and suspended or dissolved in the stormwater (FHWA 1999). Typical stormwater constituents of concern include suspended solids that may clog receiving water bodies and heavy metals that may be toxic to aquatic organisms (US EPA 1995). Other contaminants may include nutrients and oil and grease (FHWA 1999). The extent to which these roadway contaminants may contribute to stormwater quality from milled roadway surfaces is unknown. Possible milled surface stormwater quality impacts could include an increased suspended solids load resulting from fine particles generated during milling. Anecdotal reports suggest oily sheens on waterways around milled surfaces that may result from fine asphalt particles from the road surface. Obviously, any generation of runoff from the milled surface requires that a rainfall event occur prior to placement of the new pavement surface, but this occurrence may be high given that a several-day to week interval can pass between pavement removal and placement of a new wearing Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 28
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research surface. Thus, to assess whether stormwater best management practices (BMPs) should be integrated into pavement milling activities, and to provide insight to develop such BMPs, if required, there is an urgent need to characterize the release of roadway-derived contaminants from milled pavement surfaces. Objective(s) The objective of the proposed research was to characterize differences in water quality parameters between stormwater runoff from milled roadway surfaces and unaltered roadway surfaces. Conclusions and Recommendations Milling of HMA surfaces had no direct impact on water quality of roadway runoff obtained from these surfaces. Stormwater quality of runoff obtained from milled roadway surfaces differed little from runoff from unaltered roadway surfaces. Comparisons of road surface flushing mechanisms and event mean concentrations of water quality parameters yielded similar values for both milled and unaltered roadway surfaces. The one exception was event mean total suspended solids that were greater for milled surfaces; however, correlation of high total suspended solids with the occurrence of particle-associated lead in the milled surface runoff suggested a roadside source of solids, not residual HMA particles generated during milling. The coincident observations of suspended solids and lead at milled locations may suggest alterations of stormwater conveyance systems and structures. For example, removal of asphalt curbing may allow overland flow from disturbed soil embankments onto the road surface, contributing to roadway runoff. Therefore, milling activities should proceed with consideration not to create new hydraulic connections with adjacent roadside areas that do not drain onto the road surface. Scheduling of roadway resurfacing projects in Connecticut need not be modified for weather conditions to minimize impacts on water quality of stormwater generated during the project duration. The lack of trends in total suspended solids or heavy metal event mean concentrations with precipitation suggest that rain storm intensity was not a factor in storm water quality. The somewhat higher event mean total suspended solids concentrations for milled surfaces were within ranges reported for other, unaltered road surfaces. The timing of the milling season with summer in Connecticut results in localized convective rainfall events characterized by sporadic generation of rainfall runoff that is short in duration. Milled roadway surfaces that employ catch basin and storm drain runoff conveyance systems may not yield any stormwater during summer convective storm events because water accumulation on the road surface must be great enough to overtop drainage structures. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 29
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Sample Collection Apparatus. Apparatus was deployed in an asphalt stormwater conveyance gutter (1) to await initiation after 60 mm/h precipitation intensity detected by a tipping bucket rain gauge (2). Stormwater flow was measured with an H-flume equipped with a bubble flow meter (3). Flow exiting the flume via a dump cup (4) was sampled using a 12-position automated sampler contained within a secure box (5). Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/JHR_10322_JH_06-9.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 30
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Alternative Fuel Light Trucks and Automobiles ID CT-2223-1-04-6; CT-2223-2-05-3; CT-2223-F-08-8 Project Cost $614,600 Duration 10 years, 1 month SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ConnDOT Submitter Contact Ravi V. Chandran Submitter E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization ConnDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Ravi V. Chandran Sponsoring Agency Contact’s Email Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The goal of the project was to gather first- and second-hand data and information about the performance of alternative fuel (ALT-Fuel) light trucks and automobiles; analyze and synthesize the materials; and, develop findings to aid State and Federal officials in their planning for future government fleets to comply with Section 507(o), the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1992 (EPACT). Background In 2005, the State fleet consisted of 4,041 passenger vehicles. The DOT was assigned 221 of these vehicles. In addition, the DOT owned and operated 2,099 specialty vehicles (528 buses, 713 dump trucks, 344 pickups, etc.). Both the Department of Administrative Services (DAS) and DOT must comply with EPACT requirements to purchase specified minimum percentages of cars and light trucks that operate on fuels other than gasoline or diesel fuel. EPACT excludes emergency vehicles from these requirements. Compliance with EPACT strengthens US energy security by reducing dependency on foreign oil. In 1996, Department of Energy (DOE) regulations were modified, but the basic goals remained intact. In 1998, DAS purchased 70 dual-fuel compressed natural gas (CNG)/gasoline sedans that met the federal 15% fleet-purchase requirement. In 1999 and 2000, larger purchases were carried out to comply with 25% and 50% fleet-purchase requirements. After 2000, flex- Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 31
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research fuel vehicles were purchased to meet EPACT requirements. In 2000, the national consumption of alternative fuels was 0.2% of total transportation fuels in the US. CNG represented 29.5% of all alternative fuels in the US. In 1998, the Department initiated research project SPR-2223, titled ―Evaluation of Alternative Fuel Light Trucks and Automobiles,‖ to gather field data and performance information on vehicles operated in Connecticut that are powered from electricity and CNG, to assist both State and Federal Officials with information about these options, which could be used to comply with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1992, Section 507(o). Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicle A 1998 Chevy Cavalier Sedan, bi-fuel compressed natural gas vehicle, that was part of the state fleet, was selected for evaluation. It was operated under various weather conditions, trip lengths, and fuel types to document the performance, practicality, and limitations of operating this type of vehicle in Connecticut. From November 1998 to May 2003, the Research staff accumulated 27,000 miles on the subject vehicle. Production of the bi-fuel Chevy Cavalier was discontinued after the 2004 model year. In conclusion, the bi-fuel CNG Chevy Cavalier did function as described by the automobile manufacturer‘s literature. The bi-fuel capability of this vehicle worked well and provided a means of operating fleet automobiles on an alternative fuel. However, the limited CNG supply infrastructure in Connecticut, together with no requirement to report the amount of CNG fuel consumed by fleet operations and the lack of price-differential incentives between the two fuels in Connecticut limited the acceptance of CNG vehicles in the State Fleet. Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery-Electric Vehicle (BEV) ConnDOT and The Connecticut Rideshare Company of Greater Hartford (Rideshare) previously partnered to evaluate electric subcompact cars that utilized lead acid batteries. Nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries, popular in European electric vehicles, were anticipated to provide longer and more reliable service. The accuracy of marketing claims of battery electric vehicle (BEV) and battery manufacturers was uncertain. There was a need to obtain and disseminate some first-hand information about the practicality of this Alt-Fuel option. ConnDOT partnered with Rideshare to retrofit three subcompact BEVs with nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries to conduct the two-phase study. The vehicles used were 1995 General Motors Geo Metro(s) retrofitted by the Solectria Corporation. For Phase 2, thin-film photovoltaic laminates were integrated in the NiCd BEVs in order to provide power to offset the small power losses experienced while parked and unplugged. The study accumulated data from more than 550 individual trips, spanning a distance of nearly 35,000 miles over an eight year period. While researchers were able to attain the 70 mile range in Phase 1, they were unable to replicate the results in Phase 2, as the nominal range of the Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 32
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research retrofitted vehicles was approximately 57 miles. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicle Bi-Fuel System Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery-Electric Vehicle (BEV) Under the Hood of a Battery-Electric Vehicle (BEV) Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://docs.trb.org/00978608.pdf http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/CT-2223-2-05-3.pdf http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/CT-2223-F-08-8.pdf http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dresearch/SPR2223_Evaluation_of_Alternative_Fuel_Light_Trucks_and_Automobiles.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 33
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title New Technologies for Photolog Image and Data Acquisition ID N/A Project Cost $500,000 Duration On-Going Project [February 2003 – Present] SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ConnDOT Submitter Contact Ravi V. Chandran Submitter E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization ConnDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Ravi V. Chandran Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Ravi.Chandran@ct.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Background Since 1973, ConnDOT has acquired ground-based images and data with state-of-the-art photolog vehicles. The photolog program in ConnDOT, administered by the Data Services Section (DSS) of the Division of Research, has been successful due to the emphasis placed on maintaining data quality and internal marketing, which includes distributing acquired information to as many ―clients‖ as will derive benefit from it. Over the years, Department-wide photolog retrieval tools had evolved from film viewing stations used through the 1970s and early 1980s, to thirty-four PC-controlled Photolog Laser Videodisc (PLV) workstations employed from the mid 1980s through the 1990s. In 2003, ConnDOT‘s photolog cameras captured images at a low 640x480 pixel resolution, which precluded clear viewing for many applications. For example, researchers at FHWA and the University of Connecticut (UConn) were attempting to employ pattern recognition to automatically extract lane, pavement markings, sign, and curb attributes from photolog images, but had met with limited success due to the low image resolution. Although many aspects of photologging had undergone upgrading and improvements, imaging improvements had not been addressed at ConnDOT since 1997. DSS became aware of technologies, such as high resolution digital cameras and high-definition (HD) cameras that could provide photolog‘s client-base immediate Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 34
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research improvement in general viewing applications, as well as potentially allow for many new applications. A research project was created to investigate and implement high definition/high resolution imaging for photolog applications. Objective(s) The project implemented an upgraded, optimal, driver‘s-eye-view imaging solution for desktop retrieval at ConnDOT, other State agencies, UConn and the Connecticut University System. Conclusions and Recommendations HDTV images, bridge under-clearance, and incremental indexing and image distribution are the latest in a series of improvements to photolog in ConnDOT. As described herein, savings from these technologies are impressive even in a small state. States with larger areas should realize equal, or more substantial, savings; therefore, it appears to make sound economic sense for state transportation agencies to place a high priority and adequate resources to continually improve and upgrade their ground-based image and data acquisition systems, as well as, provide widely-accessible local area network (LAN) and non-LAN access to HDTV photolog images and data. The photolog images are available to approximately 500 Department personnel who can view condition of roadways and their surroundings from their computer desktops without having to go into the field. ConnDOT‘s photolog usage saves the State an estimated $2 million annually in fleet vehicle use and man-hours spent in the field and 2.4 million miles driven. This delivers an impressive 3:1 benefit/cost ratio, based on the annual operating budget, for this Departmental function. Photolog has become a mainstream tool used daily by all ConnDOT Bureaus, other State agencies (including the Department of Environmental Protection, State Agricultural Experiment Station, State Police, and University System), Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs), municipalities, and private sector clients. Based on ConnDOT‘s experience, the old adage ―a picture is worth a thousand words‖ can be extended to include a thousand practical applications and millions of dollars saved. Successful use of this technology is dependent upon proper network storage and bandwidth sufficient to carry images across a LAN efficiently. (a) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper (b) 35
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research (c) Sequential Photolog Images (d) Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) www.ct.gov/dot/photolog Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 36
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Web-based Safety Inspector Training and Certification Program ID BD548-19 Project Cost $575,644 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Florida Department of Transportation Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Florida Department of Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s Email Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The Office of Motor Carrier Compliance (OMCC) assists FDOT in fulfilling its mission to provide a safe transportation system by performing commercial vehicle safety and weight enforcement inspections. Safety inspectors must be knowledgeable of regulations established by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. OMCC‘s training academy conducts training and certification programs for potential and current safety inspectors. However, the programs had been experiencing an unacceptable failure rate of over 25 percent. To improve graduation rates, researchers at the University of Central Florida‘s Center for Advanced Transportation Simulation Systems and the Institute for Simulation and Training designed a web-based program to assist training and certification of safety inspectors. The program teaches inspectors how to apply regulations, exceptions, and other criteria during a safety inspection. It allows participants to study mechanical parts and features practice scenarios, quick reference aids, and simulated walk-around inspections. Graduation failure rates during the training academy phase of the program dropped to zero, and evaluation scores during the field training officer program phase resulted in three of the past four classes achieving a 100 percent pass rate, thereby increasing safety inspector job performance Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 37
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research and enhancing the safety of commercial trucking in Florida. Air Brake Animation from Web-Based Training Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_MCCO/FDOT_BD548-19_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 38
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Travel Time Reliability Modeling for Florida ID BDK77 977-02 Project Cost $100,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency FDOT Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The confidence level that travelers have for arriving at their destination within a certain period of time is a performance measure called travel time reliability. Determining how to measure, quantify, predict, and report travel time reliability is difficult. This study improved the methodology and tools developed in previous FDOT research for estimating and reporting reliability on the Strategic Intermodal System (SIS), and applied those tools to estimate various travel time reliability measures for the Florida SIS freeway system. Methodology and spreadsheets were updated to consider incident durations longer than one hour. Various intelligent transportation system (ITS) strategies were evaluated and recommendations formulated on how the impacts of these strategies can be incorporated into the reliability estimation method. The Florida SIS was segmented into sections for travel time reliability analysis, and the Crash Analysis Reporting System (CARS) database was used to obtain incident information by milepost. Study results provide FDOT with improved tools for estimating and reporting travel time reliability on the SIS. The tools can be used to prioritize roadway improvement projects, estimate impacts of various types of programs or improvements on the expected reliability, enhance reporting requirements, and help freight shippers to schedule trips. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_PL/FDOT_BDK77%20977-02_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 39
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Inlet Protection Devices and Their Effectiveness ID BDK78 977-03 Project Cost $160,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency FDOT Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Sediments and nutrients generated and transported during construction activities block stormwater conveyance systems, plug culverts, fill navigable channels, adversely impact wetlands and wildlife, and suppress aquatic life. Researchers at the Stormwater Management Academy, University of Central Florida tested curb and drop inlet protection devices (IPDs) used in Florida during construction activities to determine their effectiveness. Researchers found that both curb and drop IPDs reduce runoff but to different degrees and with unique removal rates. They found that the removal efficiency of nutrients, turbidity, and alkalinity for a curb inlet IPD consisting of rolled up recycled synthetic material wrapped in a net with 2-inch diameter orifices was higher than average of all products tested. For drop inlet devices, researchers determined that placing a product upstream of the inlet to attenuate flow and a product beneath the grate to filter water is more efficient at removing pollutants than a product placed on top of the grate. All IPDs tested require proper installation and maintenance to increase effectiveness and reduce flooding. Researchers recommend that products used for sediment and erosion control meet specific standards before being permitted, and that turbidity and total solids removal benchmarks be established. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 40
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Culvert Clogged with Construction Runoff Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_RD/FDOT_BDK78_97703_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 41
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title The ACS Statistical Analyzer ID BDK85 977-02 Project Cost $100,000 Duration 21 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency FDOT Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The American Community Survey (ACS) is a separate part of the 2010 U.S. Census program and replaces the U.S. Census long form. Through continuous sampling, the data gathered with the ACS gives communities detailed population and housing characteristics to help communities determine where to locate services and allocate resources. Transportation planners rely on the commuting and socio-demographic data captured with the ACS to estimate future demand, make long range transportation plans, and apply for federal and state funding for transit projects. However, they face challenges in correctly estimating transportation demand because of the large margin of error inherent in ACS estimates. To help transportation planners more precisely estimate future demand, researchers developed a tool called the ACS Statistical Analyzer. The analyzer is an Excel-based template that allows transportation planners using ACS estimates to assess more precisely relative reliability, confidence interval, and margin of error. Using the analyzer, planners can efficiently compare pairs of estimates in terms of their statistical differences and account for sampling errors associated with the ACS estimates. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Implementation of the ACS Statistical Analyzer is expected to decrease technical barriers for transportation planners and all other users of ACS data, giving them increased precision in their analysis . Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_PTO/FDOT_BDK85_977-02_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 42
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Use of Aggregate Screenings as a Substitute for Silica Sand in Portland Cement ID BDL13 977-01 Project Cost $138,856 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency FDOT Submitter Contact Darryll Dockstader Submitter E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Darryll Dockstader Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Darryll.dockstader@dot.state.fl.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Researchers at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University investigated whether screenings – a major byproduct of the crushed rock industry – are a suitable substitute for sand in Portland cement concrete (PCC) mortar. They studied the properties of screenings from several Florida mines and their effects on the quality of mortar and PCC made with them. A comprehensive study of these properties and formulations was related to compressive strength through mathematical models. Studies of PCC examined the influence of the angularity of fine aggregate, blends of screenings and silica sand, cement content, water-to-cement ratio, sand-to-total-aggregate ratio, and fly ash, based on a control mix of FDOT Class IV concrete. Researchers found that screenings can be an acceptable substitute for natural sand in PCC. The screenings used in this study can replace up to 50 percent of natural sand in PCC for structural concrete, especially when durability is not a primary concern. For nonstructural elements, a 100 percent replacement is possible. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 43
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Limestone Mine Screenings Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results These findings will benefit FDOT by making available a new material that has cost advantages over natural sand and benefit the environment by requiring fewer disposal sites. Rock industries will benefit through finding a new market for their stockpiles. Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/researchcenter/Completed_Proj/Summary_SMO/FDOT_BDL13_977-01_rpt.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 44
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Bridge Repair and Strengthening Study, Part 1 ID 08-05 Project Cost $350,406 Duration 30 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency GDOT Submitter Contact Supriya Kamatkar Submitter E-mail skamatkar@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization GDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Supriya Kamatkar Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail skamatkar@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This research is to examine the structural performance of three methods for in-place shear strengthening, repair, and upgrade of bridge components in Georgia. The methods are: (1) external clamping system with post-tensioned rods including the development of all stainless steel post-tensioned rod system; (2) polymer composite system with carbon fiber reinforcement; and (3) polymer composite system with stainless steel fiber reinforcement. The research primarily focuses on the pier caps and is divided into two parts. The on-going Part 1 covers, the laboratory investigation, and the future Part 2 will cover the field implementation. GDOT is currently strengthening concrete bridges to reduce or remove weight restrictions and/or to provide ten or more years of service life until they can be replaced. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results This research will provide the Office of Bridge Design (includes Bridge Maintenance) with alternative methods for in-place strengthening, repair and upgrade of deficient bridge structures. It is estimated that approximately 700 bridges could benefit from strengthening, primarily bent caps or reinforced concrete deck girders. Use of these methods in bridge strengthening and repairs has a potential of saving millions of dollars. Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 45
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development and Evaluation of Devices Designed to Minimize Deer-vehicle Collisions (Phase II) ID 07-02 Project Cost $298,854 Duration 45 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency GDOT Submitter Contact David Jared Submitter E-mail djared@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization GDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact David Jared Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail djared@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project In this study, the research team (1) evaluated the behavioral responses of captive white-tailed deer to visual and physical barriers designed to minimize deer-vehicle collisions; and (2) determined the effects of exclusion fencing on movements of free-ranging deer, and (3) further tested visual capabilities of deer; all as related to potential mitigation strategies for deer-vehicle collisions. The team tested the efficacy of several fencing designs and that of a layer of rip-rap rock for restricting movements of captive deer. Woven-wire fences >2.1-m tall and 1.2-m woven-wire fences with a top-mounted outrigger were most effective. The team studied movements of free-ranging deer before and after construction of 1.6 km of 2.4-m woven-wire and 1.6 km of 1.2-m wovenwire with a top-mounted outrigger. Fencing did not affect deer home range size, and deer often circumvented fence ends. Daily deer movements in response to fencing were reduced by 98% and 90% for the 2.4-m and outrigger designs, respectively. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The outrigger design has potential for reducing collisions because of its relative affordability and ability to function as a 1-way barrier. The overall cost of the outrigger design installation was 20% less than the standard 2.4 woven-wire design installation ($3,200/mile). Web Links (if available) http://www.dot.ga.gov/doingbusiness/research/projects/Pages/Reports.a spx Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 46
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title 19th & 20th Century Trolley System Contextual Study ID 10-02 Project Cost $70,630 Duration 18 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency GDOT Submitter Contact David Jared Submitter E-mail djared@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization GDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact David Jared Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail djared@dot.ga.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Trolley tracks survive beneath the paved streets of Atlanta and several other Georgia cities. Currently remains associated with Georgia‘s early trolley lines, including the tracks, are considered potentially eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). This consideration is in part due to a general lack of information about trolley track construction and use. Therefore anytime a piece of track, or other associated material, is found it must be assessed as to whether or not it is eligible for listing in the NRHP. The scope of this project is to develop (1) a GIS/Microstation database of trolley lines around the city of Atlanta to (a) identify and plan for these resources during the concept stage of project development; and (b) facilitate the identification of other historic resources potentially impacted by transportation projects; (2) a contextual study of Georgia‘s trolley system that will help GDOT and other state agencies to determine the historical significance of trolley resources and their attributes; and (3) an educational, public website for outreach and dissemination of the contextual study and GIS/Microstation database. The project deliverables will provide (1) scalability to statewide inventory of historic trolley resources; (2) enhanced mapping and spatial data analysis to support project planning and preconstruction; and (3) improved coordination with other agencies or consulting parties. Added benefits to the general public, beyond the project planning/preconstruction benefits, are an accessible history of the Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 47
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research growth and development of trolley lines in Georgia, and culturally relevant information to communities with trolley line resources. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 48
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title 2009 Customer Satisfaction Survey ID RP197 Project Cost $50,000 Duration 10 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ITD Submitter Contact Ned Parrish Submitter E-mail ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization ITD, Research Program Sponsoring Agency Contact Ned Parrish Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project ITD‘s Customer Service Council requested a telephone survey to gauge customer satisfaction with department services and to identify opportunities to improve customer service. This was the first survey of its kind done by ITD, and it established a baseline against which the department‘s performance can be monitored over time. The survey was done by the University of Idaho‘s Social Science Research Unit. They obtained survey responses from a random sample of more than 1,600 Idahoans, which included both land line and cell phone numbers. The survey covered a wide range of topics including highway maintenance and construction, DMV services, alternative transportation, public involvement and communications, and customer service. The survey results were presented to ITD‘s leadership team, the Idaho Transportation Board, and the House and Senate Transportation Committees. The survey report was also included on the performance dashboard on ITD‘s website (http://itd.idaho.gov/Dashboard_New/). At the completion of the study, ITD management requested that similar customer surveys be done every two years. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 49
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research The survey report contained a number of recommendations to improve ITD customer service. Based on the survey results: ITD‘s DMV Division has increased awareness of its highly rated online services and expanded county participation in online registration renewal services. The number of online registration renewals increased from about 110,000 in 2008 (prior to the survey) to approximately 137,500 in 2010. The department‘s 511 staff has expanded marketing of its services and added new services, including information on transit routes and scheduling. ITD‘s Customer Service Council initiated efforts to develop public feedback capabilities on the department‘s website. ITD‘s new long-range plan as a management tool highlighted the survey as a management tool be used for continuous improvement. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.itd.idaho.gov/planning/research/archived/reports/RP%20197 %20-%20ITD%202009%20Customer%20Satisfaction%20Survey.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 50
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Implementation and Evaluation of the Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Web Application for Computing Basin Characteristics and Flood Peaks in Illinois ID R27-6 Project Cost $120,000 Duration 28 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency IDOT Submitter Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Submitter E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization IDOT, Bureau of Materials and Physical Research, Illinois Center for Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project For Illinois, the software StreamStats is an integral aspect of the state‘s water resources planning and management. When operating the program, a user can prompt the application to compute basin characteristics and peak discharges (flood magnitudes) for streams and waterways throughout Illinois. Since Web-based applications are only as good as they are statistically valid, IDOT commissioned researchers from the United States Geological Survey‘s Illinois Water Science Center to examine the validity of results obtained through Illinois StreamStats. Specifically, the researchers tested how accurate flood peak discharge estimates were in the application. Published peak discharge estimates were compared against computations in StreamStats for a random sample of 170 stream-flow gauging stations in Illinois. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 51
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Illinois stream data online | The Illinois Department of Transportation commissioned the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to create a Web application based off the gauge-based hydrologic method reported in 2004 (also called the USGS regression equations). States implementing StreamStats Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ict.illinois.edu/publications/report%20files/FHWA-ICT-10-063.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 52
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development and Application of Safety Performance Functions for Illinois ID R27-20 Project Cost $140,000 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency IDOT Submitter Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Submitter E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization IDOT, Bureau of Materials and Physical Research, Illinois Center for Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Sponsoring Agency Contact’s Email Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The State of Illinois recognizes the need to take a new approach to highway safety analysis. This is especially necessary in light of the nation‘s emphasis on decreasing traffic related fatalities and serious injuries and Illinois‘ Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) goal of zero fatalities. Because resources are limited, it is critical to identify those roadways that are underperforming in regard to safety that have the largest potential from improvement through the implementation of safety countermeasures. Illinois had the National Highway Institute (NHI) class, New Approaches to Highway Safety Analysis, which introduced engineers to the concept of Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). SPFs are statistical models that describe the relationship among crash frequency, crash severity, crash type, traffic volumes, roadway geometric design, and other factors. SPFs provide a realistic and accurate prediction of crash frequency as a function of traffic volume and roadway geometries for different types of roadway sites (e.g., segments, intersections) over a network. The SPFs, often used together with the Empirical Bayesian method, can be used to calculate a roadway site‘s Potential for Safety Improvement (PSI) and thus help identify those locations that have the highest potential for improvement. Ultimately, sites with highest PSI values could be given priority during the safety project planning process. IDOT and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) worked together to Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 53
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research develop SPFs and calculate PSIs for all state routes and intersections. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ict.illinois.edu/publications/report%20files/FHWA-ICT-10-066.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 54
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of 3D Laser Scanning for Construction Application ID R27-30 Project Cost $199,246 Duration 23 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency IDOT Submitter Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Submitter E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization IDOT, Bureau of Materials and Physical Research, Illinois Center for Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The objective of the project was to evaluate cost-effective means to implement laser scanning technology in the construction phase of Illinois Department of Transportation projects. The primary goal was to study the use of a laser scanner for evaluating pay quantities for earthwork operations. The feasibility of using a scanner for other applications such as monitoring settlement due to pile driving, providing initial survey data for design, evaluating gravel and pavement thickness, assessing pavement roughness, surveying damaged bridges, and documenting archaeological investigations were also evaluated during this study. Laser scans of ongoing construction projects were performed, and the workflow for operation of the scanner in the field was developed and documented. Software was developed using Visual Basic 2005 to process the data and to compare scanner data to a conventional survey. The research showed that laser scanning technology is a feasible means by which to measure earthwork quantities for payment in highway construction projects. Used in conjunction with traditional surveying techniques and equipment to establish horizontal and vertical control, the laser scanner can quickly map the terrain and provide data for earthwork quantity calculations. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 55
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research 3D Glasses not Included This image depicts a 3D laser scanning set-up used by researchers in this study. The inset is a diagram of the 3D scanner that shows the laser device‘s degrees of movement potential. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ict.illinois.edu/publications/report%20files/FHWA-ICT-10-068.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 56
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Queue and User’s Cost in Highway Work Zones ID R27-33 Project Cost $160,000 Duration 35 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency IDOT Submitter Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Submitter E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization IDOT, Bureau of Materials and Physical Research, Illinois Center for Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The IDOT Bureau of Design and Environment (BDE) Manual requires that traffic control plans for freeway reconstruction projects include a queuing analysis to determine the anticipated traffic backups in work zones. Queue length and delay calculations rely on the estimation of capacity and operating speed. In this study, field data were collected from five work zones in Illinois. Thirteen data sets were extracted from the field data. Each data set represents a particular traffic condition at a given site. A work zone capacity value was suggested for each traffic condition based on the field data. The suggested capacity for the sites with a speed limit of 45 mph ranged from 1200 passenger cars per hour per lane (pcphpl) to 1550 pcphpl. The 1200 value was suggested for a traffic condition with flagger and queue, and the 1550 value was for a traffic condition with no work activity, no speed management treatment, and no queue. A capacity of 1600 pcphpl was suggested for a site with a speed limit of 55 mph, dynamic speed feedback sign, no work activity, and no queue; and a capacity value of 1750 pcphpl was recommended for a short-distance work zone with a speed limit of 55 miles per hour (mph), no work activity, and no queue. Using the field data, speed-flow curves were proposed for the following: work zones with a speed limit of 45 mph and a flagger; work zones with a speed limit of 45 mph and without a flagger; and work zones with a speed limit of 55 mph. Each of these models can be adjusted to nonideal conditions. Methods to estimate the length of moving queue, delay, Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 57
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research and users‘ cost were developed to handle the cases where a demand higher than capacity causes queue. The queue length and delay were estimated for all the data sets using the proposed method. The results also were compared with the QuickZone 2 outputs. When the arrival volume in an interval was less than the capacity of the interval, the QuickZone2 did not yield any delay or queue length even though there was congestion and delay in a part of the interval. “IDOT-sponsored research into estimating queue in work zones will provide designers with more accurate tools to comply with 23 CFR 630 Subpart J as well as reduce crashes and impacts to motorists.” – Marshall Metcalf, Illinois Department of Transportation Technical Review Panel Chair Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ict.illinois.edu/publications/report%20files/FHWA-ICT-10-075.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 58
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Simple Cost-Effective Scour Sensor ID R27-35 Project Cost $77,617 Duration 15 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency IDOT Submitter Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Submitter E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization IDOT, Bureau of Materials and Physical Research, Illinois Center for Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Scour is the major cause of bridge failures. Oftentimes during floods it is difficult to check for scour due to the amount and flow of the water. This device allows an agency to check for scour during flood events without actually having to be in the channel during high water. As water levels rise, there are concerns that a bridge may have to be closed during a flood event due to the potential for scour. By monitoring the scour with sensors, bridges can remain open and detouring traffic is avoided. Simply put, the scour sensors developed and patented through this research benefit the traveling public by ensuring their safety through monitoring scour and preventing unnecessary road closures during times of flooding. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 59
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Hanging on the wire The Illinois Department of Transportation will now be using specially designed scour sensors to monitor bridge safety for flooding events. This will help ensure Illinois drivers‘ safety while keeping as many bridges open as possible. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ict.illinois.edu/publications/report%20files/FHWA-ICT-10-070.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 60
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Conference Proceedings: Midwest Transportation Air Quality Summit ID R27-68 Project Cost $45,513 Duration 9.5 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency IDOT Submitter Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Submitter E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization IDOT, Bureau of Materials and Physical Research, Illinois Center for Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Air quality and transportation planning are important and complex areas of research and development requiring collaboration and cooperation among state and federal transportation and environmental agencies. To facilitate this collaborative relationship, IDOT worked with the Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium to develop an air quality summit dedicated to the discussion of air quality policy and transportation planning issues. The summit took place in October of 2009 at the Pere Marquette State Park Lodge in Grafton, Illinois. Sixty-four participants attended from a variety of state and federal transportation and environment agencies including Midwestern transportation departments, environmental quality and natural resource departments, Midwest Federal Highway Administration offices, metropolitan planning organizations, non-profit organizations, and other researchers. According to the final report, attendees were happy with the summit and many suggested holding the conference annually or on an every-otheryear basis. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 61
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research The air we breathe This summit brought together federal, state, and metropolitan planning organizations to discuss air quality policies, issues, best management practices, and emerging topics. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ict.illinois.edu/publications/report%20files/FHWA-ICT-10-062.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 62
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Improving the Safety of Moving Lane Closures – Phase II ID R27-72 Project Cost $175,000 Duration 12.5 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency IDOT Submitter Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Submitter E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization IDOT, Bureau of Materials and Physical Research, Illinois Center for Transportation Sponsoring Agency Contact Amy M. Schutzbach Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Amy.Schutzbach@illinois.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project According to Aaron Weatherholt, IDOT‘s Acting Engineer of Operations and the technical review panel chair overseeing this research project, ―The value of this research is very simple: to reduce crashes and save lives.‖ Continuing, he says that ―this research will allow the Department to take a analytical view of the interactions between motorists and the system of devices used for moving lane closures in order to modify our current standards and practices, if needed, to increase the expectations of the motorist as well as reduce work zone intrusions and crashes.‖ IDOT is responsible for ensuring that both road workers and motorists remain safe in work zones while providing the least amount of disruption to travel. For that reason, IDOT selected a research team to study motorist behavior in work zone lane closures. This one-of-a-kind research project, conducted by researchers from Applied Research Associates, Inc., establishes for the first time best safety practices for moving lane closures. Specifically, the results will designate the best type and length of advance warning zones and transition zones to use for moving lane closures. These zones, which designate when a driver should leave or re-enter a lane, can cause injury to drivers and workers if the zones are too close (not enough warning) to a work zone or too far away (driver confusion and wasted roadway). Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 63
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 64
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research This series of images was taken from surveillance footage used by researchers to examine moving lane closure behavior in traffic. Multiple moving lane closure set-ups were used for surveillance purposes to determine optimal configuration. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://ict.illinois.edu/publications/report%20files/FHWA-ICT-10-072.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 65
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Implementation of Laterally Loaded Piles in Multi-Layered Soils ID SPR - 3261 Project Cost $63,898 Duration 15 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This research focused on the validation of the developed analysis of laterally loaded piles embedded in a multi-layered soil, using variational principles, with model pile load tests. The model pile load tests are conducted on model steel piles in sands with different soil conditions. In addition, model driven, preinstalled, and jacked single piles and pile groups were also installed in the soil tank at the Bowen Laboratory to investigate the effects of the pile installation method on the behavior of laterally loaded piles. Comparisons of the developed methods with the model pile load test results are quite favorable. It is found that the driven piles have higher bearing capacities than identical preinstalled piles under similar conditions. For the group pile, the calculations based on theoretical solution showed that the measured p-multipliers are reasonable. For single piles, the predictions from the developed analysis were in good agreement with the model pile test results for small pile head deflections (up to 10% of the pile diameter). For pile groups, the measured p-multipliers are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from literatures. The measured p-multipliers for the leading piles were Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 66
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research 85%~90% less than the predicted values for the trailing piles. The measured p-multipliers were in good agreement with the predictions. Although full-scale load tests can provide better understanding of pile behavior under lateral loading, due to their high cost and also uncertain field conditions they are considered impractical. In contrast, model pile load tests are useful for investigating pile behavior due to the lower cost of testing and since soil properties can be controlled and measured more easily in the laboratory than in the field. The developed analysis of laterally loaded piles embedded in a multilayered soil was validated with model pile load tests, thus efficient design with developed analysis helps minimize cost overruns. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 67
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Assessment of Delivery Risks in Transportation Projects ID FHWA/IN/JTRP-2009/25 Project Cost $50,000 Duration 18 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Projects that are not let at the expected time usually incur either additional expenses causing a deficit in allotted funds or inhibit the programming of additional projects, possibly causing available resources to remain unspent. The study was based on 366 state highway projects in Indiana with proposed dates spanning between 1970 and 2006. It investigated the sources of delivery variability (risk factors) that occur in the period between project proposal dates and the letting dates. The study results proved that the highway work category significantly impacted the expected letting duration of projects. Pavement work required the least amount of development time and posed the least risk to programming and fiscal schedules. Pavement project letting durations increased as proposed costs increased. Districts also had impact on project development durations. Non-interstate district pavement projects experienced shorter letting durations.Bridge rehabilitation work proved to experience the least amount of letting time amongst bridge projects. Road/Interchange projects posed the largest risk to project delivery, the probability of letting a project after a given letting duration proved to be very low in comparison to bridge projects. Road/Interchange projects have 20% probability of exceeding 16 years whereas bridge projects have a 10% probability of exceeding 11 years. New interchange work and interchange modification work significantly increased the letting duration; projects comprised of four or more contracts experienced longer letting delays also. Road/Interchange work on interstates Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 68
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research experienced shorter letting times. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 69
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Identification and Implementation of Best Management Practices for Erosion and Sediment Control That Conform to Indiana Storm Water Quality Regulations and Guidance ID SPR-3312 Project Cost $158,614 Duration 1.5 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The study identifies the best management practices (BMPs) for erosion and sediment control that conform to Indiana storm water quality regulations and the Indiana Storm Water Quality Manual. Recommendations are made for modification of the INDOT Standard Specifications and other documents, consistent with the proposed BMPs. The INDOT National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit application, originally prepared in September 2003 and submitted to the Indiana Department of Environmental Management, was to have been revised and resubmitted during this study period, but was not. The study, instead, focuses on INDOT storm water quality issues attendant to the revision and makes recommendations for addressing these issues. Recommendations are made for the organization and content of an erosion and sediment control certification and training program for INDOT and contractor personnel. The Kentucky Erosion Prevention and Sediment Control Field Guide was modified, with the approval of the Kentucky authors/publishers, for use as an Indiana field guide. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 70
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 71
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Improving Safety in High-Speed Work Zones: A Super 70 Study ID SPR-3249 Project Cost $131,876 Duration 30 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Super 70 was a high-speed six-mile construction project in 2007 on a heavily traveled interstate I-70 in the central area of Indianapolis. This research study used advanced econometric models of safety applied to half-an-hour intervals and before-and-after studies to estimate the safety effect of traffic management and enforcement countermeasures applied during the nine-month. The safety management during the Super 70 project has been found highly successful. The single most successful management strategy was rerouting heavy vehicles (>13 ton) on alternative interstate routes. The second significant source of safety benefit has been jointly generated by police enforcement and reduced speed. Fifty crashes have been saved by rerouting heavy vehicles and an additional fifty by other strategies including the police enforcement. The following recommendations have been proposed based on this study: 1) Divert heavy vehicles (13 ton +) on alternative interstate routes by using advanced information and aggressive police enforcement. 2) Reduce speed limit and apply as wide as possible shoulders inside the work zone. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 72
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research 3) Avoid redirecting interstate through traffic on surface roads anywhere possible by providing a sufficient number of lanes inside the work zone. Use moveable barriers to adjust capacity to the hourly fluctuation of volume. 4) Warn drivers approaching a work zone during periods with heightened risk of crash (identified with the econometric model). The savings in 2005 dollars delivered to the public in the Super 70 construction zone were $1.3 million for safer drivers‘ behavior and $0.7 million for re-routing heavy vehicles. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 73
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Real-Time Socio-Economic Data for Travel Demand ID SPR-3213, FHWA/IN/JTRP-2008/22 Project Cost $72,909 Duration 18 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Travel demand models/software often lack data that are complete, current, representative of the study area. Considering the dynamic nature of travel demand, inputs should be updated continuously to reflect the most current planning area characteristics. This can be done through cost-free data sources, such as the American Community Survey (ACS), or through cost-associated data sources, such as the Demographics Now pay-site. One approach to obtaining accurate inputs and travel predictions is to apply synthetic cross-classification. This approach to trip generation can obviate the need for household surveys, by applying a doublyconstrained mathematical model to ACS data and relatively well-known ‗marginal‘ or household totals by household size and vehicles available. Model inputs and parameters are uncertain. By analyzing such inputs and parameters stochastically, planners can focus data collection and make better informed model selections. To manage the uncertainty of model inputs and parameters, risk management frameworks from the private sector can be applied. Such an approach can expand the number of capacity-building projects being considered when programming, as well as help decide which projects are the most likely to reduce congestion and yield the highest link and network vehicle hours traveled (VHT) savings. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 74
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 75
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Saw-Cutting Guidelines for Concrete Pavements: Examining the Requirements for Time and Depth of Saw Cutting ID SPR 2863 Project Cost $120,000 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Joints are placed in Portland cement concrete pavements (PCCP) to control random cracking. These joints enable a crack to form in a controlled manner, relieving residual stresses that develop. While the concept of saw-cutting is straightforward, determining the time and depth of the saw-cut has proven to be complicated. The goal of this project was to reduce the risk for joint random cracking. Specifically, this project has focused on: developing a procedure for determining the appropriate saw-cutting time window for typical pavements, determining the depth of the saw-cut that minimizes the risk of micro-cracking and random crack development, and developing tools and training materials for paving contractors to determine the factors that influence saw cutting. A strength reduction factor was computed for different saw-cut depths based on fracture mechanics concepts. It was shown that the time of the saw-cut introduction needs to occur before the residual stress divided by the product of the strength reduction factor and tensile strength was equal to unity. It was also shown that shallower saw-cut depths were more prone to construction and material property variability. Simulation movies were made to aide contractors in determining when saw-cuts should be placed. Impact, or Potential Impact, of The result of this research project is very significant in preventing Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 76
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results premature failure in concrete pavement. In addition, guidance from this research for contractors is a very significant item to be implemented as a form of cooperation between INDOT and the contractors to achieve better quality products in the field. Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 77
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Use of Steel Slag in Subgrade Applications ID SPR-3129 Project Cost $60,000 Duration 16 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project studied the performance of steel slag as a geo-material for engineering works like subgrade stabilization and embankment construction. Samples of fresh and aged basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag and fresh electric arc furnace ladle (EAF (L)) slag were used for the research. In addition to the steel slag, the properties of various mixtures of steel slag [BOF and EAF (L)] with Class-C fly ash were also investigated The effect of adding 10% ground rubber (by weight) to fresh and aged BOF slag on the long-term swelling behavior of the mixtures was also investigated. Compacted mixtures of both Class-C fly ash and BOF slag and of ClassC fly ash and EAF (L) slag showed excellent strength gain properties with time. Results of the long-term swelling tests on steel slag and Class-C fly ash mixtures showed that the addition of 10% Class-C fly ash suppresses the swelling of both BOF and EAF (L) slag samples to negligible levels. Additional geotechnical testing showed that they could be successfully used in highway construction. INDOT used an EAF steel slag and class C fly ash mixture designed for the project at the th intersection of 109 street and I-65, in Crown Point, Indiana. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Other projects like this will lead not only to cost benefits but also attenuate the problem of slag disposal. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 78
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 79
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Construction of Embankments and Fills using Lightweight Materials ID SPR 3370 Project Cost $35,0000 Duration 12 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project In this implementation project, INDOT used tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material for grade raising and embankment widening over soft foundation soils at SR-110 in Marshall County (Contract No. B-27562) and SR-19 in Elkhart County (Contract No. R-29217). Purdue University, which had previously done research on this topic, provided technical assistance during the construction of these projects. Based on laboratory tests, Purdue University prescribed an equation to estimate the compacted density of the mixture for various mixing ratios of tire shreds to sand. Purdue University also proposed a volume mixing ratio of 60:40 (tire shreds: sand) for field construction. About 880 tons and 248 tons of shredded tires were used on SR-110 and SR-19, respectively. Total cost savings of $94,000 was realized in the SR-110 project by using a tire shred-sand mixture as the fill material in place of expanded shale. At the end of the project, Purdue University summarized the results of the laboratory tests performed on the mixture, the construction procedure followed in the field and the data obtained from monitoring the in-situ settlement in a form of presentation. This presentation will be available to contractors and designers working with INDOT in projects involving the use of the mixture. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 80
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 81
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Automated Pavement Condition Data Collection Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Reliability ID SPR-3111 Project Cost $148,374 Duration 2 years 6 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project evaluated existing data collection procedures to develop a set of quality management guidelines catering to INDOT‘s needs. Pavement roughness data (in terms of international roughness index (IRI)) and surface distress data (in terms of pavement condition rating (PCR) and individual pavement surface distress ratings) were considered. Quality control (QC) protocols adopted by the contractor were reviewed and compared against industry standards; and a QC plan was recommended for all phases in the data collection cycle: preproject, data collection and post-processing phases. The quality of IRI and PCR data was evaluated and QA procedures were developed to allow INDOT to better manage their IRI and pavement surface distress data. Findings from the project are implemented in the following areas: (i) Continuation of current QC/quality assurance (QA) plans in pavement condition data collection, including certification of testing equipment and vehicles before the actual data collecting season; (ii) Periodical QC/QA checks on network level IRI data using sample segments in the highway network or the INDOT R&D test track; and (iii) Use of disaggregate pavement distress data in pavement management applications at INDOT. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 82
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 83
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Safety Impacts of Design Exceptions ID SPR 3220 Project Cost $100,000 Duration 18 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Compliance to the INDOT highway design criteria is considered essential to ensure the roadway safety. However, for a variety of reasons, situations arise where exceptions to standard design criteria are requested and accepted after review. This research explores the impact that Level One design exceptions have on the accident severity and accident frequency in Indiana. Level One design exceptions include those highway design elements which have been judged to be the most critical indicators of highway safety and serviceability. There are 14 Level-One design criteria with minimum standards being met for: design speed; lane widths; shoulder widths; bridge width; bridge structural capacity; horizontal curvature; superelevation transition lengths, stopping-sight distance on horizontal and vertical curves; maximum grade; superelevation rate; minimum vertical clearance; accessibility for the handicapped; and bridge rail safety. The results of the detailed statistical modeling show that presence of Level One design exceptions, approved by INDOT, do not have a statistically significant adverse effect on the frequency or severity of accidents. While the data are too limited to investigate the effect of specific design exceptions such as design speed, lane widths, etc. (the number of Level One design exceptions granted is a modest number), the research herein shows that INDOT procedures for granting design exceptions have been sufficiently strict to avoid adverse safety consequences and that current practices should be continued. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 84
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research To guide future Level One design exceptions, the detailed statistical findings of this research effort suggest that using previous design exceptions as ―precedents‖ would be the best way to proceed. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 85
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Travel Time Reliability in Indiana ID SPR 3230 Project Cost $75,000 Duration 20 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. This study first uses a floating car technique to assess travel time and travel time reliability on a number of Indiana Highways. Then, the study goes on to describe the use of Bluetooth technology to collect real travel time data on a freeway. An autoregressive model, estimated based on the collected data, is then proposed to predict individual vehicle travel times on a freeway segment. In addition to the autoregressive formulation, a duration model is estimated based on the same travel time data. The duration model of travel time provided insights into how one could predict the probability of a car‘s duration of time on a roadway segment changed over time. Interestingly, the three duration models estimated (all hours, peak hour and night time models) showed that the point where the conditional probability of travel times becoming longer occurs roughly at the onset of level-of-service F conditions. Finally, a seemingly unrelated regression equation model to predict travel time and travel-time variability is estimated. This model predicts 15-minute interval travel times and standard deviation of travel time based on speed, volume and time of day indicators. The study provides a simple model that INDOT can use immediately to more accurately predict expected travel times (and the variability of these travel times) between any two points using only point-speed data Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 86
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research from Remote Traffic Microwave Sensors. This equation can be used for traffic information reporting in general, information reported on Variable Message Signs, and so on. Finally, the study gives INDOT an assessment of travel time variability on a variety of Indiana roads that can be used as factual data in interactions with the motoring public with regard to the actual magnitude of the travel time variability problem. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 87
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Classification of Marl soils ID FHWA/IN/JTRP-2009/20 Project Cost $75,431 Duration 20 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This study provides a classification of Marl soils given the organic and carbonate contents. The classification divides soils into five groups: (1) soil with trace marl (1 < %CaCO3 < 9); (2) soil with little marl (10 < %CaCO3 < 17); (3) soil with some marl (18 < %CaCO3 < 25); (4) marly soil (26 < %CaCO3 < 40); and (5) marl (%CaCO3 >40). The study compares the results of three different methods to obtain the carbonate content of a soil: chemical tests (currently used by INDOT), Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and sequential Loss on Ignition (sequential LOI), the new method developed in the research. The results show that any of the three methods may be used for the determination of the CaCO3. The sequential LOI test is recommended because it has the advantage that both organic and calcium carbonate content of a soil can be determined simultaneously with a conventional furnace. In addition, the procedure reduces cost and time for the determination of calcium carbonate content. The classification of Marls soils has been incorporated into INDOT‘s Manuals and is based on both organic content and calcium carbonate content. A new Indiana Test Methods describes the use of sequential LOI as a suitable method to determine calcium carbonate in a soil. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 88
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 89
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Field Investigation of Subgrade Lime Modification ID FHWA/IN/JTRP-2009/38 Project Cost $35,059 Duration 7 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This is an implementation project for the Post-Construction Evaluation of Lime-Treated Soils, where comprehensive field and laboratory investigations were carried out to determine the engineering properties of subgrade soils treated with Lime Kiln Dust (LKD) in pavements that had been in service for at least five years. The new project provides results of field and laboratory tests, on an INDOT road project under construction, to investigate the degree of uniformity and quality obtained with chemical treatment of a subgrade with LKD using current construction techniques. Two LKD treated subgrades with different thicknesses were investigated: sixteen inches, which is the current standard, and fourteen inches. Field and laboratory tests performed immediately after construction showed better uniformity and engineering properties for the fourteen inches thick subgrade. A consensus was reached among INDOT and FHWA personnel to increase for design the CBR of the subgrade treated with LKD by 25% over that of the natural soil and implement the recommendation of using a target thickness of a treated subgrade of 14 inches. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The benefits of the project may be substantial due to the reduction of thickness of flexible pavements with LKD-treated subgrades. Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 90
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Construction of Embankments and Fill using Ash ID SPR-3371 Project Cost $35,000 Duration 1 year SUBMITTER Submitter Agency INDOT Submitter Contact Tommy E. Nantung Submitter E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization INDOT and Joint Transportation Research Program – Purdue University Sponsoring Agency Contact Tommy E. Nantung Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail tnantung@indot.in.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project investigated soil compaction quality control (QC) tests performed in the context of construction of a class-F fly ash and bottom ash mixture embankment on SR 641, Terre Haute, Indiana Compared to conventional fill materials, earthwork construction with fly and bottom ash mixture offered several advantages: (1) easy placement of the ash mixture, (2) limited number of laboratory compaction tests required for the ash mixture, (3) smaller number of roller passes required to compact the ash mixture than for conventional materials. Prior to embankment construction, a test pad was constructed at the site to allow establishment of QC criteria based on Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) and Lightweight Deflectometer (LWD) test results. The preliminary DCP and LWD data were correlated with the in-situ dry unit weight and the moisture content of the compacted ash. The effects of lift thickness and number of roller passes on the measured DCP blow count (DN) and LWD modulus (ELWD) were assessed and taken into consideration in the development of the QC criteria. This project produced findings that advance both the use of recycled materials in highway construction and the use of new methods of compaction QC methods. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 91
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Web Links (if available) http://www.purdue.edu/JTRP Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 92
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Investigation of Improved Utility Cut Repair Techniques to Reduce Settlement in Repaired Areas, Phase II ID TR-566 Project Cost $165,316 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa DOT and the Iowa Highway Research Board Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Dunn Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The goal of this research is to improve pavement patch life and reduce the maintenance of the repaired areas of utility cut restoration trenches. Utility cut restoration has a significant effect on pavement performance. It is often observed that the pavement within and around utility cuts fails prematurely, increasing maintenance costs. The cost of repairing poorly-constructed pavements can be reduced with an understanding of proper material selection and construction practices. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 93
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Instrumentation used to monitor trench restoration performance Phase I was an initial investigation into utility cut restoration failures to document the occurrence and frequency of failures and to determine the failure mechanisms. Based on the results of Phase I, Phase II was initiated to further investigate the influences of compaction, moisture content and density of the backfill, and ―zone of influence‖ on the performance of utility cut trench restorations through these four tasks: 1. Continue monitoring the utility cut restorations constructed during Phase I. 2. Construct new trenches using six recommended practices. 3. Instrument three new trenches to understand the mechanisms of trench backfill settlement and load distribution. 4. Evaluate and summarize the data collected. Phase I survey results indicated that many restored utility cut restorations fail in less than two years. Field and laboratory tests of backfill indicated inadequate compaction, moisture content, and density of the backfill are factors that contribute to utility cut trench restoration failures. FWD tests indicated weakened subgrade soil around the utility cut trench restorations. The study makes recommendations for material selection, construction practices, and quality control measures to ensure that compaction requirements are met, including the importance of moisture control during trench construction. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.iowadot.gov/operationsresearch/reports/reports_pdf/hr_and_tr/reports /TR-566%20Final.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 94
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR)-Emulsion and Comparison Against CIR-Foam Results from Phase II ID TR-578 Project Cost $65,646 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa DOT and the Iowa Highway Research Board Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Dunn Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The main objective of the study is to determine if the Cold In-place Recycling (CIR)-foam mix design process can be applied to CIR-emulsion with some minor adjustments. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 95
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Picture of CIR-HFMS-2 process on County Road R 38 in Story County, Iowa During the previous study, the mix design procedure was developed and validated for CIR using foamed asphalt (CIR-foam). This research examined the existing CIR-foam mix design process with commonly available equipment that may give similar results for the CIRemulsion mixtures. The performance of the CIR-emulsion mixtures was compared against CIR-foam based on laboratory performance test results. One of the most significant benefits is to provide pavement engineers with a rational mix design procedure that helps them select the most appropriate CIR technology, types and amount of the stabilization material for the existing pavement conditions. The study concluded that the mix design procedure developed for CIR-foam is applicable to CIR-emulsion. Given the same curing condition, test results of CIR-foam mixtures are generally better than those of CIR-emulsion mixtures. In the future, the optimum target range of designing specific amount of stabilizing agent for CIR based on the test results from permanent deformation and raveling loss should be studied. Given the limited Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) sources used in this study, the CIR-emulsion mix design procedure should be validated against several RAP sources and emulsion types. The mix design procedure should be adopted for CIR along with flow number and raveling tests to predict the field performance of CIR. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.iowadot.gov/operationsresearch/reports/reports_pdf/hr_and_tr/reports/TR578%20Final.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 96
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Pavement Markings and Safety ID TR-580 Project Cost $96,113 Duration 2.5 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa DOT and the Iowa Highway Research Board Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Dunn Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This study explores the statistical relationship between crash occurrence probability and longitudinal pavement marking retroreflectivity. This study analyzed five years of pavement marking retroreflectivity data, collected by the Iowa DOT on all state primary roads, and the corresponding crash and traffic data. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 97
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Spring/Fall statewide retroreflectivity data collected by handheld retroreflectometer (LTL-X) in 2008 Many studies have tested the visibility and subjective preferences of drivers against pavement markings with a known retroreflectivity. Others have compared crashes by location to either measured or modeled pavement marking retroreflectivity values. All of these studies are concerned with determining a relationship between pavement marking retroreflectivity and safety. With this relationship identified, agencies can evaluate the service life of their pavement markings much more efficiently and improve their asset management programs, along with the allocation of their scarce resources. These findings provide a statistical link between pavement marking retroreflectivity levels and crash history. Along with the Federal Highway Administration‘s proposed minimum retroreflectivity standards, these findings support increased investment in marking application and maintenance and also serve as a foundation for future research on this critical safety. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.iowadot.gov/operationsresearch/reports/reports_pdf/hr_and_tr/reports/TR580%20NEW%20Print.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 98
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Biofuel Co-Product Uses for Pavement Geo-Materials Stabilization ID TR-582 Project Cost $50,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa DOT and the Iowa Highway Research Board Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Dunn Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of biofuel coproduct (BCP) to function as an effective soil stabilizing agent, and the effects of BCP on the engineering properties of soil-BCP mixtures for Iowa conditions. Natural soils were collected and two types of BCPs containing lignin were used as additives. The BCP-treated samples were compared to untreated and traditional stabilizer-treated (fly ash) soil samples. Various additive combinations (co-product A + fly ash, co-products A + B, etc.) were also evaluated. Laboratory tests evaluated the samples‘ strength performance and moisture susceptibility. The investigated biofuel co-products are promising materials for improving the Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 99
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research strength and providing excellent moisture degradation resistance of Iowa Class 10 soils classified as CL or A-6(8). The BCPs used in this experiment demonstrated excellent potential for stabilizing low-quality materials for use in low- and high-volume roads. These co-products could be used to stabilize existing subgrade materials to provide a stable working platform and to improve the strength of undesirable soil materials so that they can be used as the loadbearing layer within a pavement system. Further research is needed to evaluate the freeze-thaw durability and characterize the resilient modulus of BCP-treated soils. Considering the wide range of pavement-related applications in which modified lignins have already been used, the use of lignin-containing BCPs in these applications should be investigated. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.iowadot.gov/operationsresearch/reports/reports_pdf/hr_and_tr/reports /TR-582%20Final.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 100
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development of Non-Petroleum Based Binders for Use in Flexible Pavements ID TR-594 Project Cost $75,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa DOT, the Iowa Highway Research Board, and the Iowa Energy Center Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Dunn Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The objective of this research was to test the properties of non–fossil fuel bio-oils to determine the applicability of using bio-oils as binders in the pavement industry. Different types of bio-oils derived from three bio-mass sources, oakwood, switchgrass, and cornstover, were examined. All three sources of oils were subjected to physical, chemical, and rheological testing. Due to the bio-oils‘ large amounts of water and volatile contents, bio-oils cannot be used as bio-binders/pavement materials without first applying a heat treatment or upgrading procedure. The current testing standards and specifications, especially Superpave, should be modified to account for the different properties of the biobinders derived from bio-oils. In general, the temperature range for bio-oils may be lower than that of bitumen binders by about 30–40°C. The rheological properties (temperature and shear susceptibilities) of the unmodified bio-binders vary from those of bitumen binders, but adding polymer modifiers changes the bio-binders‘ rheological properties significantly. The high-temperature performance grade for the developed bio-binders may not vary significantly from that of the bitumen binders; however, the low-temperature performance grade may vary significantly due to the high oxygen content in the biobinders. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 101
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Bio-oils offer an alternative that is renewable and sustainable and that can be produced from many natural resources. Bio-binders can become a viable replacement for bituminous binders. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.iowadot.gov/operationsresearch/reports/reports_pdf/hr_and_tr/reports/TR594%20Final.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 102
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Improving Concrete Overlay Construction ID TR-600 Project Cost $250,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa Highway Research Board and the Federal Highway Administration Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The objective of this research was to improve construction techniques for concrete overlays in order to provide effective solutions to road preservation problems to extend the life of existing pavements with minimal disruption of the traveling public. Four ongoing construction projects in Iowa were selected to study ways to improve concrete overlay construction. Seven research objectives for improving concrete overlay construction were investigated across the four projects: 1. Evaluate machine control systems. 2. Evaluate the longitudinal joint forming operation. 3. Study the need for milling of the existing surface. 4. Evaluate the use of innovative materials, such as geotextiles for bond breakers. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 103
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Unrolling and nailing a geotextile bond breaker. 5. Determine innovative ways of controlling traffic. 6. Find ways to minimize the construction time. 7. Determine required opening strength for local traffic. Global positioning system (GPS) Pavement Surface Mapping The study makes recommendations for sawing longitudinal joints using GPS control, milling, slipform paver machine control, use of Geotextile bond breaker, concrete opening strength for local traffic, traffic control for one- and two-lane construction, overlay construction operation timing, and the use of Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) Testing. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.iowadot.gov/operationsresearch/reports/reports_pdf/hr_and_tr/reports/TR600%20Final.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 104
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Use of Video Feedback in Urban Teen Drivers ID TPF-5(144) Project Cost $240,000 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa DOT and Minnesota DOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Dunn Sponsoring Agency Contact’s Email mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Fatal crashes of teens, especially newly licensed teens, are higher than for any other segment of the population. Technology can enhance the ability of parents to manage teen‗s driving beyond the supervised learning phase. The objective of this project was to determine whether feedback from an event-triggered video system can reduce the number of safety-relevant driving errors made by newly licensed suburban teens. A one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate thirty-six newly licensed sixteen-year-old drivers. Participants were recruited from a suburban high school in Eagan, Minnesota. Of the teens recruited, 18 completed the entire 12-month study. Participants‘ vehicles were equipped with an event-triggered video recorder. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 105
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Exterior and interior video view of event triggered video recording During the first phase of the project, baseline driving data were obtained. The second phase employed the event-triggered video system, providing drivers with immediate feedback regarding unsafe driving behaviors. In addition, weekly feedback regarding these behaviors was sent to both teen drivers and their parents. In the final phase, additional baseline data were collected to determine whether the removal of feedback affected driving behaviors. The main outcome measures were the number of safety-relevant events triggered per 1000 miles driven and user acceptance. The intervention reduced the number of safety-relevant events by 61% overall. The greatest reduction was seen in the category of improper turns and curves—the scenarios most represented in fatal car crashes. Overall reduction in safety-relevant events continued even after the intervention ended. Participants were satisfied with the technology – 100% recommended this type of program to other teens. This study showed that immediate and cumulative video feedback shared with parents during early licensure can have a dramatic influence on the rate of safety-relevant driving events. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results To the extent that such events are a proxy for crash risk, this study suggests that feedback might enhance teen driving safety. Web Links (if available) http://www.pooledfund.org/documents/TPF-5_144/Technical_ReportUrban_draft_Final-V1.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 106
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Multiple-Blade Snowplow Project ID SPR-3(060) Project Cost $157,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa DOT, Minnesota DOT, Indiana DOT, Wisconsin DOT, Ohio DOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Dunn Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Led by Iowa DOT, a five-state consortium of Clear Roads member states (Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin) envisioned a prototype plow that would use multiple blade plow with a flexible cutting edge placed in front that adjusts to the contours of the roadway, a blade that cuts into hardpack and ice (a scarifying blade) and a blade that removes excess liquids and solids the other blades miss (a rubber slush or squeegee blade). Testing of the prototypes was performed over two winters. Of the three blade types, the squeegee blade met with the greatest success. The squeegee was effective in removing the snow and slush the front cutting blade missed. Operators reported that the squeegee was most effective in warmer weather, when the roadway was wet. The Iowa DOT found that the flexible blades conformed to the roadway, lasted longer and Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 107
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research allowed for better cleaning of the roadway. Other participating states expressed some concern about flexible blade wear and loosened fasteners. The scarifying blade received a less enthusiastic response with concerns about blade wear and a preference for underbody scrapers in removing hardpack. Participating states discovered that factors such as climactic conditions and the capabilities of existing winter maintenance fleets will affect how a multiple blade plow is used. Some of the participating states concluded that a two-blade rather than a three-blade solution may be best suited to an agency‘s winter maintenance fleet and the winter conditions it faces. One participant expects costs to come down as more vendors enter the multiple-blade plow market and designs are standardized. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Lessons learned from this project‘s field testing are expected to influence future snowplow design and encourage others in the winter maintenance community to consider alternatives to the traditional frontmounted single-blade snowplow. Web Links (if available) http://www.pooledfund.org/documents/SPR3_060/Multiple_Blade_Snowplow_Project_Final_Report_1-6-11.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 108
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Comprehensive Bridge Deck Deterioration Mapping of Nine Bridges by Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies ID HR-1086 Project Cost $170,075 Duration 1 year SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa DOT and the Federal Highway Administration Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Dunn Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Iowa DOT, like many other State DOTs, is faced with the need of identifying and deploying means for rapid, nondestructive and accurate condition assessment and performance monitoring of bridge decks. The dominant practice by state DOTs in evaluation of bridge decks is by visual inspection and use of simple nondestructive methods like chain drag and hammer sounding. This research provides a comprehensive review of the non-destructive testing (NDT) technologies used in this project and their implementation in evaluation of nine bridge decks in Iowa. The review includes the description of principles of operation, field implementation, data analysis and interpretation, and implicitly provides information regarding their advantages and limitations in practical bridge deck evaluation and condition monitoring. The chapter on the evaluation of nine bridge decks provides results of the evaluation obtained using the five NDT technologies and their comparison to ground truth data obtained from coring and deck ―autopsies‖ for six bridges during the 2009 bridge deck overlay projects. The approach to bridge deck evaluation and monitoring by NDT technologies should be by targeting the use of a group of complementary technologies. The selection of those technologies should be based primarily on the accuracy of information they provide regarding the most important deterioration and defect types. Those Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 109
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research technologies should also meet or exceed certain criteria of the Iowa DOT regarding the speed, ease of use, and cost. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 110
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Design, Construction, and Field Testing of an Ultra High Performance Concrete Pi-Girder Bridge ID TR-574 Project Cost $79,933 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Iowa DOT Submitter Contact Mark Dunn Submitter E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Iowa DOT and the Federal Highway Administration Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Dunn Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.dunn@dot.iowa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper The Jakway Park Bridge in Buchanan County, Iowa is the first bridge constructed with a new prestresssed girder system composed of precast Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC). These girders employ an integral deck to facilitate construction and are referred to as pi-girders for the resemblance of their cross-section to the Greek letter, ―π‖. The evolution of the girder geometry, simplifying assumptions, and finite element analysis techniques used in design of the bridge are examined, and the results of laboratory and live load field testing are presented to quantify behavior. The effectiveness of the finite element analysis and structural performance of the bridge, including live load distribution, are evaluated to provide guidance for future designs employing these girders. 111
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Construction monitoring of the UHPC bridge components and diaphragms allowed assessment of structural performance for the relatively thin Pi-girder webs. The live load field testing of the completed bridge provided validation of the design assumptions and the prediction of the finite element model. The data collected provides important technical information for the development of standardized design procedures for bridges using Pigirders. Many cutting-edge developments generated from this project will benefit the transportation industry. There were many challenges associated with this project, (including the absence of specific design procedures); however, the finite element analysis supported the development of a second generation Pi-girder. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Studies show this new girder shape contributes to a more durable bridge element. Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 112
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Use of Surface and Borehole Ground Penetrating Radar in Geologic and Engineering Investigations of Transportation Projects ID K-TRAN: KU-06-8 Project Cost $57,101.00 Duration 2 years, 11 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency KDOT Submitter Contact Rodney Montney Submitter E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization KDOT, Bureau of Materials and Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Rodney Montney Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project investigates the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) subsurface imaging in transportation projects. Knowledge of shallow subsurface geologic conditions is critical to planning, constructing and maintaining transportation infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, tunnels and railroads. Transportation projects rely heavily on drilled boreholes for characterization of subsurface geology. A borehole provides accurate information at a single location (onedimensional) and several test borings are commonly required in order to determine the lateral extent of features of interest. Near-surface geophysical methods offer the capability to complement test borings by providing two- and three-dimensional images of the subsurface, away and between boreholes. Such capability can be valuable in mapping features of limited lateral extent, such as discontinuous strata, faults and fracture zones, boulder fields and voids. A grid of surface reflection GPR lines acquired on the river bed of the Kansas River was used to verify depth to bedrock and map in 3D bedrock topography along construction of the bridge expansion of K-18. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 113
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research GPR successfully imaged through approximately 5 meters of water saturated sands to the top of bedrock, verified by coreholes. As expected, GPR did not image through high electrical conductivity overbank silt and clay deposits. Pronounced reflections of radar waves from the existing overhead bridge metallic structure masked subsurface reflections over a certain range from the bridge and will need to be accounted when designing GPR surveys in similar settings. GPR was shown to be an efficient method for imaging through water saturated sands. Multiple frequency GPR reflection profiles were acquired in order to determine the utility of GPR for differentiating between unconsolidated and cemented Ogallala Formation that will have to be excavated for highway widening. GPR identified the consolidated Ogallala formation at two test sites using 100 MHz frequencies. Clay and silt content limited depth of penetration to approximately three meters from the surface and the discontinuous nature of the Ogallala made interpretation of GPR data difficult. Despite the limited depth of imaging and the challenging appearance of the data, with sufficient ground truth along the survey line GPR can be an efficient method for differentiating between unconsolidated and cemented Ogallala. Such work can be performed rapidly in real-time in the field, as no post acquisition data processing is necessary. A new borehole GPR method was developed to determine the lateral extent of coal pillars and mined coal voids near Pittsburgh, Kansas. The method uses the observed zero-offset transmission radar wave arrival time and the known separation of the boreholes to determine the proportion of radar wave travel path through pillar and void present between the boreholes. Using this method, void and pillar dimensions were determined between three boreholes. This method is very efficient compared to traditional topographic approaches because it requires the acquisition of few zero-offset profile (ZOP) traces through the zone of interest and minimal post acquisition processing. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Application of this borehole GPR method could reduce significantly the number of boreholes needed to determine accurately the extent of voids in the subsurface. Web Links (if available) http://www.ksdot.org/PublicLib/publicDoc.asp?ID=003799452 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 114
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development of Recommended Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts in Weak Rocks Based on O-Cell Tests ID K-TRAN: KU-07-4 Project Cost $48,000.00 Duration 2 years, 6 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency KDOT Submitter Contact Rodney Montney Submitter E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization KDOT, Bureau of Materials and Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Rodney Montney Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Since October 1st 2007, federal-funded projects including new bridges have been mandated to be designed to meet American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications. The transition from Allowable Stress Design (ASD) to LRFD has caused a challenge to geotechnical designers. KDOT engineers have indicated that the design of drilled shafts in weak rocks following the AASHTO LRFD specifications sometimes results in a considerably different design from that according to the original ASD. Designers also have had problems in applying load and resistance factors into their computer programs that are based on ASD. Weak rock is widely distributed in the state of Kansas. Drilled shafts are the most commonly used foundation type for bridges in such rock formations. In most projects, KDOT has used a serviceability criterion of 0.25 inch settlement to design drilled shafts. To verify the reasonableness of design, Osterberg Cell (O-Cell) load tests have been performed in several projects in Kansas. The test results indicated that measured shaft capacities are often several times higher than those predicted by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) design method (O‘Neill and Reese, 1999). The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (AASHTO, 2006) do include recommended resistance factors for drilled shafts in weak rock (the terminology ―intermediate geomaterial‖ used in the AASHTO specifications). However, these Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 115
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research resistance factors were converted from typical factors of safety or nationwide load test database, which may not accurately reflect the local conditions and practice in Kansas. Twenty-six O-Cell test data were collected from the states of Kansas, Colorado, Missouri, Ohio, and Illinois for drilled shafts in rocks. Seven methods available in the literature were selected to estimate the load capacities of 25 out of 26 drilled shafts. Calculated load capacities from five methods (FHWA 0.05D, Davisson‘s, Brinch-Hansen‘s 80%, Butler and Hoy‘s, and Fuller and Hoy‘s methods) were used for statistical analyses. Resistance factors calibrated in previous parts of the study were used to calibrate slide resistance factors from two different sources of measured resistance: total side resistance and layered unit side resistance. Two examples were presented to illustrate load and resistance factor design of drilled shafts in weak rock based on the Strength Limit State design and the Service Limit State design. Design procedures using Shaft V5.0 were provided for the Strength Limit State design. The comparison of the seven methods studied showed that Butler and Hoy‘s method is most reliable but the interpreted capacity by this method is to some extent overestimated. The ―FHWA 0.05D‖ method was found to yield the closest and conservative predictions of the ultimate resistances to the representative values. Therefore, the resistance corresponding to a displacement of 5% shaft diameter is recommended as the ultimate resistance of drilled shafts. This method was adopted in this study when the resistance factors were calibrated for the Strength Limit State design. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.ksdot.org/PublicLib/publicDoc.asp?ID=003800729 116
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Stream Realignment Design Using a reference Reach ID K-TRAN: KU-09-4 Project Cost $50,000.00 Duration 1 year, 3 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency KDOT Submitter Contact Rodney Montney Submitter E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization KDOT, Bureau of Materials and Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Rodney Montney Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This study presents a natural channel design method based on a reference reach approach. This method is termed the Analytical Reference Reach (ARR) method because certain characteristics and features of the design reach are copied or scaled from a reference reach and other characteristics are obtained from analytical relations. The ARR design method offers several advantages over both the Rosgen reference reach method and the analytical approach advocated by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers and the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Its main advantage over the analytical methods is that the reference reach provides guidance for design of channel features such as meander bends and pools that cannot be designed analytically. Its main advantage over the Rosgen design method is that the channel cross-section is sized analytically to convey an appropriate bankfull discharge, and also the associated bed-sediment load if the channel is alluvial. In the ARR method, several important geomorphic characteristics of the reference reach are preserved in the design reach. These characteristics include the sinuosity of the reach, the ratio of average meander wavelength to bankfull width, and the ratio of pool depth to riffle depth. Applying the sinuosity of the reference reach to the design reach fixes the length and average slope of the design reach. The bankfull discharge for the design reach is obtained either from a hydraulic analysis of a nearby stable reach on the same stream or from a regression equation that relates bankfull discharge to watershed Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 117
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research characteristics. Alluvial and threshold channels are sized differently. The design method for alluvial channels equates the bankfull bed-load transport capacities of the design reach and a nearby stable reach on the same stream. The design method for threshold channels scales the cross-sectional dimensions of the reference reach so that the design reach has the desired bankfull capacity. If the computed bankfull velocity exceeds the threshold value, the channel is re-designed using a different reference reach with a higher sinuosity. The ARR design method and the Kansas Analytical Method (K-TRAN Report KU-08-2) are both valid methods for stream realignment design in Kansas. Both methods should yield satisfactory designs for streams with beds composed mainly of sand, gravel or cobble. The ARR design method is preferable to the Kansas Analytical Method for silt- and claybed streams. This study provides guidance for reference reach selection and step-bystep instructions for stream realignment design. The Appendix to this report provides essential geomorphic and hydrologic data for 123 potential reference reaches in Kansas. Most of these data were drawn from two previous studies of Kansas streams. Our integrated data set is termed the Kansas Reference Reach Data Set (KRRDS). Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The procedures provided in this report will increase the likelihood that proposed channel changes will be approved, thus reducing the potential for project delays due to the permit process. Web Links (if available) http://www.ksdot.org/PublicLib/publicDoc.asp?ID=003799917 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 118
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title A Study of Fluvial Geomorphology Aspects of Hydraulic Design ID K-TRAN: KU-08-5 Project Cost $48,000.00 Duration 2 years, 5 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency KDOT Submitter Contact Rodney Montney Submitter E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization KDOT, Bureau of Materials and Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Rodney Montney Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project KDOT is sometimes required to modify natural streams near roadways, bridges and culverts in order to protect the highway infrastructure from scour or erosion damage and to maintain public safety. This can result in the design and construction of relatively short new stream reaches. The following activities and natural processes may require new stream reaches or modification of existing streams. • Bridge or culvert replacement • Road improvement or realignment • Lateral stream migration The objectives of the research were to develop methods that will aid engineers in designing new stream reaches for alluvial channels that will be dynamically stable and geomorphologically compatible with the existing stream/stream network. These methods are based on the Hydraulic Design Functions of HEC-RAS Version 4.0. The functions are Uniform Flow, Stable Channel Design and Sediment Transport Capacity. The HEC-RAS Uniform Flow hydraulic design function allows the user to apply Manning‘s equation to the overbanks and resistance equations based on the grain size distribution to the movable bed portion of the bankfull channel. The Brownlie Equations were used for a movable sand bed stream and the Limerinos Equation was used for a movable gravel/cobble bed stream. First, the overbank Manning‘s n-values were Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 119
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research determined for bankfull conditions (discharge, depth, slope, geometry, bed grain size distribution). Second, an equivalent Manning‘s n-value was determined for the movable bed since HEC-RAS requires that only Manning‘s Equation be used for water surface profile computations. The procedures developed in this report can be used to design stable channel reaches that match the flow and sediment transport capacities of a reference reach cross section. The hydraulic design functions in HEC-RAS Version 4.0 were instrumental to these designs. The Stable Channel Design hydraulic design function should be used for sand bed channels and the Sediment Transport Capacity hydraulic design function should be used for gravel/cobble bed channels. The HEC-RAS Uniform Flow hydraulic design function is utilized in the procedures for both sand and gravel/cobble beds. Testing of the Analytical Reference Reach (ARR) method introduced by Bruce McEnroe and C. Bryan Young, showed that it produced different results than the HEC-RAS models for design channel geometries that differed significantly from the reference reach channel. This is to be expected due to the stated assumptions of the ARR method such as plane bed and large width to depth ratios. Also, their method did not use information on the bed gradation. Nonetheless, both reports written by McEnroe contain very valuable information and should be used in the design of stable channels. The only change recommended for the ARR method is to use HEC-RAS in lieu of the analytical portion of their alluvial channel design if bed gradation is known from either bed sample analysis or pebble count. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.ksdot.org/PublicLib/publicDoc.asp?ID=003801973 120
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Lateral Capacity of Rock Sockets in Limestone Under Cyclic and Repeated Loading ID K-TRAN: KU-09-6 Project Cost $82,995 Duration 1 year, 10 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency KDOT Submitter Contact Rodney Montney Submitter E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization KDOT, Bureau of Materials and Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Rodney Montney Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This report contains the results from full scale lateral load testing of two short rock socketed shafts in limestone, and the development of recommendations for p-y analysis using those results. Two short shafts 42 inches in diameter were constructed to depths of approximately 7 feet in limestone in Wyandotte County, Kansas. The shafts were loaded laterally during three separate test events in 2009. The shafts were tested under cyclic loading (load reversal) at loads up to 400 kips; repeated loading up to 800 kips, and to failure near 1000 kips. Test data showed that shaft behavior was essentially elastic during cyclic loading for loads of 400 kips and lower (40% of ultimate capacity). The shafts experienced permanent, accumulating deformations during repeated loads of 600 and 800 kips. Modeling of the results showed the lateral load behavior could be effectively modeled in LPILE using the ―weak rock‖ model included with LPILE software. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper E.g., http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/research 121
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems and Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks ID KS-10-1 Project Cost $258,550.00 (includes several reports pubished) Duration 9 years, 6 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency KDOT Submitter Contact Rodney Montney Submitter E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization KDOT, Bureau of Materials and Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Rodney Montney Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail rodney.montney@ksdot.org RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The corrosion performance of different corrosion protection systems is evaluated using the mortar-wrapped rapid macrocell test, bench-scale tests (the Southern Exposure (SE), cracked beam (CB), and ASTM G109 tests), and field tests. The systems include conventional steel with three different corrosion inhibitors (DCI-S, Hycrete, and Rheocrete), epoxy-coated reinforcement (ECR) with three different corrosion inhibitors and ECR with a primer coating containing microencapsulated calcium nitrite, multiple-coated reinforcement with a zinc layer underlying an epoxy coating, ECR with zinc chromate pretreatment before application of the epoxy coating to improve adhesion between the epoxy and the underlying steel, ECR with improved adhesion epoxy coatings, and pickled 2205 duplex stainless steel. Conventional steel in concretes with two different water-cement ratios (0.45 and 0.35) is also tested. Of these systems, specimens containing conventional steel or conventional epoxy-coated steel serve as controls. The critical chloride thresholds of conventional steel in concrete with different corrosion inhibitors and zinc-coated reinforcement are determined. The results of the tests are used in an economic analysis of bridge decks containing different corrosion protection systems over a design life of 75 years. The results indicate that a reduced water-cement ratio improves the corrosion resistance of conventional steel in uncracked concrete compared to the same steel in concrete with a higher water-cement Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 122
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research ratio. The use of a corrosion inhibitor improves the corrosion resistance of conventional steel in both cracked and uncracked concrete and delays the onset of corrosion in uncracked concrete, but provides only a very limited improvement in the corrosion resistance of epoxy-coated reinforcement due to the high corrosion resistance provided by the epoxy coating itself. Based on results in the field tests, the epoxy-coated bars with a primer containing microencapsulated calcium nitrite show no improvement in the corrosion resistance compared to conventional epoxy-coated reinforcement. Increased adhesion between the epoxy coating and reinforcing steel provides no improvement in the corrosion resistance of epoxy-coated reinforcement. The corrosion losses for multiple-coated reinforcement are comparable with those of conventional epoxy-coated reinforcement in the field tests in uncracked and cracked concrete. Corrosion potential measurements show that the zinc is corroded preferentially, providing protection for the underlying steel. Pickled 2205 stainless steel demonstrates excellent corrosion resistance, and no corrosion activity is observed for the pickled 2205 stainless steel in bridge decks, or in the SE, CB, or field test specimens after four years. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.ksdot.org/PublicLib/publicDoc.asp?ID=003803399 123
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Kentucky Transportation Cabinet PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Shear Repair of P/C Box Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced (CFRP) Fabric ID KTC_06_01_FRT_114_01_1F Project Cost $105,000 Duration 4-years (1-year design and implementation and 3-years monitoring) SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Submitter Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Submitter E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Federal Highway Administration (IBRC) and the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. (Research conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Center in the College of Engineering at the University of Kentucky) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This research project deals with the retrofit of the KY3297 Bridge in Carter County, Kentucky. Field investigation and evaluation revealed that the bridge superstructure was deficient in shear in all three spans and, initially, the superstructure was to be replaced at a cost of $600,000 over a period of one year. The traveling public would have had to take a 15 mile detour around the bridge. An alternative solution using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) fabric was proposed by the Kentucky Transportation Center at a cost of $105,000 including 3-years of monitoring. The repair, using the externally bonded CFRP system, offered the following benefits: (1) use of light construction equipment, hand kits and tools, (2) no traffic disruption as all lanes were open to traffic while work was being performed underneath the bridge, and (3) cost saving; the cost for the repair and 3-years of monitoring was $105,000 compared to the estimated superstructure replacement cost of $600,000 and bridge Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 124
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research closure of up to 1-year. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The success of this research project led to the adoption of this retrofit method on more than a dozen bridges in Kentucky over the past five years. In addition, cost savings in millions of dollars were realized when compared with other retrofit/replacement methods. Web Links (if available) http://www.ktc.uky.edu/Reports/KTC_06_01_FRT_114_01_1F.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 125
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Change Orders and Lessons Learned ID KTC-10-17/SPR 384-09-1F Project Cost $100,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Submitter Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Submitter E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Kentucky Transportation Cabinet and Federal Highway Administration. (Research conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Center in the College of Engineering at the University of Kentucky) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Which change orders tend to have the greatest impact on Kentucky transportation projects? How can I avoid them on future projects? If I do have a change order, what process can I follow to estimate a fair price for both the Cabinet and the Contractor? These are some of the questions that were addressed by research project Change Orders and Lessons Learned (KYSPR 09-384) at the University of Kentucky‘s Kentucky Transportation Center. Change orders occur on many roadway construction projects. While some change orders are difficult to avoid, for example those caused by unforeseen geotechnical conditions, data indicates many change orders can be controlled and avoided on roadway construction projects. Statistical analyses of all change orders on Kentucky roadway construction projects over a three year time period examined how the leading causes of change orders varied between construction versus maintenance projects, different road types (e.g., state highways, interstate, and county roads), and construction type (e.g. earth work, structures, and road surfacing). The research examined the statistical impact of change orders by measuring their frequency and average percentage change in project costs. While the relative impacts did vary by analyses, the leading causes of change orders within the state consistently included: contract Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 126
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research omissions, owner induced enhancements, and contract item overrun. While the research found that many of these observed change orders can be avoided, avoidance of other change orders, such fuel and asphalt price adjustments, are more challenging since they can be due to rapidly changing market conditions. The analyses are based on change orders completed on 610 projects from 2005 to 2008 by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. The results show not only distinctive trends that are useful for constructability reviews on future projects (see example of a ―Quick Guide‖ below) but also identify the need for new directions in front end planning and project scoping to minimize change orders on highway projects. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.ktc.uky.edu/Reports/KTC_10_17_SPR_384_09_1F.pdf 127
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Nondestructive Testing of Defective ASTM A 514 Steel on the I-275 Twin Bridges over the Ohio River in Campbell County ID KTC-10-11/KH60-07-1F, Kentucky Highway Investigative Task 60 Project Cost $1,980,000 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Submitter Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Submitter E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. (Research conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Center in the College of Engineering at the University of Kentucky) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project KTC conducted failure analysis of cracked steel plates from the I-275 twin truss bridges over the Ohio River near Cincinnati, OH. They determined the plates were dangerously defective and further steel remaining on the bridge could pose a significant threat to the structural integrity of the bridges and the motoring public. There was an extensive amount of potentially defective steel on the two structures (1,368 pieces totaling over 4 million pounds of steel). After confirmation of those findings by the FHWA, KTC researchers developed a test procedure to effectively detect any remaining bad steel on those bridges. KTC organized and led a nondestructive testing group that spent 4 months on the bridges inspecting all of the potentially defective steel pieces to determine which ones were defective. The threat posed by the defective steel was real as further cracked plates of that material were discovered on one bridge and it was posted for cars and pickup trucks until the bridge inspections were completed and the defective steel was replaced. KTC detected 14 defective pieces of steel on the bridges, which were subsequently replaced or reinforced by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper This work helped maintain the structural integrity of the two major river 128
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results crossings and safeguard motorists. Web Links (if available) http://www.ktc.uky.edu/report_abstracts/Recent/ktc_10_11.htm Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 129
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Factors Affecting Asphalt Pavement Density and the Effect on Long-Term Performance ID KTC-10-05/RSF14-05-1F Project Cost $330,667 Duration 44 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Submitter Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Submitter E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FHWA. (Research conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Center in the College of Engineering at the University of Kentucky) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Density affects cracking, rutting, and the cohesion of asphalt mixtures. By determining which variables are most influential to pavement density (i.e. roller pattern, temperature when rolled, etc.), and then monitoring the attention given to those variables, the service life of an asphalt roadway could be increased by at least 25%; therefore, saving tens of millions of dollars each year in the U.S. alone, while still maintaining the current roadway level of service. Ensuring that the pavement roller is able to roll the surface at the appropriate temperature can result in increases in construction density of up to 4%. In lab testing, an asphalt mix having 11% voids failed at approximately 400,000 cycles, compared to that same mix at 7% air voids failing at 600,000 cycles, resulting in a lab fatigue life increase of 200,000 cycles, or 50%. It is reasonable to expect similar fatigue life increases on asphalt roadways that are compacted to higher densities. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 130
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Pavement Marking Performance ID KTC-08-2; KTC-08-21; KTC-09-09; KTC-10-01 Project Cost $200,000 Duration 47 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Submitter Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Submitter E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. (Research conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Center in the College of Engineering at the University of Kentucky) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project involved a series of reports evaluating the methods used to delineate roadways. The reports included an evaluation of the useful life of pavement markings, developing guidelines for the use of edge lines, evaluating the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers, and evaluating the use of rumble stripes. The results of the research reports have been used to determine the most costeffective method to delineate roadways to provide a safe driving environment. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper www.engr.uky.edu/ktc 131
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt ID KYSPR-10-409 Project Cost $255,000 Duration 36 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Submitter Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Submitter E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. (Research conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Center in the College of Engineering at the University of Kentucky) Sponsoring Agency Contact Jamie Bewley Bird Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail jamie.bewley@ky.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Warm mix asphalt (WMA) has the potential to revolutionize the paving industry. The ability to reduce costs and emissions while improving pavement performance could potentially change the direction the asphalt industry moves in the future. In Kentucky in 2009 and 2010, there were 11 wax/chemical additive WMA projects constructed across the state. Each project consisted of one hot mix asphalt (HMA) control section, and at least one WMA test section. In addition to asphalt temperatures, field testing monitored density and in-situ permeability at varying cross-sectional locations throughout the test and control sections. In-situ testing was done at the centerline joint, and at 6‖, 18‖ and 60‖ distances from the joint. The primary interest of this research was to compare temperatures and corresponding in-situ densities between test and control sections on each project. In addition, contractors were encouraged to construct each section as they normally would. The reason for this request was to ensure the data reflected real-world construction practices and situations. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper An increase in density combined with a decrease in production/placement/compaction temperatures would indicate that warm mix asphalt could be a suitable substitution for hot mix asphalt in the future. 132
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 133
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD), Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development and Performance Assessment of an FRP Strengthened BalsaWood Bridge Deck for Accelerated Construction ID Report no. 472 Project Cost $400,000 Duration 4 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency LTRC and LADOTD Submitter Contact Walid Alaywan Submitter E-mail walid.alaywan@la.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization LTRC, LADOTD, and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Conventionally, lightweight highway bridge decks in the US are predominantly made of steel grid. Repair and maintenance costs of these bridge decks incurred at the federal and state levels can be extensive. A very promising alternative is the Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge deck system. The objectives of this research were to develop, construct and evaluate a lightweight FRP-wrapped balsa wood bridge deck system. The LA 70 bridge in Assumption Parish, Louisiana was built in 1988 with a design load of HS20-44 and 6000 average daily trips (ADT). The seven span, 145 ft long structure includes of 25 ft long center steel grid deck span designed to be lifted for river navigation when needed. This corrugated steel grid deck which was in need of substantial repair was replaced with the FRP wrapped balsa wood deck. The research includes (1) long-term performance monitoring integrity of the FRP-wrapped Balsa wood bridge deck system; (2) the strains in the transverse direction of the deck and the longitudinal direction of the individual girders and (3) Bridge deck–girder interface bond integrity. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 134
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Figure 1. LA 70 bridge and existing deck The new bridge deck consists of pre-fabricated FRP-wrapped balsa wood units bonded on the I-girders. The fabrication sequence of the bridge deck units are illustrated in Fig. 2(a) that shows the balsa wood beam being wrapped with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheet. In Fig. 2(b) a single panel is being assembled using several of the wrapped balsa wood beams and hardwire layers. The deck was adhesively bonded to the steel girder using customized epoxy (Fig. 2(c)) and a bonded panel is shown in Fig. 2 (d). (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 2. FRP-wrapped Balsa wood bridge deck installation: (a) Balsa wood beam wrapped with FRP material (b) FRP deck assembly (c) Application of bonding agent on girder (d) Finished FRP deck attached to steel girder. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Benefits: The deck was replaced in ½ a day. The new deck is corrosion free and maintenance free. Cost benefit is estimated at $96,000 per bridge. The smooth surface also reduces concern for personal injury to local pedestrians and bikers. Web Links (if available) www.ltrc.lsu.edu Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 135
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Accelerated Loading Evaluation of Subbase Layers in Pavement Performance ID FHWA/LA.09/468 Project Cost $273,554 Duration 36 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency LTRC Submitter Contact Mark Morvant Submitter E-mail mark.morvant@la.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD)/ LTRC Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Morvant Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.morvant@la.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The research studied the chemical stabilization of the naturally wet and problematic soft soils typically found as subgrade in south Louisiana and provides detailed information on experiment design, instrumentation, and field and laboratory tests. The objectives included the exploration and development of a methodology to build reliable subgrade layers stabilized with cementitious agents at various field moisture contents so that a treated subgrade layer would not only provide a working table for pavement construction but could contribute to the overall pavement structural capacity. Three additives were studied in the laboratory throughout this research: cement, lime, and lime-fly ash. Laboratory testing included moisture density evaluations, various additive percentages, various molding moistures and curing times, tube suction testing, resilient modulus and permanent deformation, Eades and Grim tests, etc. Field testing included full-scale pavement sections constructed on a wet clayey silt subgrade. A cement-stabilized subgrade was compared to a traditional working table chemically treated solely to reduce moisture and achieve density. The laboratory and field research quantified the benefit received from Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 136
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research the cement-stabilized subgrade as compared to the traditional working table subgrade. The laboratory study confirmed that treating clays with lime, and silts with cement, will create stronger foundations with reduced moisture sensitivity for the pavement structure. A life cycle cost analysis based on the field test results of this study revealed that using a 12-in. cement stabilized soil subbase in lieu of a working table layer will create a 37 percent annualized cost savings for low-volume and 31 percent cost savings for high volume pavement structures in Louisiana. The recommendation emphasized the expanded use of stabilized subgrade layers with target strengths applied to all subgrades susceptible to moisture intrusion in Louisiana. Additionally, updates to the Standard Specifications are paramount, which foster implementation and increased options of chemical additives to treat wet subgrade soils at competitive costs, while still producing effective foundation support for the pavement structure. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper www.ltrc.lsu.edu 137
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Updating LADOTD Policy on Vibration Monitoring ID Pending Project Cost $193,054 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency LTRC Submitter Contact Mark Morvant Submitter E-mail mark.morvant@la.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD)/ LTRC Sponsoring Agency Contact Mark Morvant Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mark.morvant@la.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The main objective of this research was to update the LADOTD policy on pile driving vibration risk management. Pile driving operations cause vibrations that can sometimes damage adjacent buildings. The research studied the necessary components of a vibration monitoring policy to effectively manage the risk, variables and extent of structure damage. The current best practices were identified by conducting a comprehensive literature review and a questionnaire survey, with the following essential aspects considered: pre-construction survey, ground vibration monitoring, limiting ground vibration amplitude to prevent damage to adjacent buildings, and engineering measures for mitigating ground vibrations. Ground vibration data were collected from previous pile driving projects in the state of Louisiana which were statistically analyzed on the basis of the scaled-distance concept to develop regression equations for predicting ground vibration positive predictive value (PPV) values. A rational procedure for determining an appropriate vibration monitoring distance (VMD) was developed for Louisiana‘s local conditions. The findings (the threshold PPV limits and the VMD) obtained from the empirical scaled-distance concept were further verified with dynamic finite element method (FEM) simulations. The research indicated the current Louisiana‘s specifications limiting the PPV to 0.2 in/s for residential buildings and a pre-construction survey distance of 500 feet are generally too conservative. The researchers Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 138
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research recommended a threshold PPV limits of 0.5 for general scenarios and 0.1 in/s for special scenarios (historic or sensitive buildings, loose sandy layers, etc.). The new specification implemented as a result of this research includes VMDs of 200 and 500 feet for the general and the special scenarios, respectively, provided that the rated energy of the hammer is not larger than 100,000 ft-lbf. The pre-construction survey distance is the same value of the VMD. The revised distance for preconstruction surveys will benefit the department by providing a logical and rational method for evaluating pile driving vibration monitoring. This research has provided the department the confidence to establish and defend its pile vibration monitoring policy, avoiding unnecessary cost incurred by arbitrarily expanding construction survey distances. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper www.ltrc.lsu.edu 139
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Surface Resistivity Measurements as an Alternative to the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test for Quality Assurance and Acceptance ID LTRC Project no. 10-1C Project Cost $102,878 Duration 15 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency LTRC Submitter Contact Mark Morvant Submitter E-mail mark.morvant@la.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization SP&R Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Low permeability concrete is frequently required on bridge structures. The standard QC/QA test for permeability is the rapid chloride permeability test, which is time consuming and expensive. The objectives of this study were to characterize the results of the surface resistivity test for concrete specimens compared to the rapid chloride permeability of concrete specimens. An ongoing Caminada Bay Bridge project was used as the pilot field project. To evaluate the effects of varying water to cement ratios samples were created with 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60 water to cement ratios. Comparative testing was conducted on samples of varying ages including 14, 28, and 56 days. Test with the surface resistivity device using the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) draft test procedure was compared to results using rapid chloride permeability testing (ASTM C 1202). No differences were found when comparing both sets of results. Statistical analysis including least squares regression and modeling was used in data analysis. The results are being implemented by LADOTD. The change in QA procedure significantly reduces the testing time from two days to less than five minutes. The surface resistivity test is also conducted at 28 days of age instead of 56 days of age thus allowing for contractors to get Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 140
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research paid for the permeability pay item and ship their product earlier in the case of precast concrete suppliers. Estimated first year savings due to this change in test is $96,000 for the LADOTD in terms of department savings and $1.5 million for suppliers and contractors in quality control costs savings. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper www.ltrc.lsu.edu 141
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Bridge Safety Initiative: Slab Bridge Load Rating using AASHTO Methodology and Finite Element Analysis ID Pending Project Cost $200,000 Duration 3 years, 6 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MaineDOT Submitter Contact Dale Peabody Submitter E-mail dale.peabody@maine.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization FHWA Transportation, Community and System Preservation Program Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project MaineDOT is responsible for 2,723 bridges and minor spans, of which 271 are in poor condition and 226 are structurally deficient. Nine percent of Maine‘s bridges are over 81 years old and 37% are over 61 years old. MaineDOT estimates that 288 bridges are at risk of closure or weight restrictions in the next decade. Closing or restricting a bridge places additional hardships on Maine people and Maine companies. MaineDOT struggles to balance public safety and socioeconomic concerns when faced with bridge closure and load restriction decisions. On the other hand, the cost of replacement or rehabilitation needed to keep such a bridge open to all traffic is extraordinary. This study investigates the use of finite element (FE) analysis to determine the load carrying capacities of existing concrete slab bridges as compared to more conservative methods. In addition to commercial FE programs, this project will develop FE software designed specifically for rating flat slab bridges. Methods of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) flexural reinforcement of flat slab bridges will also be experimentally investigated for strength and durability. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 142
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Preliminary results from analysis of the initial ten bridges are very promising. The finite element analysis shows that six bridges do not require truck weight restriction posting that normally would using the conventional analysis method. The cost avoidance is very significant since there‘s no adverse impact to the trucking industry and there‘s no need to repair or replace these structures in the immediate future. Estimates show an average savings of $1.25M on a single bridge when 1 replacement is avoided. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) 1 Advanced Bridge Safety Initiative: Program Impacts on Bridge Safety and the Maine Economy Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 143
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title A Financial Impact Assessment of LD 1725: Stream Crossings ID Pending Project Cost $21,200 Duration 10 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MaineDOT Submitter Contact Dale Peabody Submitter E-mail dale.peabody@maine.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MaineDOT SPR, New England Environmental Finance Center, University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The purpose of this study was to document and to present a financial impact analysis of LD 1725, a legislative resolve, which would result in expanding the physical size requirements needed for stream crossing construction in the State of Maine. The study was conducted by the New England Environmental Finance Center (EFC), in coordination with the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT), Maine Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), and state, nongovernmental, and local stakeholders. LD 1725 proposed modifying certain provisions of the Maine DEP rules (Section 10, Stream Crossings, of Chapter 305, Permit by Rule). The modification would define the ―natural stream flow‖ provisions to be met under Natural Resources Protection Act (NRPA) exemptions, when constructing stream crossings, such as highway culverts. The study presented information to the DEP rulemaking stakeholder workshops. The rule under consideration would require that ―natural stream flow‖ be met when constructing stream crossings and that crossing structures must be at least 1.2 times the natural bankfull width of the stream. A natural stream bed, either an embedded or ―bottomless‖ structure would also be required. If an existing crossing could not meet the 1.2 bankfull sizing through maintenance, rehabilitation, or replacement, then a full permit process would be required, leading to increased project costs and also delay. As drafted, the 1.2 bankfull requirements in LD 1725 would Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 144
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research cause structure widths to increase from 175% to 325% for stream crossing projects, thereby resulting in cost increases. A statewide cost estimate of $230 - $474 million was projected for only the additional pipe material costs incurred due to culvert upsizing. The total overall statewide cost impact of LD1725 would ultimately include construction, engineering, permitting and other related costs. When combined, these costs could be more than 50% higher than material costs. Although these total overall costs would be spread out over roughly 20 years (as existing stream crossings are replaced), Maine municipalities and MaineDOT will face the substantial annual financial requirements of the proposed rule without any additional source of funding. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://efc.muskie.usm.maine.edu/pages/dot_ld1725.htm 145
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Laboratory Tests to Quantify Frictional Properties of Aggregates ID SP608B4D Project Cost $150,000 Duration 4 years, 5 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Maryland SHA Submitter Contact Allison Hardt Submitter E-mail AHardt@sha.state.md.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Maryland SHA Sponsoring Agency Contact Allison Hardt Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail AHardt@sha.state.md.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project A vital component of safe highways is the friction characteristics of the pavement surface. In 2006, the long standing laboratory method used by SHA to evaluate the ability of coarse aggregates to provide high friction in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements was showing its age. Therefore it was necessary to initiate a study to identify a better method to perform this critical test method. The objective of this research project was to update the friction evaluation portion of SHA‘s aggregate specifications. This included evaluation of relationships between physical, petrographic, and engineering property data for Maryland aggregate sources; recommendations for an annual aggregate test regimen that would quantify high friction, wear resistant aggregates for use on major highways and/or high accident locations, including equipment and specifications; and evaluation of the short and long term impact of the proposed test regimen and specifications on the eligibility of existing aggregate sources. As a result of this project, a draft aggregate acceptance specification was developed, a new test procedure for British Wheel/Pendulum was Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 146
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research developed, new polishing test equipment was procured and implemented, and new test procedures developed. SHA now has a new and modern method of testing coarse aggregates for susceptibility to polish under simulated traffic conditions. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 147
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Soil Slope Failure Investigation Management System ID SP009B4N Project Cost $125,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Maryland SHA Submitter Contact Allison Hardt Submitter E-mail AHardt@sha.state.md.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Maryland SHA Sponsoring Agency Contact Allison Hardt Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail AHardt@sha.state.md.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Unexpected soil slope failures cause significant safety concerns and emergency repairs incur high costs for highway agencies. The project aims to develop a web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) slope management system to better track, analyze, and evaluate soil slope failure data and remediation plans. The system will serve as a clearinghouse where necessary site details on points of interest or polygons of interest are provided based on the user‘s input query, and details of design, construction, and maintenance of recommended remediation methods are stored. SHA designers, Resident Maintenance Engineers, and Senior Managers can use the system to evaluate site conditions, derive remediation plans, query construction history, and generate repair cost estimates. A risk level prediction model using empirical and statistical equations for different slopes is also being developed. Phenomenon such as flow direction of runoff, drainage section type, and other erosion parameters will also be factored into the model. Once the model is complete, it will be incorporated in the management system. It is anticipated that the system will help track long-term soil slope performance, reduce maintenance and repair costs, enable preventive soil slope distress corrections, generate accurate cost estimates, and eventually enable efficient data sharing across Division and Offices. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 148
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~rraghavs/home.html (temporary) 149
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT), Office of Research and Best Practices (ORBP) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title ECR Bridge Decks: Damage Detection and Assessment of Remaining Service Life for Various Overlay Repair Options ID Pending Project Cost $334,908 Duration 3 years, 9 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDOT ORBP Submitter Contact Michael Townley Submitter E-mail townleym@michigan.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Michael Townley Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail townleym@michigan.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project MDOT commonly uses epoxy coated reinforcement (ECR) bars in its bridge decks. To help make the most of its investment in ECR, the state undertook a research project focused on preservation. The two-part project was aimed at improving damage detection methods and developing a better understanding of ECR bridge deck deterioration. Part I. The research first addressed acoustic techniques for detecting delamination of concrete from reinforcement bars in bridge decks. Traditionally such damage detection techniques are time consuming, and the subjective results require significant expertise to interpret. Investigators developed and tested new detection devices with software intended to cancel traffic noise and provide more objective and easy-to-interpret sound features. Value and Implementation. While the new detection system proved not yet ready for use in the field, the agency better understands the challenges in developing such a tool. If follow-up efforts by Michigan and other interested states are Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 150
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research successful, the resulting detection system will save time and money while producing more accurate results. Part II. The research also sought data on the performance of ECR bridge decks to support possible changes to the agency‘s bridge deck maintenance schedule. Researchers aged and tested ECR and standard (black steel) reinforced concrete samples, and they quantified the comparative corrosion- and crack-resistant benefits of the ECR samples. Value and Implementation. By using the research results to adjust its preservation decision matrix for ECR bridge decks, MDOT can make more efficient use of its maintenance budget. This will also help the state realize ECR‘s intended benefit: extended bridge deck life and longer periods between required maintenance. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9622_11045_24249---,00.html 151
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Effects of Debonded Strands on the Production and Performance of Prestressed Concrete Beams ID Pending Project Cost $199,740 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDOT ORBP Submitter Contact Michael Townley Submitter E-mail townleym@michigan.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Michael Townley Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail townleym@michigan.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project To prevent excess internal stress and cracking at the ends of prestressed concrete bridge beams, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) designs allow for debonding of the steel prestressing strands. This is normally achieved by wrapping the ends of the strands with polymer sheathing. However, despite debonding, cracking is sometimes observed at the beam ends. MDOT undertook research to uncover the cause of this problem and seek possible solutions. Through an effort involving extensive lab testing and computer modeling, researchers discovered that bonding was present to some extent between the debonded strand ends and concrete that led to cracking. Investigators proposed and tested what proved to be an effective solution: replacing the flexible sheathing material with a rigid polymer to create more clearance between steel and concrete and ensure debonded behavior. Value and Implementation Premature cracking has a major impact on bridge beam durability, and implementing this solution will help beams meet their intended service life. Given the high cost of beam repair and replacement, the relatively simple change in fabrication method represents a highly cost effective solution. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 152
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research In 2011, MDOT‘s bridge committee will evaluate the report recommendations to require use of rigid sheathing to help achieve the desired debonding effect. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9622_11045_24249---,00.html 153
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development of New Test Procedures for Measuring Fine and Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravities ID RC-1535 Project Cost $181,925 Duration 2 years, 8 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDOT ORBP Submitter Contact Michael Townley Submitter E-mail townleym@michigan.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Michael Townley Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail townleym@michigan.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Measurements of specific gravity—the ratio of a material‘s density to the density of water— are used for quality control in asphalt pavement construction. MDOT tests the specific gravity and absorption of fine and coarse aggregates to verify contractors‘ hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mix designs and provide a reference point for field samples taken during pavement construction. MDOT‘s current test methods to determine specific gravity (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) T84 and T85) are labor-intensive and timeconsuming, requiring 15 to 19 hours to complete. AASHTO T84, used to measure the specific gravity of fine aggregates, is dependent on operator skill and has exhibited problems with repeatability. Researchers examined alternative tests to supplement or replace the current AASHTO standards. The automated SSDetect uses reflection and scattering of light rays to measure specific gravity in fine aggregates. The Vacuum Saturation method, which eliminates the need for the long soaking period required by AASHTO T85, tests coarse aggregates. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 154
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Value and Implementation The alternative tests show promise. Testing time is shortened, with both tests requiring less than two hours to complete. Automated processes eliminate operator dependency and improve repeatability. For most materials, the alternative tests provide results similar to those produced using the AASHTO standards. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Faster, more reliable testing to measure specific gravity helps MDOT gain efficiencies in verifying contractors‘ pavement mix designs. In 2011 MDOT‘s HMA technical subcommittee may evaluate the alternative tests for possible incorporation into current testing practices. Web Links (if available) http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdot/MDOT_Research_Report_RC1535_313687_7.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 155
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Improving Drivers’ Ability to Safely and Effectively Use Roundabouts: Educating the Public to Navigate Roundabouts ID RC-1542 Project Cost $199,649 Duration 1 year, 4 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDOT ORBP Submitter Contact Michael Townley Submitter E-mail townleym@michigan.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Michael Townley Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail townleym@michigan.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project MDOT, like many transportation agencies throughout the country, is turning more frequently to the roundabout as a safer option for some intersections than a traditional signal light or four-way stop. The roundabout‘s circular design, with a counterclockwise traffic flow around a center island, reduces congestion, controls speeds and reduces crash severity when crashes do occur. Gaining public support for this relatively new type of intersection and helping the traveling public learn new ―rules of the road‖ is vitally important. A statewide road user survey and an analysis of roundabout crash data provided information about the public perceptions of roundabouts and the driving behaviors in need of correction. Armed with this knowledge, researchers crafted a targeted message and developed an array of educational materials that can be used by MDOT and local transportation agencies. Value and Implementation The suite of educational materials developed in this project includes brochures, animated videos, posters and presentations. Many of these materials will be available on the MDOT Web site. This carefully designed public education campaign will support outreach Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 156
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research efforts to Michigan residents considering the construction of a roundabout in their communities. The educational materials will also help improve a road user‘s ability to navigate roundabouts safely and smoothly, and advance the message that roundabouts are a safe and effective alternative to traditional intersections. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9622_11045_24249---,00.html 157
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title TH-36 Full Closure Construction: Evaluation of Traffic Operations Alternatives ID 2010-04 Project Cost $109,890 Duration 34 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Mn/DOT Submitter Contact Linda Taylor Submitter E-mail linda.taylor@state.mn.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Local Road Research Board Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Website Blurb Researchers evaluated the impact of the first large-scale full closure construction project in Minnesota. They found full closure to be a viable, cost-saving construction alternative under these circumstances and gained valuable knowledge of the tools used to evaluate future project alternatives. Report Abstract According to the 2007 Urban Mobility Report, $78 billion was lost due to congestion on urban roadways. Many urban corridors around the country experience demand that is close to or greater than the available capacity. Although most agree that the transportation system has matured and that we will not build ourselves out of congestion, existing infrastructure still often requires expansion. Such expansion in an already developed system most likely does not involve new roadway construction but results in existing roadway upgrades. Such roadways normally already serve considerable demand, a fact that increases the importance of the impact to the roadway users, estimated as Road User Costs (RUCs), and raises safety concerns both for the driving public as well as for the people working on reconstruction projects. New Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 158
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research construction methods like Full Road Closure claim to reduce RUCs as well as reduce capital costs. This project follows the first large-scale Full Closure in Minnesota in an attempt to learn from the experience and propose the most appropriate tools and methodologies for planning, staging, and executing the construction. For the latter, three traffic analysis tools are selected for estimating RUCs due to the construction project. Their effort and data requirements, as well as their accuracy is evaluated and compared to the empirical, engineering-judgment-based, method used by Mn/DOT. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Technical Summary - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/201004TS.pdf Project Final Report - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/201004.pdf 159
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Mn/DOT Combined Smoothness Specification ID 2010-15 Project Cost $43,000 Duration 31 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Mn/DOT Submitter Contact Linda Taylor Submitter E-mail linda.taylor@state.mn.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Local Road Research Board Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Website Blurb Investigators unified Mn/DOT asphalt and concrete pavement smoothness specifications using the International Roughness Index; added new requirements to improve the profiling process; and developed a certification training program for profiler operators. Report Abstract This report presents the development of a combined smoothness specification for asphalt and concrete pavements and associated training for the certification of profiler operators by highway agencies. The report discusses the analyses conducted to develop appropriate levels of incentives and disincentives approximately equivalent to previous specifications, as a baseline. A brief survey of current practices by other states is also included. Appendices include the draft specification developed for this project, and the training materials that were presented in several workshops as part of the project. Features of the combined smoothness specification include the use of the International Roughness Index for smoothness assurance on all pavements, certification of profiler operators, uniform electronic data filenames, profile measurement in both wheel paths, the use of the ProVAL software (developed by FHWA), and areas of localized roughness calculated by ProVAL. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 160
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Technical Summary - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/201015TS.pdf Project Final Report - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/201015.pdf 161
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development of an Advanced Structural Monitoring System ID 2010-39 Project Cost $79,925 Duration 18 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Mn/DOT Submitter Contact Linda Taylor Submitter E-mail linda.taylor@state.mn.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Local Road Research Board Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Website Blurb Researchers developed a detailed design for advanced continuous monitoring of the cracks and high-stress regions of a steel tied-arch bridge. With such a system, bridge caretakers can monitor the long-term evolution of the structural changes in the bridge components and be warned of conditions that could likely lead to imminent failure of the bridge. Report Abstract With bridge infrastructure in Minnesota aging, advancing techniques for ensuring the safety of bridges and motorists is a fundamental goal of Mn/DOT. As such, developing health monitoring systems for fracture critical bridges is an essential objective in meeting the stated goal. This report applies the methodology and uses the information of a previous Mn/DOT report to investigate, select, and design a bridge health monitoring system for the Cedar Avenue Bridge which is a fracture critical tied arch bridge in Burnsville, Minnesota. An investigation of monitoring needs for the Cedar Avenue Bridge was undertaken. In addition, the authors reviewed literature with the goal of determining the most applicable monitoring technology that is commercially available and which fulfills the required bridge monitoring needs. Once a monitoring technology was selected, the authors selected a Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 162
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research vendor, using a computer-based program developed in the aforementioned Mn/DOT report, to select a suggested system of monitoring equipment for Mn/DOT to purchase. Finally, the report describes multiple alternatives for monitoring scales, scopes, locations, and capabilities, with global monitoring of the most critical members and connections of the bridge as the authors‘ recommendation. A procedure for installation of the suggested bridge health monitoring system follows the authors‘ recommendations and is applicable to any of the monitoring alternatives presented in this report. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Technical Summary - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/201039TS.pdf Project Final Report - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/201039.pdf 163
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Sign Retroreflectivity – A Minnesota Toolkit ID 2010RIC02 Project Cost $25,992 Duration 10 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Mn/DOT Submitter Contact Linda Taylor Submitter E-mail linda.taylor@state.mn.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Local Road Research Board Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Website Blurb Investigators created a toolkit consisting of sample letters and a summary of FHWA guides to help make Minnesota local agencies aware of FHWA‘s requirements to establish a sign retroreflectivity maintenance program as well as assessment and management options that they can use to establish a program that both meets their needs and ensures that traffic signs remain visible at night. Report Abstract The Minnesota LRRB has developed a Sign Retroreflectivity Toolkit that is designed to provide local governments, especially small cities and townships, with guidance on FHWA‘s sign retroreflectivity deadlines as well as resources they can use to meet these deadlines. This toolkit focuses primarily on FHWA‘s first deadline: By January 2012: Agencies must establish and implement a sign assessment or management method to maintain minimum levels of sign retro reflectivity. The toolkit includes a variety of resources: County Letter - Letter to be sent by County Engineers to small local agencies within their county, to notify them of requirements and resources Other Agency Letter - Letter to be sent by other agencies as a follow-up to the County letter, to stress the importance of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 164
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research addressing FHWA requirements. MN MUTCD Requirements Summary of FHWA guides: Methods for Maintaining Traffic Sign Retroreflectivity and Know Your Retro2007 Appendix A: Examples of Sign Inventory/Inspection Forms Appendix B: Examples of Sign Inspection/Replacement Policies/Procedures Appendix C: Examples of Sign Management Agreements The letters provided in this report can be downloaded in electronic Microsoft Word format by clicking the links above, so that agencies can edit them for their specific situation. All blank forms can be downloaded at: www.lrrb.org/pdf/2010RIC02_All Blank Forms.xlsx Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Technical Summary - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/2010RIC02TS.pdf Project Final Report - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/2010RIC02.pdf 165
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Minnesota’s Best Practices for Traffic Sign Maintenance/ Management Handbook ID 2010RIC10 Project Cost $37,398 Duration 6 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Mn/DOT Submitter Contact Linda Taylor Submitter E-mail linda.taylor@state.mn.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Local Road Research Board Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Website Blurb Investigators assembled a guide that provides key information regarding the effectiveness of traffic signs. The guide also details steps to reduce sign management costs by designing and implementing a policy to remove unnecessary signs. Report Abstract In 2008 the FHWA added new regulations to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) regarding minimum levels of retroreflectivity for traffic signs. This action changed the guidance relating to maintaining minimum levels of retroreflectivity from a recommended practice to a required activity. The new regulations went into effect at the national level in January, 2008 and were added to Minnesota‘s Manual in February, 2008. The adoption of these new regulations means that all agencies are required to adopt a method of maintaining their signs by January, 2012, to have all ground mounted signs meet the new requirements by January, 2015 and all signs meet the requirements by January, 2018. This Handbook is intended to provide local agencies with information to help maintain the traffic signs on their system of roads. The Handbook identifies maintenance methods, provides an overview of estimated annual maintenance costs and includes a discussion of policy development, conducting engineering studies and a summary of what is Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 166
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research known about the effectiveness of traffic signs. A key part of the message is that estimated costs associated with meeting the new requirements far exceeds the typical sign maintenance budget for most local agencies and that the only part of the cost equation that the agencies control is the size of their inventory. As a result, agencies are encouraged to determine what they can afford for a sign maintenance budget and then take the necessary steps to adjust their inventory to match. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Technical Summary - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/2010RIC10TS.pdf Project Final Report - http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/2010RIC10.pdf 167
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Summary of Lessons Learned from the MDOT MEPDG Materials Library ID State Study 224 Project Cost $30,000 Duration 6 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDOT Submitter Contact Cindy Smith Submitter E-mail cjsmith@mdot.state.ms.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MDOT/FHWA Sponsoring Agency Contact Cindy Smith Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail cjsmith@mdot.state.ms.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project From 2004 to 2009, Burns Cooley Dennis, Inc. (BCD) participated in two important research studies designed to populate the materials library for implementation of the new Mechanistic-Empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) in Mississippi. The purpose of this report was to capture the experiences BCD obtained with the resilient modulus test during the conduct of these important studies. Observations made during the course of testing the various materials for developing the materials library for typical Mississippi materials were documented during Task 1. Observations about sample preparation, test methods and potential test method improvements were deemed important. The second task was designed to provide discussion on the materials that were selected within the two studies. In order to populate the materials library, it was deemed important to encompass the extremes of material properties found in Mississippi. However, whenever a finite amount of time and funding are available for a project, all possible materials could not be fully characterized. Also included within this task was a critical review of test results. Task 3 was designed to discuss any differences in Mississippi resilient modulus test results and typical national results for similar materials. If differences were found, Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 168
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research discussion on why the differences occurred was also to be provided. In order to assist MDOT and other pavement designers in Mississippi transition to the MEPDG, tables for typical resilient modulus values for the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and MDOT classifications were developed within the final task. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Not yet available. 169
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Incorporation of MDOT’s Faulting Calculation Algorithm into ProVAL FHWA Software ID N/A Project Cost Unknown—In-House Study Not Formalized Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDOT Submitter Contact Cindy Smith Submitter E-mail cjsmith@mdot.state.ms.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MDOT/FHWA, and Florida DOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Cindy Smith Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail cjsmith@mdot.state.ms.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Accurate automated measurement of concrete joint faulting has historically been difficult for faults lower than ¼‖. Accurate faulting data is important both at the project and network levels, such as for warranty projects, condition survey data, and triggering of slab grinding maintenance treatment. Getting precise measurements involved using a manual device such as the Georgia Fault Meter and measuring and recording measured faulting on a sampled percentage of the slabs in a given pavement. This entailed lane closure and risks of personnel being in danger due to passing traffic. With this in mind MDOT Research Division wrote a Visual FoxPro program which reads an output file generated from profiler data, searches for the joints and faults using the profile data, and calculates and reports the faulting on the joints. To verify the algorithm‘s accuracy, faulting data was collected the manual, traditional way on many different sites throughout the state in various conditions. These conditions included concrete with little or no faulting, pavements with some faulting, pavements with joint sealant, tined concrete pavements, concrete with faulting, cracking, and joint spalling, and on pavement with skewed joints. With financial support from the Federal Highway Administration, the TransTec Group incorporated MDOT‘s , Florida DOT‘s, and Steve Karamihas‘s (University of Michigan) algorithms into ProVAL. ProVAL is a free FHWA-developed software that analyzes pavement profiles, usually in the context of roughness and construction acceptance. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 170
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research However, since MDOT‘s faulting algorithm uses the same profile data that ProVAL uses to analyze roughness, and since other states were interested in better automated faulting data analysis and calculation, putting these faulting algorithms into ProVAL made sense. This enables a profiler operator to output a data file, read the file into ProVAL, and calculate and report accurate joint faulting, which saves money and time, user costs and delays due to lane closures, and improves employee safety by keeping personnel off the road. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Not yet available. 171
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Sediment Management Alternatives for the Ports of Biloxi, Gulfport, Bienville, and Pascagoula ID State Study 199 Project Cost $150,000 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDOT Submitter Contact Cindy Smith Submitter E-mail cjsmith@mdot.state.ms.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MDOT/FHWA Sponsoring Agency Contact Cindy Smith Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail cjsmith@mdot.state.ms.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The objective of this study was to present economical, environmentally friendly, and effective alternatives to maintenance dredging for the Ports of Biloxi, Gulfport, Bienville, and Pascagoula, Mississippi, and their access channels. Ships have become larger in order to efficiently carry as much cargo as possible; however, many port facilities are not naturally deep enough to accommodate these vessels, and they require maintenance dredging. Dredging is a temporary measure and is becoming more limited by rising costs and disposal requirements for dredged materials. Field data regarding sedimentation content and movement were analyzed, and engineering solutions were proposed for each port. Solutions include methods that keep sediment out, methods that keep sediment moving, methods that remove deposited sediment, and methods that keep sediment navigable. Specific solutions discussed included agitation, pneumatic barrier, silt screen, sediment trap, training structures, and active nautical depth. Different solutions were proposed for the four ports. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Not yet available. 172
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Bathymetric Surveys at Highway Bridges Crossing the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, using a Multibeam Echo Sounder, 2010 ID TRyy1019 Project Cost $60,000 Duration 11 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MoDOT Submitter Contact Mara Campbell Submitter E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MoDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mara Campbell Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Scour at bridge piers is difficult to detect. Many methods have been developed but few have shown consistent results in the field. MoDOT is required to do an underwater inspection and develop a plan to monitor all scour critical bridges; however, the Mississippi and Missouri River bridges pose a challenge due to safety concerns for divers performing underwater inspections This project utilized a side scan sonar to do a 3D map of the river bottom of the Missouri River at bridges in Kansas City owned by MoDOT. The 3D scan evaluated any scour issues at each bridge and provided a baseline for future monitoring. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/TRyy1019/or11008.pdf 173
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of an Adaptive Traffic Signal System: Route 291 in Lee's Summit, Missouri ID OR 10 – 020 Project Cost $49,105 Duration 14.5 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MoDOT Submitter Contact Mara Campbell Submitter E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MoDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mara Campbell Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project An adaptive traffic signal system was installed on a 12-signal, 2.5-mi arterial in Lee‘s Summit, Missouri in the Spring of 2008. Research objectives were to compare operational measures taken before the system, 1 month, and 5 months after implementation. It found benefits from decreases in the number of stops, fuel consumption, emissions, time spent in congestion, and travel times. For instance, travel times through the corridor decreased from 0 percent to 39 percent (decreased as much as 2.5 minutes for some time periods). Benefits were best for southbound travel because previous timing plans favored northbound travel, especially in the morning. Minor approach delay was measured at four intersections along the study corridor, to represent a range of approach volumes. Most changes in minor-street delay ranged from -3 seconds to +12 seconds. Changes in minor-street delay appeared to be unrelated to approach volume. Increases in minor-street delay did correspond to intersections and times of day when mainline delay was most improved. The increase in delay to minor-street traffic was more than offset by major-street improvements. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Results indicate this adaptive traffic signal system improved traffic conditions for the corridor. Web Links (if available) Report: http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/Ri08026/or10020.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 174
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Summary: http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/Ri08026/orb11005.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 175
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Diverging Diamond Interchange Performance Evaluation (I-44 & Route 13) and Diverging Diamond Lessons Learned document ID TRyy1013 Project Cost $35,000 Duration Contract research: 10 months. In-house research: 2 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MoDOT Submitter Contact Mara Campbell Submitter E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MoDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mara Campbell Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project With its unique design of reducing conflict points and eliminating left turn phasing, a Diverging Diamond Interchange (DDI) is believed to have the benefits of increasing traffic capacity and improving safety. This research evaluated the operational and safety performance of the first DDI installed in the United States at the intersection of I-44 and Route 13 (Kansas Expressway) in Springfield, Missouri. The project looked at operational performance, safety performance and public perception. The research found that most turning movements noticed a decrease in traffic delay and traffic queuing. Recovery time after severe congestion or an incident was considerably reduced. The research also looked at oversize loads and found that loads up to 18 feet wide and 200 feet long successfully moved through the DDI. Total crashes reduced 46% in the first year of operation and left turn and left turn right angle type crashes were down 72%. Over 80% of the survey group felt that traffic flow and safety had improved and over 90% expressed a good understanding of the interchange. Internally MoDOT reviewed the ―lessons learned‖ in the planning and design of three DDIs and construction of the Springfield DDI. This document provides practitioners with the lessons MoDOT learned throughout the process. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 176
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/TRyy1013/or11012.pdf http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/UnNumbrd/or10021.pdf 177
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Technologies ID OR 11 - 007 Project Cost $99,500 Duration 11.5 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MoDOT Submitter Contact Mara Campbell Submitter E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MoDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mara Campbell Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This research assessed different types of data collection methods, and provided final recommendations for the most viable one for use in roadway design. The plan was to take an existing seven mile MoDOT roadway widening and re-alignment project that already had all of the field control surveying completed using conventional and photogrammetric methods. Mobile Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), Static Terrestrial LiDAR and Aerial LiDAR were used to survey the project and produce design data similar to that of the photogrammetric model with associated features. Aerial LiDAR proved to cost more than photogrammetric but had a delivery time that was 20% less. Aerial LiDAR is also much safer for both the surveyors and public as it stays out of the way of traffic. Mobile LiDAR had much better accuracy than conventional photogrammetric because of the millions of points of data collected, with Aerial LiDAR comparable or slightly better. Based on this research MoDOT has put out a request for proposals for Aerial LiDAR surveys in the 2011flight program for four projects consisting of 85.2 miles for new or realigned roadways, has purchased two static LIDAR scanners for evaluation and continues participation on the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 15-44, Guidelines for the Use of Mobile LiDAR in Transportation Applications. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 178
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research LiDAR Static Terrestrial Image Colored for Elevation Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/TRyy1007/or11007.pdf http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/LiDAR/ADV-LiDAR.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 179
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title MTI Geotechnical Research Program ID TRyy0922 Project Cost $1,824,000 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MoDOT Submitter Contact Mara Campbell Submitter E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MoDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mara Campbell Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The geotechnical load test program in weak rock was the largest to date in the United States. The research project consisted of four tasks. Task 1 Site Characterization: This task developed a process for determining the soil/rock strength to be used at each site of a new bridge foundation. Task 2 Drilled Shaft Load Test Program: This project produced local calibration factors for Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) design. Results from the research determined it is appropriate to include both side friction and tip resistance for drilled shaft design, which could significantly decrease drilled shaft lengths. Initial calculations put the savings for a typical bridge at $45,000. Task 3 Cost and Risk Analysis: This task formulated guidelines for design based on risk assessment for classifications of roadways and types of bridges. Task 4 Develop LRFD Specifications: Results from tasks one through three were used to develop Load and Resistance Factor Design specifications. Specifications were written for the design of drilled shafts, driven piles, spread footings and slope design. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 180
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/TRyy0922/orb11003.pdf 181
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Spalling Solution of Precast-Prestressed Bridge Deck Panels ID TRyy0912 Project Cost $192,000 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MoDOT Submitter Contact Mara Campbell Submitter E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MoDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mara Campbell Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project It was recently observed that some bridges with precast-prestressed deck panels in the MoDOT inventory are experiencing rusting of embedded steel reinforcement and concrete. The objectives of the research were to investigate the causes of spalling in precastprestressed panels and propose cost-effective alternative solutions including improved design options for new construction, as well as suggest mitigation methods for existing deteriorated bridge decks. Panel deck system modifications evaluated included an increase in tendon side cover, the addition of fibers or corrosion inhibitor to the panel concrete mixture, an increase in reinforcement in the cast-in-place concrete topping, and the substitution of edge tendons with epoxycoated steel or carbon fiber reinforced polymer tendons. Efficiency of the proposed solutions was examined and validated through fundamental laboratory studies and numerical simulations using finite element modeling. Finally, recommendations were provided for new and existing construction to mitigate the spalling problem. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/TRyy0912/or11005.pdf 182
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Calibration of Live Load Factor in LRFD Design Guidelines ID TRyy0912 Project Cost $150,000 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MoDOT Submitter Contact Mara Campbell Submitter E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MoDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mara Campbell Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Mara.campbell@modot.mo.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project MoDOT uses Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for new bridges as mandated by FHWA. National standards often are conservative since they must account for the worst conditions nationwide. The objective of this study was to calibrate load and resistance factors in LRFD to achieve a more uniform level of safety (reliability) in bridge designs leading to a reduction in the up-front cost of bridges. From this study, it was found that most representative bridges in Missouri have reliability indices higher than 3.5. For many bridges in rural areas with Average Daily Truck Traffic (ADTT) of 1,000 or less, the average reliability indices are higher than 5.0. This study proposes a table of calibration factors which can be applied to the current live load factor. The calibration factor is developed as a function of ADTT such that bridge design practitioners can select a calibration factor considering the expected ADTTs of a bridge throughout its life span. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://library.modot.mo.gov/RDT/reports/TRyy0913/OR11003b.pdf 183
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Highways for Life Culvert Rehabilitation Project/ NH-HFL 81(30)23 MacDonald Pass Guardrail/Erosion ID MT-00-07 Project Cost $269,624 Duration Construction: Cure in Place Pipe (CIPP) - three days; the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) - 10 Days; Project evaluation – five years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDT Submitter Contact Susan Sillick Submitter E-mail ssillick@mt.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization Montana Department of Transportation (Research Programs) with sponsorship from the FHWA Highways for Life (HfL) Program. Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The objective of this effort was to incorporate two types of culvert relining techniques (cure-in-place and high-density polyethylene) to rehabilitate existing deteriorated corrugated steel pipe (CSP) culverts. This project resulted in the elimination of traffic delays and landfill waste; improved worker and public safety; increased culvert performance; decreased maintenance costs; increased culvert life by at least a factor of two; and minimized impacts to the public and the environment. The specific benefits of this project include: The use of these liners results in a smooth culvert interior, which provides for greater flow and increased capacity with an extended service life of an estimated fifty years or more. The CSP, due to the interior corrugation, needs regular cleaning for blockages, these liners almost negate the need for future maintenance. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 184
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research The existing CSP remains in-place undisturbed and doesn‘t have to be removed during the construction process. In using this type of rehabilitation approach there was no need to remove the existing roadbed, with the complications of added traffic control. The travel lanes are not disturbed and the traffic through the project was free flowing; no traffic control was needed at all. Therefore, public safety was not compromised in any way. Installation of both rehabilitation techniques was completed in less than two weeks in comparison to conventional methods (involving ten culverts with this project), which would have taken up to two months. The surrounding hillside and vegetation was barely disturbed since the installations were centered strictly at the inlet and outlet of the culverts. No heavy earth equipment is used; only medium sized trucks outfitted with the lining equipment were needed. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.mdt.mt.gov/research/projects/macpass_culvert.shtml 185
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Steep Cut Slope Composting: Field Trials and Evaluation ID FHWA/MT-10-008/8196 Project Cost $90,000 Duration 2 years, 5 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDT Submitter Contact Susan Sillick Submitter E-mail ssillick@mt.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MDT Sponsoring Agency Contact Susan Sillick Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail ssillick@mt.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Three different depths of compost and five compost retention techniques were tested to determine their efficacy and cost effectiveness for increasing the establishment of native grass seedings and decreasing erosion on steep roadside cut slopes in southwest Montana. The depths of compost selected were: ⅛ in, ¼ in, and ½ in. The compost retention methods utilized a coconut-straw fiber fabric, lightweight plastic netting and three commercially available tackifiers: 1) a polymer emulsion liquid, 2) a guar-based water dispersible formulation, and 3) a Plantago-based seed husk powder. Compost application rates of ½ – 1 inch are recommended for establishment of sufficient vegetation cover, estimated to result in 16–26 percent native bunchgrass cover in arid climates in Montana. These recommended application rates are estimated to cost between $16,657 and $33,254/acre) based on plot construction methods from this study using a blower truck. Compost retention treatments employing physical retention of compost such as coconut-straw fiber fabric or lightweight plastic netting were effective in limiting the loss of applied compost. The tackifiers gave confounding results on their ability to retain compost. Compost currently plays an integral role in the development of plant cover on steep roadside slopes that lack sufficient topsoil for proper plant establishment and growth. The results of the two research studies that evaluated the performance of compost on MDT roadsides clearly shows the benefit of its use. As a matter of standard procedure, MDT now incorporates compost as a component of the mulch applied on reseeded slopes steeper than 3:1. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 186
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Application rates can range from 15 cubic yards [⅛ inch depth] to 65 cubic yards [1/2 inch depth] per acre, depending on soil and slope conditions. Based upon the successes achieved to date, we anticipate that compost will continue to be utilized as a necessary component of MDT‘s reclamation activities. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.mdt.mt.gov/research/projects/env/organic_matter.shtml 187
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Montana Rest Area Usage: Data Acquisition and Usage Estimation ID FHWA/MT-10-009/8202 Project Cost $130,000 Duration 1 year, 8 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency MDT Submitter Contact Kris Christensen Submitter E-mail krchristensen@mt.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization MDT Research Programs Sponsoring Agency Contact Kris Christensen Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail krchristensen@mt.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Rest areas perform a critical role in the highway network. They provide passenger vehicle occupants and heavy vehicle operators with an opportunity to use a restroom, walk around, stop for a meal, sleep for a period of time, or even pause to use a cellular phone. These various activities also have a direct impact on a number of aspects of rest area design, from parking stall demand to facility sizing, water needs and wastewater generation and handling. The MDT initiated research to refine the figures employed in the estimation of Montana rest area use. The project examined Montanaspecific data related to rest area usage, including water flow, effluent flow, patron traffic, vehicle traffic volume and classification, and vehicle dwell times for commercial and passenger vehicles. The research efforts conducted for this project included a literature review, survey of practices by selected DOTs, data collection, and data analyses. Data was collected at 44 state-maintained rest areas throughout the state of Montana. These rest areas represented a wide range of design layouts, facility condition, highway type served, and proximity to developed areas. Based on the findings recommendations/guidelines on Montana rest area usage estimation, including vehicular and patron traffic, as well as vehicular dwell time and wastewater usage estimation were developed. Such estimations will provide MDT with up-to-date figures that will assist Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 188
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research in the appropriate planning, designing, and rehabilitating of rest area facilities, decreasing over design situations and resulting in tremendous cost savings. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.mdt.mt.gov/research/projects/planning/rest_area.shtml 189
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development and Implementation of Interactive Stormwater Outreach Model and Related Materials ID NH Project 13733U Project Cost $20,000 Duration 24 months (Phase II ongoing - $20,000) SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NHDOT Submitter Contact Glenn Roberts Submitter E-mail groberts@dot.state.nh.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NHDOT SPR Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project NHDOT is committed to fulfilling the federally mandated National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II regulations. One of the requirements under the Small MS4 portion of this program is an education and outreach component that presents best management practices (BMPs) resulting from experience, research in water quality issues, and innovations in stormwater management. To educate communities, students, contractors and NHDOT employees about the relationship between everyday activities and water quality, the Bureau of Environment‘s Stormwater Team (SWOT) has developed a stormwater pollution outreach program. Funded through the Department‘s SPR research program, an interactive stormwater table was created to illustrate point and nonpoint source pollution and its travel through traditional drainageways. An enclosed trailer provides transport for the table and other outreach materials, and enables presentations to be made even in inclement weather. The outside of the trailer has been finished with an impressive mural illustrating threats to water quality and other concepts discussed by the team during presentations at schools, community groups, fairs and other events. Ongoing work includes construction of a second Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 190
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research table and development of an animated presentation for distribution through local media outlets. The program provides a unique and interesting way to get people thinking about New Hampshire‘s natural water sources and what can be done to keep them clean, because clean water is everyone's responsibility! Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://www.nh.gov/dot/org/projectdevelopment/materials/research/projects/13733u .htm Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 191
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title In-Service Performance Monitoring of a CFRP-Reinforced HPC Bridge Deck ID NHDOT Project 14282I Project Cost $75,000 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NHDOT Submitter Contact Glenn Roberts Submitter E-mail groberts@dot.state.nh.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NHDOT SPR Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The Rollins Road Bridge in Rollinsford, New Hampshire was constructed in part with funding from the FHWA‘s Innovative Bridge Research and Construction (IBRC) program and opened to traffic in December, 2000. The structure utilizes carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) as its primary reinforcement and includes an instrumentation and data acquisition system that allows for long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) and enhanced behavior modeling when subjected to measurable loading conditions. Research initiated in 2007 by the University of New Hampshire utilized the response recorded by existing temperature and strain gauges in the deck and girders to evaluate the performance and durability of the CFRP and the effects of temperature variations in the relatively short span bridge. Data from a load test performed in 2008 were compared to data collected during similar tests in 2000 and 2001, providing the NHDOT with accessible and objective data for future applications of these materials. The researchers also created an enhanced analytical structural model through correlation of the field-measured structural response with predicted response. It is envisioned that further implementation of these instrumentation and modeling technologies will provide bridge inspectors with an additional tool to help monitor bridge performance and identify potential problems long before they adversely impact a structure. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 192
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 193
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Heavy Metal Contamination in Highway Marking Glass Beads ID FHWA-NJ-2010-014 Project Cost $339,934 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NJDOT Submitter Contact Submitter E-mail RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NJDOT Research Division of Statewide Planning Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Glass beads are embedded on pavement markings to provide retroreflectivity which is an optical phenomenon that plays a crucial role in maintaining the guiding function of highway striping to ensure safe driving. The glass beads embedded in the marking material allow a vehicle‘s headlight beam to be returned to the driver‘s eye, which results in a ―light-up‖ effect of the striping. Integrating glass beads are essential to ensure clear visibility at night. Over the last few years, elevated metal concentrations have been observed in glass beads. However, currently total metal concentrations in glass beads are not regulated at the federal level. Although a number of states have adopted specifications and a couple of states have promulgated regulations for total lead and arsenic concentrations. The NJDOT project was conducted to investigate total metal and metalloid concentrations in glass beads. Furthermore, the study addressed the potential environmental impact of their presence through leaching experiments. The overall technical research objectives of this research were to: a) Conduct a thorough review of current practices employed by all states in the U.S. for material specifications for glass beads Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 194
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research used for pavement marking. b) Prepare a list of allowable metal concentrations as specified by states in the U.S. c) Investigate metal measurement techniques for glass beads. d) Evaluate select metal concentrations in glass beads using sophisticated analytical techniques. e) Conduct batch experiments using glass beads to determine the impact of environmental factors on metal release. Studying leaching from commercial glass beads before application and as a function of roadway environmental conditions provides the degree to which the potential run-off impacts neighboring surface waters as well as groundwater through infiltration. A statistical analysis of the significance of the initial metal and metalloid concentrations present in the glass beads versus the metal concentrations resulting from leaching was performed. The NJ Default Leachate Criteria was exceeded when the initial metal and metalloid concentrations in the glass beads exceeded 100 ppm for arsenic and lead and 175 ppm for antimony. These concentrations would provide a sound, scientifically-determined conservative threshold for allowable heavy metals in glass beads. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 195
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Incorporating Alternative Energy into NJDOT’s Physical Plant ID NJ-2010-001 Project Cost $128,432.00 Duration 1 year SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NJDOT Submitter Contact Vincent F. Nichnadowicz Submitter E-mail Vincent.Nichnadowicz@DOT.STATE.NJ.US RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NJDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Vincent F. Nichnadowicz Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Vincent.Nichnadowicz@DOT.STATE.NJ.US RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This research clarified the technical, financial, regulatory, and environmental feasibility of incorporating renewable, on-site energy infrastructure into three selected NJDOT facilities. Seven site configurations were analyzed with a crystalline silicon (panel) and thin film photovoltaic version for each. Three technical memoranda were produced: an analysis of monthly utility data, with a focus on electricity; a summary scan of scalable, alternative energy technologies currently in use in the US; and, an overview of critical factors for PV project success, including power production and impacts, project implementation, zoning and permitting, state policy and planning, interconnection and net metering, and renewable energy incentives. The final report recommended that NJDOT: establish expectations for financial returns, electricity costs, greenhouse gas impacts and other criteria dependent on NJDOT‘s needs; coordinate with the NJ office of Energy Savings; and, seek implementation assistance such as soliciting competitive bids from third-party developers for a Power Purchase Agreement. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 196
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/refdata/research/ 197
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Eliminating Barriers to Transit-Oriented Development ID FHWA-NJ-2010-002 Project Cost $169,791.00 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NJDOT Submitter Contact Vincent F. Nichnadowicz Submitter E-mail Vincent.Nichnadowicz@DOT.STATE.NJ.US RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NJDOT and FHWA Sponsoring Agency Contact Vincent F. Nichnadowicz Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Vincent.Nichnadowicz@DOT.STATE.NJ.US RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project To observe differences between households located close to transit stations and those further away, we conducted a survey of households located within two miles of ten NJTRANSIT rail stations. We compared responses from households living within a half mile of stations with those living more distant. In order to assure representation of those residents living closest to stations, we oversampled households within a quarter mile of the stations and we oversampled households living in newly constructed housing. Our investigation also considered the effect of supply factors, particularly the availability of on-street and off-street parking, and school quality. We found that the impacts of transit-oriented development on schools, local auto traffic, and parking were not nearly as significant as the public thinks. We found robust evidence that the per-household impacts of new development on local school districts are much lower in developments near rail stations. This provides the strongest evidence that we are aware of to debunk the myth that new housing near transit will increase property tax. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/refdata/research/ 198
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title IR Scan of Concrete Admixtures and Structural Steel Paints ID NJ-FHWA-2010-14 Project Cost $98,255 Duration 12 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NJDOT Submitter Contact Nazhat Aboobaker Submitter E-mail Nazhat.Aboobaker@dot.state.nj.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NJDOT Research Bureau Sponsoring Agency Contact Nazhat Aboobaker Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Nazhat.Aboobaker@dot.state.nj.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project evaluates correlation coefficients for concrete admixtures and structural steel paints by performing Infrared (IR) scan using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications C494-5a. The intent of this project is to perform sufficient number of scans from different batches of the same sample as supplied by the manufacturer. These scans are then analyzed and correlation coefficients for each sample are obtained. Each admixture and steel paint will have its correlation coefficient as determined by the corresponding scans. The coefficients will be used as base line values or acceptance values for comparison with job samples. A total of 23 commonly used concrete admixtures by NJDOT were tested. They include air-entraining agents, water-reducing agents, retarders, accelerating agents, and combinations of these agents as well as corrosion inhibitors. In addition a total of 25 structural steel paints used by NJDOT were tested. They include primary coats, secondary coat and thin films. Few field samples were tested and their scans were compared with the obtained correlations. The results of this study include methodology, test procedures, scan data, and correlation coefficients for all commonly used concrete admixtures and structural steel paints. The project also evaluated the effects several parameter on the quality of the scans such as the use of potassium bromide (KBr) and drying time. Results from this project will significantly improve quantitative quality control of concrete admixtures and steel paints used in NJDOT Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 199
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research construction project. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 200
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Design and Evaluation of Bridges for Scour Using HEC 18 ID N/A Project Cost $437,750 Duration 2 years, 5 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NJDOT Submitter Contact Nazhat Aboobaker Submitter E-mail Nazhat.Aboobaker@dot.state.nj.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NJDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Nazhat Aboobaker Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Nazhat.Aboobaker@dot.state.nj.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Erosive scour is the leading cause of bridge failure in the U.S. and around the world. Current methods to predict scour depth at bridge substructures show poor correlation with actual field observations, leading to unsafe conditions and wasted resources. A research team at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) has developed a new and novel Scour Evaluation Model that improves bridge safety and allows NJDOT to expend repair funds more strategically. The tiered, riskbased model considers the critical geologic, hydraulic, and hydrologic parameters for rational evaluation of scour depth. Data is entered into a Risk Decision Matrix to determine overall scour risk and identify alternative corrective actions, such as real-time erosion monitoring, installation of countermeasures, or removal from critical status. The NJDOT Scour Evaluation Model is currently being applied to existing bridges on the state‘s scour critical list. Preliminary results suggest that more than 50 bridges can be removed from critical list for an estimated cost savings of around $15 million. More importantly, the model also identifies bridges with high scour risk, leading to improved prioritization of corrective actions. The model is suitable for the design of new bridges as well. While the current model reflects New Jersey‘s unique geologic and hydrologic conditions, it is easily recalibrated to other regions or states. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 201
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 202
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Performance of Gravel Aggregates in Superpave Mixes with 100/95 Angularity ID C-06-20 Project Cost $150,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NYSDOT Submitter Contact Gary Frederick Submitter E-mail gfrederick@dot.state.ny.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NYSDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Gary Frederick Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail gfrederick@dot.state.ny.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The objective of the research was to determine whether a reduction in crushed gravel angularity, as determined using ASTM D5821, ―Percent Crushed‖, could be made for >30 M ESAL Superpave mixes and still meet the expected service life. The anticipated positive benefit was increased available aggregate resources. The results of the research not only confirmed the anticipated positive benefit, but also demonstrated that an alternative angularity metric, using American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) T326, Coarse Aggregate Uncompacted Void Content, was much better linked to mix performance. This was confirmed in the research using the AIMS Index. These alternative measures of aggregate angularity were used in this research because of positive results from NCHRP Project 4-19(2), ―Validation of Performance-Related Test of Aggregates for Use in HotMix Asphalt Pavements‖ (NCHRP Report 405) and from NCHRP Project 4-30A, ―Test Methods for Characterizing Aggregate Shape, Texture, and Angularity”. The Department is now in the process of converting to T326 both for asphalt mix design and to replace the percent crushed aggregate quality specification. AASHTO T326 is more repeatable, requires much less Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 203
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research time to complete, and is much better predictive of mix performance than D5821. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 204
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title HydroTracker Sub-surface Moisture Meter ID N/A Project Cost $200,000 (not including services supplied by DOT) Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NYSDOT Submitter Contact Gary Frederick Submitter E-mail gfrederick@dot.state.ny.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and NYSDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Gary Frederick Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail gfrederick@dot.state.ny.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The goal of this research is to develop a wireless, self powered sensor to measure moisture in bridge decks and pavement layers. Initial use will be to measure the effectiveness of waterproofing systems as bridge deck overlays. Donald J. Geisel & Associates, Inc. is developing the HydroTracker, a system that uses small imbedded sensors (imbedded in the concrete or asphalt) to measure moisture content based on changes in electrical resistance of the surrounding material. To obtain readings, a handheld scanner is passed over the ―imbed‖ sensor. The scanner emits a radio signal and receives a return signal from the imbed. The scanner then interprets the return signal and displays the moisture reading on a digital screen. The imbed price is about $50 each and the scanner/control unit is about $15,000. NYSDOT has installed HydroTracker imbeds on several bridge decks and has achieved good results. Current work focuses on further development of the HydroTracker system. The effort will entail: work to evaluate HydroTracker performance with hot mix asphalt; work on performance at increased embedment depths; development of a more comprehensive installation procedure and data archiving system, to ensure data consistency and usefulness for trend analysis; and improvement of scanner design by addition of a text display, keypad, onboard processor and software upgrade, to eliminate external data processing. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 205
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 206
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Solar Transit Stops on Central Avenue ID C-08-04 Project Cost $86,000 Duration 1 year SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NYSDOT Submitter Contact Gary Frederick Submitter E-mail gfrederick@dot.state.ny.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and NYSDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Gary Frederick Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail gfrederick@dot.state.ny.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This initiative sought to demonstrate existing commercially available transportation technologies for transit customer amenities that could significantly enhance transit experience and attract more riders – therefore making the Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA) service more attractive, safe, and sustainable. CDTA installed solarpowered street transit amenities on a 2.5-mile section of Central Avenue in Albany, NY. Amenities installed were four (4) i-Shelter Solar Shelter Lighting systems, twenty-five (25) i-Stop solar-powered bus stop signs, and ten (10) BigBelly Cordless Compaction Systems. BigBelly Cordless Compaction Systems were installed at the future Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) stations located within the area of the proposal, i-Shelter Solar Shelter Lighting were installed at existing bus shelters located within the proposal area, and i-Stops were installed at all the existing bus stops within the proposal area that were not planned to become BRT stations and did not have a shelter. Project partners have been happy with the performance and feedback of the BigBelly systems and the solar shelters. The solar-powered bus stops signs have proven too expensive to maintain and too vulnerable to vandalism for the benefits they provide. Therefore, project partners are open to expanding their BigBelly and solar shelter infrastructure, but will not be expanding the i-Stop network along the Central Avenue corridor. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 207
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 208
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Behavior of Micropiles in Bridge Bent Applications ID 2009-30 Project Cost $47,000 Duration 18 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NCDOT Submitter Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; Neal Galehouse Submitter E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; nlgalehouse@ncdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NCDOT Office of Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; Neal Galehouse Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; nlgalehouse@ncdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Micropiles are a relatively new technology that is constructed by removing a column of soil and filling the hole to create an insitu structural column. Micropiles are smaller diameter members (usually 12‖ or less) filled with high strength grout and reinforced with a high strength casing, a single large diameter rebar, or a combination of the two. They are often installed in segments that are connected together by threaded joints in the casing. Micropiles have lower construction costs, environmental impact, and harmful construction vibrations than conventional methods. The research demonstrated the lateral performance of micropiles in single and group configurations, determined the effect of casing plunge and casing joints on lateral resistance, determined the behavior of jointed micropile sections, and evaluated the durability of micropile casings and jointed sections. Through field testing, the research team made the following conclusions: The casing joint has a large impact on the lateral capacity of micropiles. In cases where the micropiles were sufficiently embedded in rock, rather than yielding, there was an abrupt Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 209
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research failure at the casing joint. Two feet of embedment was sufficient to carry lateral loads upward of 30 kips. Embedment at 5 and 10 feet produced similar results to 2 feet. One foot of embedment does not appear to be sufficient based upon results of the field tests and numerical models. The strength of the micropiles with respect to the joints from field and laboratory tests were around 140 k*ft. Micropiles of this size can carry significant lateral load with little deflection. However, the failure mode is brittle, as the piles tested failed abruptly with little lateral displacement. Reducing the section area at threaded joint by 60% to 70% results in a reasonably accurate model for the behavior of the casing joint in FB-Multipier. These conclusions will help geotechnical engineers design bridge bent applications in a cost effective and environmentally sensitive manner. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 210
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Precipitation Alert: Ongoing Maintenance of Precipitation Alert and Visualization Tool in Support of NCDOT’s Storm Water Quality Monitoring ID 2011-34 Project Cost $32,922 Duration 12 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NCDOT Submitter Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; John W. Kirby Submitter E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; jkirby@ncdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NCDOT Office of Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; John W. Kirby Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; jkirby@ncdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The State Climatic Office (SCO) of North Carolina has developed a Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimate (MPE) website for the NCDOT Highway Stormwater Program. This website enables engineers to closely monitor estimated precipitation amounts at NCDOT construction and other related sites across the State. The user can identify their own latitude/longitude monitoring sites and receive an email alert when precipitation at that location has exceeded a particular threshold such as 0.5 inches within 24 hours. Also, there is a map interface that allows for spatial visualization of precipitation estimates throughout the State for various time frames such as 6 hours, 15 day, and 90 day periods. This interface allows rainfall data to be overlaid with other data layers such as county lines, cities, NCDOT primary and secondary roads, and water features. There are several benefits of the MPE website compared to the standard rain gage device that include: 1) Provides rainfall email notification; 2) Provides the ability to create multiple stations; 3) Provides record keeping; 4) Provides rainfall data for remote locations; 5) Provides a broader regional perspective of rainfall amounts; and 6) Provides compatible data with independent daily precipitation gage network. One other important benefit is the reduction of site visits needed. The field engineer now knows the rainfall amounts at each of their monitoring sites from the convenience of their office computer and Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 211
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research can plan site visits more effectively. There are 640 active users of the website. Most of the users are NCDOT Division forces and their contractors. In 2009 the NC Division of Water Quality accepted this method as an alternative to the standard rain gauge method for permit compliance. Now many more of our division forces are taking advantage of the website‘s features. Some new components being added to the website are phone text alerts, new user management capacities, and user defined areas. Currently, there is no other state-wide rainfall estimate website that has email notification known to exist in the United States. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.nc-climate.ncsu.edu/dot/ 212
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Reducing stormwater flows and pollution from ocean outfalls at Kure Beach NC using Dune Infiltration Systems ID 2010-11 Project Cost $118,775 Duration 22 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NCDOT Submitter Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; John W. Kirby Submitter E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; jkirby@ncdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NCDOT Research Office Sponsoring Agency Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; John W. Kirby Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; jkirby@ncdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Urban development in coastal areas bolstered the need for stormwater treatment practices due to increases in impervious area that increased runoff and bacteria export. Prior to current stormwater regulations, some stormwater systems were constructed to discharge directly onto the beach, placing ocean swimmers at risk of contracting illnesses. In order to combat this issue, the Town of Kure Beach, NCDOT, and NCSU-BAE developed a new stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP), the Kure Beach Dune Infiltration System (DIS). The DIS was designed to capture the runoff from a 12.7 mm/hr (0.5 in/hr) storm event by diverting stormwater into subsurface StormChambers™, located beneath the dunes, and allow for infiltration of stormwater within the dunes. Two DISs were constructed and monitored for several years. A control site, with no stormwater inputs, was also monitored. Thus far, monitoring results of the untreated stormwater revealed bacteria concentrations reaching as high as 53 times the state maximum, while post-treatment groundwater concentrations remained mostly below the state maximum. Overall, there was a 97% difference between the stormwater and groundwater bacteria median concentrations. Furthermore, 99% of all storm flows at the sites were captured and treated, with one system capturing all associated flows. Short term mounding of groundwater beneath the DISs occurred following infiltration events, but subsided within a few hours to days, to levels similar to those in a nearby control dune. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 213
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/kure-beach/ 214
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Local Calibration of the MEPDG for Flexible Pavement Design ID 2007-07 Project Cost $310,000 Duration 36 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NCDOT Submitter Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; Mustan Kadibhai Submitter E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; mkadibhai@ncdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NCDOT Office of Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; Mustan Kadibhai Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; mkadibhai@ncdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper The primary research objective of this research project is to calibrate the MEPDG for flexible pavements using typical local layer materials, typical pavement structures, and North Carolina climatic and traffic data. Within the scope of this objective, a materials database was developed for the twelve most commonly used asphalt concrete mixtures in North Carolina. The local traffic data are assembled by the recently completed research project # 2008-11 ―Development of Traffic data Input Resources for the MEPDG‖ (conducted by Dr. John Stone, NC State University) using the data collected from 46 weigh-in motion (WIM) stations across the state to develop data catalogs for the traffic parameters required as inputs to the MEPDG. These materials database and traffic catalogs will facilitate the design process by providing the designers with different sets of materials and traffic data that are required by the MEPDG for designing different types of pavement structures to be built in various locations across the state. The product will improve the accuracy of the MEPDG performance prediction for local flexible pavements. This local calibration will assure that designs in the new procedure are neither unduly risky nor unduly conservative. 215
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 216
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development of Undercut Criteria and Alternatives for Subgrade Stabilization ID FHWA/NC/2008-07 Project Cost $330,017 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NCDOT Submitter Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; Ernest Morrison Submitter E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; eemorrison@ncdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NCDOT Office of Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; Ernest Morrison Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; eemorrison@ncdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The main objectives of the research work were to develop a systematic approach for determining whether or not undercut is necessary, and to investigate the adequacy of stabilization measures as implemented in conjunction with the undercut approach. The research work encompassed small and large scale laboratory testing, limited field testing using Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP), and numerical analyses and modeling. Several milestones were accomplished as part of this research, including establishment of undercut design criteria based on the magnitude of strength and modulus of the subgrade soils. The undercut criteria were based on meeting a deformation limit state of 1 inch for both pumping and rutting, but with the additional requirement that bearing resistance of subgrade is at least twice the applied tire pressure to minimize the potential for rutting. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 217
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper https://apps.dot.state.nc.us/Projects/Research/ProjectInfo.aspx?ID=2341 218
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Superstreet Benefits and Capacities ID FHWA/NC/2009-06 Project Cost $223,113 Duration 24 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency NCDOT Submitter Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; Ernest Morrison Submitter E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; eemorrison@ncdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization NCDOT Office of Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Mrinmay ―Moy‖ Biswas; Ernest Morrison Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail biswas@ncdot.gov; eemorrison@ncdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper This research evaluated operational, safety, and perceived effects of superstreets, called restricted crossing U-turn intersections by FHWA, and developed a useful level of service estimation program for consideration of use on North Carolina‘s urban and rural arterial roadway system. The operational analysis involved calibrating and validating VisSim models of three existing signalized superstreets in North Carolina – two isolated intersections, and one five-intersection superstreet corridor. Results from the three models were compared to results from models of equivalent conventional intersections at various volume levels using travel time as the main measure of effectiveness. The superstreet outperformed the conventional intersection at each location studied, reducing the overall average travel time per vehicle traveling through the intersection. The safety analysis involved three separate methods – naïve, comparison-group, and Empirical Bayes. Unsignalized superstreets showed a significant reduction in total, angle and right turn, and left turn collisions in all analyses. Analyses also showed a significant reduction in fatal and injury collisions as well. 219
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Superstreet with direct left turns from the arterial Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The research outcomes will enable the NCDOT to have a better understanding of superstreet performance, which can lead to cost saving by reductions in collisions and travel time. Web Links (if available) https://apps.dot.state.nc.us/Projects/Research/ProjectInfo.aspx?ID=2461 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 220
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Forensic Investigation of AC and PCC Pavements with Extended Service Life ID FHWA/OH-2010/004C Project Cost $404,571 Duration 56 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency ODOT Submitter Contact Jennifer Gallagher Submitter E-mail jennifer.gallagher@dot.state.oh.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization ODOT, Innovation, Research and Implementation Section Sponsoring Agency Contact Jennifer Gallagher Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail jennifer.gallagher@dot.state.oh.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Volume 1: The purpose of this research project is to identify flexible, rigid and composite pavements that have not received any structural maintenance since construction and are considered to be performing either average or excellent, and determine reasons why excellent pavements perform better than average pavements. Volume 2: Describes the methodology used and the results obtained in the petrographic examination of cores taken from twenty Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement projects. Volume 3: Air-cooled blast furnace slag has been used as a coarse aggregate in Portland cement-based pavement concretes since at least the early 1900‘s. Many of these concretes have performed satisfactorily. In recent times a number of PCC slag aggregate pavements constructed in Michigan in the early 1990‘s have shown extensive cracking and joint deterioration after only ten years or so of service. The nature of this pavement distress is described as being unique to the slag aggregate concretes. Four slag aggregate concrete pavements in District 12 of the Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 221
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research ODOT system currently show evidence of the same type of unique distress. Cores taken from these pavements were petrographically examined in Phase 3 of the present Forensic Investigation. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/TransSysDev/Research/reportsandplans/Pages/Pave mentReportsDetail.aspx#134280 222
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Cost Benefit Analysis of Including Microsurfacing in Pavement Treatment Strategies and Pavement Design ID 080503 Project Cost $99,979.75 Duration 1 year SUBMITTER Submitter Agency PennDOT Submitter Contact Michael Bonini Submitter E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization PennDOT Research Program Sponsoring Agency Contact Michael Bonini Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The overall value of using thin surfacing maintenance treatments to extend and preserve the performance of existing pavements has been widely recognized. This study has focused on evaluating the cost effectiveness of commonly used individual treatments. This work consisted of three tasks, conducting a literature review, carrying out a survey of other states, and performing cost benefit analysis. Each task produced specific results. The literature review searched for information about the successful use of thin surface maintenance treatments and documentation of cost effectiveness. A simple electronic survey was developed to gather certain information from other states about their experience with thin maintenance treatments, including typical performance and costs for each of the treatments identified in the literature review. The cost benefit analysis was conducted for the commonly used treatments on the basis of three separate data sets; information provided by other states, the Department‘s in-house costs, and contract prices. All the treatments included in the evaluation were found to be beneficial in extending the life of an existing pavement. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) indicated that there is an optimum pavement condition, and associated age (or sometimes a range of condition or age) when the benefit cost associated with a chosen treatment is maximized. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 223
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Final Report can be accessed via the PennDOT Research website (www.dot.state.pa.us) 224
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Analysis of Public Benefits for Pennsylvania Rail Freight Funding ID 080910 Project Cost $100,000.00 Duration 1 year SUBMITTER Submitter Agency PennDOT Submitter Contact Michael Bonini Submitter E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization PennDOT Research Program Sponsoring Agency Contact Michael Bonini Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Pennsylvania has developed a benefit estimation tool to more systematically analyze public benefits of freight rail investments. The methodology to calculate the benefits of freight rail investments builds on current procedures used by PennDOT to evaluate grant applications for its Rail Freight Assistance Program (RFAP). To institutionalize a consistent and systematic estimation approach for each grant application, this project has developed a spreadsheet-based tool that accounts for important evaluation criteria. This report provides background on the development of the tool and instructions on its use and maintenance. Flexibility was designed into the tool to provide PennDOT with the ability to use it and its underlying methodology in the assessment of future grant applications. The project and report has been organized into the following sections: Literature Review and Peer State Experience Model User Guide Appendices Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 225
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Final Report can be accessed via the PennDOT Research website (www.dot.state.pa.us) 226
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Impacts of Vanpooling in Pennsylvania ID 510601 WO9 Project Cost $253,629.00 Duration 1 year, 7 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency PennDOT Submitter Contact Michael Bonini Submitter E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization PennDOT Research Program Sponsoring Agency Contact Michael Bonini Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Vanpools are ride‐sharing arrangements among participants, using a van or other small commercial vehicle, typically for commuting to their places of employment. A vanpool carries a group of people – generally between 7 and 15 passengers – from a common origin to a common destination, most often an employer, workplace, or downtown location. Across Pennsylvania today, vanpooling remains only a limited option for most commuters. Census data indicates that at most 8,000 residents commute to work via private vehicles in groups of 8 or more riders. As of 2008, just over three quarters (76.2%) of Pennsylvania commuters are estimated drive to work alone, virtually identical to the U.S. average of 75.5%. One major focus of this study was to develop market potentials for increased vanpool demand across the state. The current utilization of vanpools within the state is limited. The potential for increased demand of vanpool services as a mode of commuting is most likely in areas with a concentration of employment with large employers, often with a single firm or small group of establishment‘s co‐located at a single location. Given the concentration of carpool usage in specific industries, the type of industry is itself a major factor impacting commuting patterns of workers. This sort of arrangement lends itself to developing vanpools in rural commuter sheds or exurban and suburban regions with limited transit provision. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 227
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Final Report can be accessed via the PennDOT Research website (www.dot.state.pa.us) 228
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Concrete Overlay Field Application ID DWR85977 Project Cost $100,000.00 Duration 1 year, 3 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency PennDOT Submitter Contact Michael Bonini Submitter E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization PennDOT Research Program Sponsoring Agency Contact Michael Bonini Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project PennDOT recently completed a project administered through the Concrete Overlay Field Application Program. The overall objective of the program is to increase the awareness and knowledge of concrete overlay applications among state DOTs, contractors and engineering consultants. For this project, a site visit was conducted to evaluate 5 potential concrete overlay projects. All of the projects reviewed were deemed to be candidates for the implementation of a concrete overlay, but ultimately a 2.2 mile long section of US-119 was chosen. The overlay implementation team recommended a six-inch bonded concrete overlay on the 5-lane roadway based on the expected life of the project and the existing composite and full depth asphalt sections provided by the in-situ pavement. PennDOT determined all overlay thicknesses using an American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) publication guide, Guide for Design of Pavement Structures. To aid in the technology transfer for this project, a Concrete Overlay Open House was conducted. 107 participants attended the one-day open house to learn about the project. Participants were able to see the milled areas, completed overlay areas, project concrete batch plant and an older section of ultra-thin bonded concrete overlay (which was placed 5 years earlier). Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 229
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Final Report can be accessed via the PennDOT Research website (www.dot.state.pa.us) 230
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Determining Structural Benefits of PennDOT-Approved Geogrids in Pavement Design ID 510602 WO18 Project Cost $144,778.00 Duration 2 years, 8 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency PennDOT Submitter Contact Michael Bonini Submitter E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization PennDOT Research Program Sponsoring Agency Contact Michael Bonini Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail mbonini@state.pa.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The final report for this project presents results and findings from the research work undertaken to evaluate and determine structural benefits of 3 PennDOT-approved Geogrids for reinforcing weak pavement subgrade. A mechanistic-empirical approach was adopted in this study to develop subgrade permanent deformation models for geogrid reinforced flexible pavements. Multi-scale tests were conducted for the 3 geogrids. Mechanical and index properties of the Geogrids were tested before the geogrids were subjected to bench scale testing, namely pullout and direct shear tests. The bench scale tests were mainly to evaluate the interface properties of the geogrids surrounded by pavement materials that were used in the subsequent accelerated testing. Two sets of accelerated pavement tests were carried out to investigate the effectiveness of geogrids in improving pavement performance. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper Final Report can be accessed via the PennDOT Research website (www.dot.state.pa.us) 231
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluating the Effect of Slab Curling on IRI for South Carolina Concrete Pavements ID Project No. SPR 688; Report No. FHWA-SC-10-04 Project Cost $39,660 Duration 12 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency SCDOT Submitter Contact Mike Sanders Submitter E-mail sandersmr@scdot.org RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization SCDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Mike Sanders Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail sandersmr@scdot.org RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Concrete pavements are known to curl and wrap due to a variety of factors including environment, design, and construction. The main cause of curling is the development of a temperature gradient within the slab caused by both daily and seasonal temperature variations. This affects the rideability of a concrete pavement. SCDOT uses the International Roughness Index (IRI) for acceptance and determining pay factor for a project. Several research projects have been conducted by others on the effect of slab curvature on pavement roughness. The findings indicated daily change in IRI in the range of 12 to 15 inches/mile with considerably higher variations noted in some individual sections. Consequently, a need existed to determine if the change in IRI is significant for typical concrete pavements in South Carolina and if the degree of curl may be practically estimated such that acceptance testing can be adjusted to account for this factor. This research project measured the magnitude of concrete pavement slab curling of two newly constructed jointed plain concrete pavements in South Carolina and the effect of the slab curling on the IRI measurements. Three methods were used to measure the amount of slab curling: digital indicators suspended over the pavement surface, a Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 232
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research terrestrial laser scanner, and a high-speed inertial profiler. It was found that the pavements showed small changes in curvature as the temperature increased during the day. These changes also correlated to increases in the IRI measurements of the pavements which increased as the temperature increased towards the middle of the day. Variations in IRI were found to be less than 10 inches/mile on days with large swings in temperature. The change in IRI resulting from seasonal temperature variations was in the range of 1 to 4 inches/mile. These changes were considered small, especially when considering the variability in single-point laser profiler measurements due to the surface texture of a diamond ground concrete pavement. Based on this research, no changes to the current rideability specification were necessary. However, to reduce the variations in IRI measurements caused by daily temperature cycles and to make measurements from different roads more comparable, it was recommended that SCDOT schedule its quality acceptance rideability testing on concrete pavements for the same time of day after the pavement has had a chance to warm up, i.e. testing be conducted after 11:00 AM through the afternoon till 5:00 PM. This will also aid in treating contractors in an equitable manner while ensuring a quality ride. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper www.clemson.edu/t3s/scdot/ 233
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Application of Paleoflood Investigations in the Black Hills ID SD2005-12, SD2008-01 Project Cost $200K, $600K Duration 5 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency SDDOT Submitter Contact David L. Huft Submitter E-mail dave.huft@state.sd.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization SDDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact David L. Huft Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail dave.huft@state.sd.us RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This research investigated the applicability of ―paleoflood‖ techniques to assess the frequency and magnitude of flow events in drainages in the Black Hills of South Dakota. This area is prone to heavy rainfall events, resulting in extremely large flows in streams that are normally quite small. In one 1972 event, a 10-inch rain within a few hours resulted in flooding that claimed 238 lives in Rapid City, South Dakota. Due to the short period of recorded observations (from the mid-1800‘s to present), it was not known whether such events are rare or frequent. Because the flow levels are so occasionally extreme, developing sound flood frequency estimates—which are needed for land use planning, zoning, and structure design—has been impossible. Paleflood techniques involve identification of sediments and organic materials deposited high along the drainages. The frequency and magnitude of significant flows are estimated from radiocarbon dating or other material dating techniques and from flow levels back-calculated from analysis of the stream and bank topography. The investigations revealed that the paleoflood techniques generate vastly better estimates of flow frequency and magnitude than other available techniques; and that extreme flows (like the Rapid City flood) are far more common than previously known. The work was co-funded by SDDOT, USGS, FEMA, Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 234
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research and local entities in keen appreciation of the significance of these findings to the safety and welfare of residents in and around the Black Hills. Based on the success of these efforts, additional investigations in the southern Black Hills are planned. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper TBD 235
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development of a Maintenance Decision Support System ID TPF-5(054) Project Cost $3M Duration 2002-present SUBMITTER Submitter Agency SDDOT Submitter Contact David L. Huft Submitter E-mail dave.huft@state.sd.us RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization SDDOT, with CA, CO, IA, ID, IN, KS, KY, MD, MN, ND, NE, NH, NY, PA, VA, WI, WY & FHWA as pooled fund study partners Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) Pooled Fund Study addresses states‘ needs to perform winter maintenance more effectively and efficiently. Travelers‘ needs and expectations for winter mobility and safety are rising at the same time that maintenance resources are becoming scarcer. The MDSS project has developed and integrated: weather forecasting; computer modeling of the physical system of pavement, snow and ice, and plowing and chemical treatments; electronic data collection and assimilation; and optimization of maintenance treatment strategies. The resulting system recommends optimal maintenance treatments within an agency‘s individual resource constraints. The sixteen states in the pooled fund study have conducted field deployment field trials on nearly 20,000 miles of in-service highways. Financial savings of more than 25% ($11 million of $40 million in the most dramatic example) of statewide winter maintenance costs have been realized. Other benefits include:  ―one-stop‖ convenience for complete winter weather information;  better anticipation of storm events and resulting road conditions;  delivery of weather forecasts and maintenance recommendations directly to snowplow operators; Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 236
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research  more consistent and seamless winter maintenance among maintenance units;  reduced environmental exposure to deicing chemicals;  use of the MDSS storm playback feature as a powerful maintenance training and analysis tool. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 237
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Aggregate Resistance to Polishing and Its Relationship to Skid Resistance ID FHWA/TX-09/0-5627-1, FHWA/TX-10/0-5627-2, and FHWA/TX11/0-5627-3 Project Cost $ 406,719 Duration 4 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT Submitter Contact German Claros Submitter E-mail German.Claros@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact German Claros Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail German.Claros@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project In 1999, TxDOT implemented a statewide Wet Weather Accident Reduction Program (WWARP) to reduce skid-related accidents in Texas. The Surface Aggregate Classification (SAC) system, one of the WWARP‘s outcomes, is used for the selection for aggregates in the pavement surface based on their frictional characteristics. The main objective of this research was to improve the SAC. The research included measurements and analysis of properties of aggregates used in surface mixes. The aggregate shape and texture characteristics were measured using the Aggregate Imaging System, British Pendulum value, aggregate acid insolubility, Los Angeles (LA) weight loss, Micro-Deval weight loss, and Magnesium sulfate weight loss. A database of field skid number measurements that were collected over a number of years using the skid trailer was developed. The Dynamic Friction Tester and Circular Texture Meter were used to measure friction and texture, respectively, of selected asphalt pavement sections. These data and measurements were used to carry out comprehensive statistical analyses of the influence of aggregate properties and mixture design on skid resistance value and its variability. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 238
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Consequently, a promising method and software were developed for predicting asphalt pavement skid resistance. This method requires inputs that describe aggregate resistance to polishing, mixture gradation, and traffic. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Utilizing this program the design engineer can select appropriate aggregate source(s) and mix design in order to ensure the adequate skid resistance during its service life, and consequently, construct safe roads with minimal cost of maintenance and rehabilitation. Web Links (if available) http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/0-5627-1.pdf http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/0-5627-2.pdf http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/0-5627-3.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 239
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Develop Guidelines and Procedures for Stabilization of Sulfate Soils ID 0-4240-1; 0-4240-2; 0-4240-3; 0-4240-4 Project Cost $363,435 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT Submitter Contact German Claros Submitter E-mail German.Claros@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact German Claros Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail German.Claros@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project focused on four main objectives: (1) identifying sulfates prior to construction; (2) determining the highest sulfate concentration that can be treated with lime using normal construction techniques; (3) evaluating the effectiveness of alternative construction practices for calcium-based stabilizers aimed at reducing swell in high sulfate soils (these practices include extended mellowing, double lime application, and increased field moisture contents); and (4) identifying the maximum sulfate concentration that can safely be treated with calcium-based stabilizers and what alternative stabilizers can be used in subgrade soils with very high sulfate levels. In terms of both accuracy and repeatability, the researchers found that the ion chromatography approach is superior to TxDOT Test Method Tex-620-J. Many steps were identified in the TxDOT procedure where error could be introduced. Two of the four rapid field tests provided excellent results in measuring sulfate concentrations in the soil. The conductivity test was identified as a rapid test (can get results in 3 minutes) that can be used to identify Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 240
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research potential problem areas (see Figure 5). In soils with high conductivities, the researchers discovered that the colorimeter does an exceptional job of measuring actual sulfate content in parts per million (ppm). This test; however, requires about 30 to 45 minutes to run and would be better suited to the field office. Results of the systematic swell experiments revealed the following about the effectiveness of alternative construction practices for calcium-based stabilizers: sulfate contents up to 3000 ppm can safely be treated with traditional lime stabilization; coarse-grained sulfates take longer to swell and form deleterious reaction products; mellowing effectively treats sulfate concentrations up to at least 7000 ppm; mellowing is where the stabilizer is added to the subgrade and allowed to cure for a specified amount of time prior to compaction; higher molding moisture contents (2% above optimum) reduce swell better than optimum moisture; and single application of lime reduces swell better than double application. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The impact of this project could be extremely large due to all of the sulfate-rich soils around the world. It could save billions of dollars in construction repairs alone. The test procedures and criteria have been implemented in TxDOT. Web Links (if available) http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/0-4240-S.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 241
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Rapid Field Detection of Sulfate and Organic Content in Soils ID 0-6362-P1 Project Cost $221,911 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT Submitter Contact German Claros Submitter E-mail German.Claros@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact German Claros Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail German.Claros@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Failures in chemical stabilization of the subgrade soil due to sulfates or organics interfering with the intended stabilization mechanism can cause the TxDOT costly repairs, project delays, and poorly-riding pavements. As such, prevention of failures by early detection of the presence of sulfates and organics provides the best means to address the problem. There are test methods in place that measure sulfate minerals and organic matter in the subgrade soil but these methods are spot tests (i.e. they only test a small portion of the soil). Currently, TxDOT selects soil samples at intervals ranging from 500 to 2500 feet along a highway construction project to measure the sulfate content. Experience shows that the sulfate minerals and organic matter may be concentrated in areas smaller than the 500 to 2500 foot interval. It is possible for TxDOT to miss detection of these harmful soil constituents under the current testing protocol which may result in pavement failures at a later date. The researchers identified several soil properties that correlate with the conductivity maps. These properties include: soil moisture content, clay mineral content, and soil salinity (dissolved salts including sulfate minerals). Provided the soil moisture is high enough (~10 vol %), we found that sulfate minerals were restricted to soil conductivities above 100 mS/m. The Veris 3150 will give conductivity readings to a depth of 3 to 4 feet Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 242
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research which can be used to generate a map with continuous coverage of a project that will show the conductivity to a depth of approximately four feet. This map can then be used to select locations where conductivities are above 100 mS/m to collect soil samples to measure for sulfate minerals in the laboratory. This should eliminate problems associated with the current technique where sulfate-rich soils may go undetected. The use of this device is being implemented into TxDOT soil survey for all new alignments and new road beds. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 243
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Estimating Texas Motor Vehicle Operating Costs ID 0-5974 Project Cost $576,000 Duration 4 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT, Research and Technology Implementation Office Submitter Contact Duncan Stewart Submitter E-mail Duncan.stewart@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT, Planning & Environmental Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Duncan Stewart Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Duncan.stewart@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Vehicle operating costs play an important role in several TxDOT policy making areas ranging from the economic evaluation of highway construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation strategies to lane rental, liquidated damages and construction bonus calculations. Vehicle operating cost relationships have not been studied in Texas for over two decades and these now risk obsolescence in the face of new design technologies, engine changes - both hybrid and improved gasoline/diesel - better tire performance and sharper forensic driven maintenance strategies. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results The results from this project should form a platform for the future development of full transportation impacts, comprising both direct owner (as studied in this proposal) and social costs. Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 244
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Longer Combination Vehicles & Road Trains for Texas? ID 0-6095 Project Cost $423,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT, Research and Technology Implementation Office Submitter Contact Duncan Stewart Submitter E-mail Duncan.stewart@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT, Planning & Environmental Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Duncan Stewart Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Duncan.stewart@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This study considered the impact that larger, more productive trucks would have if permitted on Texas highways. The trucks evaluated in this were a tridem semitrailer and a double 53 foot trailer combination, collectively termed longer combination vehicles (LCVs). The research team evaluated the extensive body of research undertaken on LCV operations and developed calibrated approaches to the determination of LCV productivity, bridge and pavement impacts, safety, operational considerations, and policy review. Scenarios using Texas‘ interstate and trunk roads were run for the 97K tridem, a double 53 meeting today‘s axle limits (for low density cargo), and a 138K double 53 (for high density cargo). The study demonstrated that safety and pavement impacts were equivalent to, or better than, those associated with today‘s freight trucks. The study also noted that there is probably an upfront investment required to strengthen or replace bridges for long-term LCV operations, but that the expected worst case costs could be reasonably recouped from the much higher productivity of the expected fleet mix. The study recommends a road test to confirm the analysis, assuming federal government authorization. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 245
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Equipment Replacement Optimization ID 0-6412 Project Cost $257,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT, Research and Technology Implementation Office Submitter Contact Duncan Stewart Submitter E-mail Duncan.stewart@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT, Planning & Environmental Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Duncan Stewart Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Duncan.stewart@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project will recommend a new equipment replacement optimization methodology for TxDOT. TxDOT has a fleet value of approximately $500,000,000 with an annual turnover of about $50,000,000. Improvements in TxDOT's vehicle cost data base now allow a more normative decision support tool for fleet replacement optimization. The Department needs a system which recommends whether to retain or replace a unit of equipment, given that class of equipment's age, mileage, resale value, and the cost of replacement equipment. The objectives of this project are to (1) determine the best optimization methodology; (2) evaluate commercial fleet management systems; (3) develop a TxDOT specific algorithm if it is cost-effective relative to purchasing a commercial model; and (4) validate the new model as needed using data available on TxDOT's current fleet. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 246
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Superheavy Load Criteria for Bridges ID 0-6438 Project Cost $191,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT, Research and Technology Implementation Office Submitter Contact Duncan Stewart Submitter E-mail Duncan.stewart@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT, Planning & Environmental Research Sponsoring Agency Contact Duncan Stewart Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Duncan.stewart@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The purpose of the study is to validate whether the Texas superheavy load criteria and evaluation methodology adequately protects and preserves Texas bridges. The number of permits for superheavy loads crossing Texas bridges has steadily increased over the years, and compared with several other states, the criteria that establish superheavy load status is generous. The result is that many Texas bridges experience routine, high-stress loads that cause accelerated deterioration. In this project, bridge load and rating factors and the validity of the criteria for establishing superheavy load status are evaluated. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 247
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Development of Field Performance Evaluation Tools and Program for Pavement Marking Materials ID 0-5548-1 Project Cost $319,027.14 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT Submitter Contact Wade Odell, P.E. Submitter E-mail Wade.Odell@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT Research Management Committee for Safety and Operations Sponsoring Agency Contact Wade Odell, P.E. Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Wade.Odell@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Prequalification of pavement marking materials (PMMs) has been historically based on product specifications and lab testing. This does not correlate well with field performance of products. Conversely, there is no consensus on recommended procedures to design test decks and conduct field performance tests. The project objectives were to investigate field evaluation plans and develop field performance-based evaluation procedures for PMMs. Field test decks were designed utilizing a series of longitudinal and transverse lines in the travel lanes for accelerated testing, while considering the different types of products being tested. Three test decks were selected statewide considering climate, roadway surface, and traffic conditions. PMMs were installed and monitored for their field performance over time. Relationships between transverse and longitudinal test decks were evaluated using correlation analysis. With respect to retroreflectivity and durability, transverse lines had a high correlation with the corresponding longitudinal lines in the travel lanes when values of all products on a test deck were averaged. For individual products, the correlations between transverse lines and corresponding longitudinal lines in the travel lanes Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 248
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research exist at a lower level. A tracking database was developed which records and queries all relevant data, tracks individual jobs and products, and graphically displays performance changes. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 249
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Mitigation Methods for Temporary Concrete Traffic Barrier Effects on Flood Water Flows ID 0-6094-1 Project Cost $176,112.77 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT Submitter Contact Wade Odell, P.E. Submitter E-mail Wade.Odell@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT Research Management Committee for Structures and Hydraulics Sponsoring Agency Contact Wade Odell, P.E. Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Wade.Odell@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project A combined experimental and analytical approach was developed to evaluate the hydraulic performance and stability of TxDOT standard and modified temporary concrete traffic barriers (TCTBs) in extreme flooding conditions. Rating curves were developed for different TCTBs from laboratory experiments and methods were developed to model TCTBs using the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HECRAS) simulation model during extreme floods. In addition, the effects of clogging of the openings at the bottoms of the TCTBs were also evaluated. A parametric study was conducted with important field parameters to evaluate the effect on stability of the TCTBs against sliding and overturning during extreme floods. Based on the study of hydraulic performance, stability analysis, and parametric study, it was determined that the modified single slope barrier is the most efficient TCTB from the perspective of hydraulic performance and the low profile (low speed) concrete barrier is the most efficient TCTB from the perspective of stability. Guidelines were developed for the use of TCTBs in flood prone zones so that the use of the various types of TCTBs will not be detrimental in extreme floods. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 250
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 251
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Super 2 Design for Higher Traffic Volumes ID 0-6135-1 Project Cost $255,893.14 Duration 30 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT Submitter Contact Wade Odell, P.E. Submitter E-mail Wade.Odell@txdot.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT Research Management Committee for Safety and Operations Sponsoring Agency Contact Wade Odell, P.E. Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Wade.Odell@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project As traffic volumes increase, pressure on the state‘s network of two-lane highways rises. Previous research in Texas demonstrated that periodic passing lanes can improve operations on two-lane highways with average daily traffic (ADT) lower than 5000. These ―Super 2‖ highways can provide the benefits of a four-lane alignment at a lower cost. This project expands on that research to develop design guidelines for passing lanes on two-lane highways with higher volumes. This report discusses findings from field observations and crash analysis of existing Super 2 highways in Texas. Computer modeling indicates that these passing lanes provide added benefit at higher traffic volumes, reducing crashes and delay. Analysis of crash data reveals a 35 percent reduction in injury crashes. Simulation results indicate that passing activities take place within the first mile of the passing lane. Additional passing lanes can offer greater benefit than providing longer passing lanes. Whether adding new passing lanes or adding length to existing lanes, the benefit diminishes as more lanes are provided and the highway closely resembles a four-lane alignment. The simulation study also showed that the effects of ADT on operations were more substantial than the effects of terrain or truck percentage for the study corridor. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 252
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Optimizing the Design of Permeable Friction Courses (PFC) ID 0-5262 Project Cost $272,782 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TxDOT Submitter Contact German Claros, Amy Epps Martin Submitter E-mail German.Claros@txdot.gov; a-eppsmartin@tamu.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization TxDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact German Claros Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail German.Claros@txdot.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project focuses on the improvement of the mix design and the development of guidelines for construction and maintenance of permeable friction courses (PFC), documented in Report 0-5262-2. Report 0-5262-1 summarizes information from a worldwide literature review and Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) district interviews focused on performance, maintenance, and construction of PFC. Four main aspects of PFC mix design were evaluated: volumetrics, functionality (or drainability), durability, and aging. These aspects were evaluated for mixtures fabricated with both TxDOT asphalt types: PG-7622 and asphalt rubber. Dimensional analysis and calculation of the theoretical maximum specific gravity of the mixture were recommended for evaluating total air voids (AV) content and water accessible AV content. The computation of water accessible AV was suggested for future application in design and performance evaluations. In addition, the density specification was modified (from 78-82 percent to 76-80 percent) to ensure adequate drainability. Field evaluation of drainability during construction was recommended to ensure adequate initial functionality properties in terms of permeability. For durability, the draindown test and the Cantabro loss test (conducted in both dry and wet conditions) were recommended. In addition, density requirements for field compaction were suggested to improve the control of functionality and durability. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 253
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) http://tti.tamu.edu/publications/catalog/record_detail.htm?id=29752 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 254
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Transportation Research Board (TRB) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Advancing Bridge Specifications ID NCHRP 12-33, ―Development of a Comprehensive Bridge Specification and Commentary‖ Project Cost $1.4 million Duration 5 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TRB Submitter Contact Crawford F. Jencks Submitter E-mail cjencks@nas.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project In response to a high level of interest among state bridge engineers, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures requested in the late 1980s that NCHRP conduct a study to recommend an outline for an updated AASHTO bridge specification. The scope of the study required an identification of the gaps and inconsistencies in the present specifications and an assessment of the feasibility of basing the revised specifications on a probabilistic load and resistance factor design (LRFD) philosophy. The results of that preliminary study led to NCHRP Project 12-33, a fiveyear effort that produced the first edition of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications in 1994. However, those original specifications were just the starting point. Over the following years, AASHTO has published four revised editions, the latest in 2010. NCHRP has been there every step of the way; NCHRP research has contributed through numerous projects addressing specific improvements and to furthering the philosophy of LRFD to other structural elements. Also see NCHRP Impacts on Practice, NCHRP & AASHTO Advance Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 255
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Bridge Specifications Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://144.171.11.40/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=315 256
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title AASHTO Asset Management Guide: Volumes I and II ID NCHRP Projects 20-24(11) and 08-69 Project Cost Volume I = $665,000, Volume II = $750,000 Duration Volume 1 = 2 years, Volume II = 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TRB Submitter Contact Crawford F. Jencks Submitter E-mail cjencks@nas.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The initial AASHTO Transportation Asset Management Guide, Volume I, expanded the concept of asset management as it is now understood by state DOTs. Previous to Volume I, asset management was viewed in terms of private maintenance contracts first imitated by a few states in the late 1990s. Volume I presented asset management in much broader business-related terms for optimizing resources (what-if scenarios) and the management of assets agency-wide needed to deliver and operate the services and facilities provided by state DOTs. Later, NCHRP was again called on to produce Volume II to provide more specific guidance on the implementation of the asset management concept within state DOTs. As summed up by staff from the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, ―the original guide—Volume 1—helped answer the questions ‗What is asset management? How can an agency assess itself on a maturity level? What represents good practice?‘ Volume 2, which is subtitled A Focus on Implementation, expands on specific implementation strategies.‖ Also see NCHRP Impacts on Practice, Making Every Asset Count. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Volume I: http://downloads.transportation.org/AMGuide.pdf Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 257
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Volume II: http://144.171.11.40/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=2190 Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 258
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Highway Capacity Manual ID NCHRP Project 03-92 Project Cost $1,000,000 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency TRB Submitter Contact Crawford F. Jencks Submitter E-mail cjencks@nas.edu RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Many factors affect the performance of a highway, and determining the effectiveness of a design represents a long-standing and evolving challenge. The TRB has helped transportation agencies address this issue since the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads first published the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) in 1950. NCHRP research has supported supplements and the four editions that followed. (A new 2010 edition supersedes the version in use since 2000.) The HCM is the authoritative document for the consistent evaluation of the capacity and quality of service on highways and streets for all travelers. It is heavily used by jurisdictions throughout the country and internationally. Over the last 10 years, there have been over 24,000 requests for the HCM, in either U.S. Customary or metric units, in addition to copies provided to state DOTs. Also see NCHRP Impacts on Practice, The Capacity Balancing Act: Highway Capacity Manual. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://books.trbbookstore.org/HCM10.aspx 259
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Construction Machine Control Guidance Implementation Strategy ID UT-10-22 Project Cost $65,000 Duration 12 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency UDOT Submitter Contact Abdul Wakil Submitter E-mail Awakil@utah.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization UDOT Research Division and Horrocks Engineering Sponsoring Agency Contact Abdul Wakil Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Awakil@utah.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Machine Controlled Guidance (MCG) technology may be used in roadway and bridge construction to improve construction efficiencies, potentially resulting in reduced project costs and accelerated schedules. The technology utilizes a Global Positioning System (GPS) in conjunction with 3-D computer models to determine the precise location and elevation of construction materials. This technology is currently being used on dozers, graders, scrapers, and excavators. UDOT must develop procedures and specifications to address the potential issues associated with the use of this technology. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.udot.utah.gov/main//uconowner.gf?n=1824302362856430 260
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Failure of Surface Courses Beneath Pavement Markings ID UT-10.05 Project Cost $20,000 Duration 18 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency UDOT Submitter Contact Abdul Wakil Submitter E-mail Awakil@utah.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization UDOT Research Division and University of Utah Sponsoring Agency Contact Abdul Wakil Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Awakil@utah.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Pavement markings can contribute to the deterioration of surface courses and in some cases it was found that the markings are the main source of distress. The reasons for such damage are outside the scope of this work but it was speculated that water vapor trapped under the pavement marking can lead to moisture damage and raveling in this high voids mixtures. A change in gradation which was implemented in 2008 should help with this condition by increasing the binder content and reducing the voids. Furthermore, as of 2008, UDOT has discontinued the use of Open Graded Surface Courses (OGSC). Other surface treatments (slurry seals, Shape Memory Alloys (SMA), etc.) might prove to be more durable and less susceptible to the type of distresses observed as part of this work. However, careful selection of the right treatment for the right condition along with proper controls during production, placement, and compaction of surface mixtures is still needed to obtain longer lasting pavement surfaces. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.udot.utah.gov/main/uconowner.gf?n=14152412160672582 261
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Infrasound Avalanche Monitoring System Research Evaluation ID UT-09.01 Project Cost $22,018.42 Duration 8 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency UDOT Submitter Contact Abdul Wakil Submitter E-mail Awakil@utah.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization UDOT Research Division and Fehr & Peers Transportation Consultants Sponsoring Agency Contact Abdul Wakil Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Awakil@utah.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Little Cottonwood Canyon Road has one of the highest risks for avalanche activity for almost any road in North America. Until recently, UDOT staff members have generally relied on visual cues to know whether avalanche control operations have successfully triggered slides (the same holds true for naturally occurring slides). However, in poor lighting or blizzard/whiteout conditions, staff cannot visually monitor whether control operations were successful, or if there is still a risk of avalanche. In 2006, UDOT installed an Infrasonic Avalanche Detection system to monitor three locations in Little Cottonwood Canyon. The Infrasonic provides remote sensing of avalanche activity, so that in poor visibility conditions UDOT staff members are aware of whether an avalanche risk remains or not. This research evaluation found that the infrasonic system meets expectations of UDOT avalanche forecasters, and is exemplary in providing good information about natural and controlled avalanche activity in Little Cottonwood Canyon. The system provides early warning of natural avalanche cycles, and confirms control work on several fronts: whether ammunition detonated, whether it detonated in the intended location, and whether it triggered avalanche activity. Overall, the Infrasonic has excellent utility for Little Cottonwood Canyon, and the system users interviewed for this research evaluation felt it needed very few functional improvements. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 262
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.udot.utah.gov/main//uconowner.gf?n=4442303863230776 263
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Assessing Corrosion of MSE Wall Reinforcement ID UT-10.20 Project Cost $21,600 Duration 6 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency UDOT Submitter Contact David Stevens Submitter E-mail davidstevens@utah.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization UDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact David Stevens Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail davidstevens@utah.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The primary objective of this study was to extract steel reinforcement coupons from select Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls and document the extent of corrosion. A secondary objective of this project was to develop and assess techniques for removal of coupons on twostage MSE walls. Twenty-two wire coupons were extracted from MSE walls that are approximately 11 to 12 years old. Based on field observations, coupon galvanization appeared to be intact but exhibited a variable amount of white oxidation product. In some places the galvanization appeared to have flaked or spalled from the underlying steel, and a minor amount of localized steel corrosion was observed on several of such specimens. Based on laboratory acid-stripping tests, the average thickness of the galvanization on all of the extracted coupons currently exceeded the minimum value specified for the time of installation. Because the initial conditions were unknown, a reliable corrosion rate could not be determined using the direct measurement methods employed in this study. However, the data collected regarding current conditions can be used as baseline information going forward to compute corrosion rates in the future. No readily discernable difference in corrosion conditions as a function of distance away from the wall face was found. Periodic evaluation of additional coupons will help to ensure UDOT‘s MSE walls are designed to last for the public use. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 264
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.udot.utah.gov/main/uconowner.gf?n=1893932742874301 265
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Determining the maintenance superintendent and facility needs for residencies in the Virginia Department of Transportation ID VTRC 10-R9 (published June 2010) Project Cost $146,486 Duration 7 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research Submitter Contact Jose P. Gomez Submitter E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization VDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Jose P. Gomez Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The purpose of this entry is to share the procedure and methodology developed in this policy study to assist VDOT as it streamlined its field maintenance operations. The Virginia General Assembly in 2006 directed VDOT to outsource all normal interstate maintenance by 2009. This study documents the procedure the Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research developed to help VDOT determine the number of superintendents needed to oversee and manage the remaining maintenance work in each residency and the facilities required to support these maintenance operations. VDOT used the results of the study to reduce the number of its area headquarters (AHQs). For this study, the research team quantified and calculated current superintendent workloads for each VDOT residency, based on a limited number of workload parameters and a workload boundary representing the maximum observed workload for any combination of the parameters. VDOT then reduced the number of superintendent positions without exceeding the maximum current workloads for residencies. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 266
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research The research team determined that deicing chemical storage capacity and maximum travel time to residency limits were the primary factors related to the number of required facilities. They determined the minimum number of facilities to be retained by each residency using residency-specific data related to these two factors. The report also concluded: The workload of a VDOT AHQ superintendent can be modeled as a function of the number of lane-miles overseen and the volume of traffic on those lane-miles, and The minimum number of maintenance facilities needed in a residency is controlled by the need to respond in a timely manner to planned emergencies. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://vtrc.virginiadot.org/PubDetails.aspx?PubNo=10-R9 267
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Examination of an implemented asphalt permeability specification ID VTRC 11-R7 (published October 2010) Project Cost N/A Duration 5 years, 7 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research Submitter Contact Jose P. Gomez Submitter E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization VDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Jose P. Gomez Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This study evaluated the effectiveness of VDOT‘s specification for permeability for asphalt mixes. VDOT districts were asked to sample and test at least two surface mixes to determine the level of permeability being achieved in the pavement. Some mixes had to be redesigned to comply with the specification. Generally, pavements had satisfactory permeability if designed according to the permeability specification and in compliance with density specifications. The specification appeared to be performing as intended, and no changes were needed. As a result, VDOT has implemented the results of this research. During 2005, VDOT placed approximately 165,000 tons of hot-mix asphalt, which had to be redesigned because of permeability problems, at a cost of $7.5 million. If the current permeability specification had not been in place, these mixtures would have been placed with high permeability. It is reasonable to assume that the service life would have been shortened by 15 percent because of the high permeability. Therefore, VDOT‘s savings for 2005 as a result of the new specification would have been 0.15 x $7.5 million = $1,125,000. These savings continue to be achieved each year because asphalt mixtures with high permeability are not placed. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 268
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://vtrc.virginiadot.org/PubDetails.aspx?PubNo=11-R7 269
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Analysis of Full-Depth Reclamation Trial Sections in Virginia ID N/A (Report to be published May-June 2011) Project Cost $117,511.36 Duration 1 year, 8 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research Submitter Contact Jose P. Gomez Submitter E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization VDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Jose P. Gomez Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Full-depth reclamation is being used more frequently to extend the service life of pavement structures requiring deep rehabilitation and to stretch available funding for this maintenance. It consists of pulverizing existing bound pavement layers along with all or a portion of the unbound layers and/or subgrade, adding a stabilizing agent, compacting the mixture and surfacing with a new hot-mix asphalt layer(s) or surface treatment. While other states have successfully used this technology, structural characterization and life-cycle cost analysis results vary greatly, making it difficult to implement typical values for future pavement designs. This study assessed the condition of three full-depth reclamation trial sections VDOT installed in 2008. The first site used asphalt emulsion and foamed asphalt as the stabilizing agents on two separate sections. The other sites used portland cement as the stabilizing agent. The researchers assessed the results in the lab and the field using gradation analysis, resilient modulus, dynamic modulus, ground penetrating radar, falling-weight deflectometer testing and life-cycle cost analysis. They also analyzed hypothetical life-cycle costs to document potential cost savings from full-depth reclamation compared with other traditional methods. The results showed pavements could be successfully reconstructed using full-depth reclamation and the structural capacity of the sections depended both on the stabilizing agent and time. The study Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 270
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research recommends that VDOT should: (1) pursue additional full-depth reclamation projects where appropriate; (2) refine a criteria list to select future projects where most suitable; and (3) conduct a project-level study of any potential site to verify it is appropriate for full-depth reclamation. The life-cycle cost analysis found if a pavement rehabilitation strategy that includes full-depth reclamation is applied to a preliminary list of projects on the primary and secondary road networks, a 50-year lifecycle cost savings of approximately $10 million and $30.5 million, respectively, is possible when compared to traditional methods. If annualized, the potential cost savings would be about $474,000 and $1.42 million per year for the respective networks. VDOT is using full-depth reclamation on a new project to repair a fourmile section of southbound Interstate 81. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper (Report to be published in May-June 2011) 271
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Condition assessment and determination of methods for evaluating corrosion damage in piles encapsulated in protective jackets on the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel ID VTRC 10-R13 (published April 2010) Project Cost $163,440 Duration 3 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research Submitter Contact Jose P. Gomez Submitter E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization VDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Jose P. Gomez Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This study assessed the condition of piles enclosed in fiberglass and mortar jackets on four bridges that are part of the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel (HRBT). Since these bridges contain about 1,800 piles, the researchers could not test and evaluate each pile. Therefore, they needed to consider three types of tests – visual, non-destructive and destructive – and recommend the most effective and efficient methods in assessing condition of the piles under the fiberglass jackets. A secondary purpose of the study, as requested by VDOT‘s state structure and bridge engineer, was to assess the effectiveness of the fiberglass jacket and mortar system in resisting corrosion and recommend how to apply these or similar systems on other Virginia bridges. The research team selected 52 HRBT piles for the study. These piles represented a variety of conditions, ages, types and locations. Destructive and non-destructive methods were used to evaluate the piles. Destructive methods included chloride analysis and jacket autopsy. Non-destructive methods included cross-hole sonic logging, ground-penetrating radar, sonic echo, impulse response, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, ultrasonic pulse velocity and visual assessment. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 272
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research No single test method could completely assess the condition of the jacketed piles. However, a combination of half-cell measurements, sonic echo, impulse response and chloride analysis helped evaluate the condition of jacketed piles. The evaluated HRBT piles displayed corrosion ranging from no corrosion to a severe section loss of a vertical tendon. Most piles showed some corrosion, but only a small portion had substantial corrosion-induced damage. The jackets hid the corrosion damage, causing the severity of the actual condition of the piles to be underestimated on visual inspection. The study recommends that jackets with mortar fill not be installed on piles with prior corrosion damage, as the jacket will obscure future damage and may accelerate corrosion. The HRBT structure is such a vital structure in southeastern Virginia that closing two lanes of traffic would cost users approximately $2.9 million per day. Thus, it is extremely important that the HRBT piles stay in good structural health and that VDOT retain the capability to monitor their condition. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://vtrc.virginiadot.org/PubDetails.aspx?PubNo=10-R13 273
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Investigation of the use of tear-off shingles in asphalt concrete ID VTRC 10-R23 (published May 2010) Project Cost $99,343 Duration 1 year, 9 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research Submitter Contact Jose P. Gomez Submitter E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization VDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Jose P. Gomez Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project The study evaluated the suitability of using tear-off shingles in asphalt concrete. Several field projects were constructed with asphalt concrete containing material from roofing shingles recycled from residential roofs. The Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research‘s (VCTIR) previous construction experience and testing predicted that tear-off roofing shingles could be used to produce satisfactory asphalt mixes. This investigation focused on the use of asphalt shingles removed from roofs and recycled into asphalt concrete. At VDOT‘s invitation, three asphalt contractors produced and placed sections of asphalt concrete containing shingles, which VCTIR then sampled and tested. Two base mixes and two surface mixes were produced, and one of the surface mixes was produced by both hot mix and warm mix technology. The laboratory tests used to evaluate the mixes determined conventional gyratory volumetric properties, gradation and asphalt content; rut tests; fatigue tests; and tests to determine recovered asphalt properties. The field installations yielded satisfactory test results and good paving experiences, indicating that mixes containing tear-off shingles can be constructed successfully. It estimated that VDOT could have saved Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 274
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research approximately $600,000 by using 4 percent to 5 percent shingle waste in half of the hot mix produced in 2009. VDOT plans to adopt the special provision used for this study, with minor modifications, as a general specification for paving in 2010. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://vtrc.virginiadot.org/PubDetails.aspx?PubNo=10-R23 275
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Best practices in traffic operations and safety: Phase II – Zigzag pavement markings ID VTRC 11-R9 (published December 2010) Project Cost $171,724 Duration 2 years, 11 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research Submitter Contact Jose P. Gomez Submitter E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization VDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Jose P. Gomez Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail Jose.Gomez@VDOT.Virginia.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project VDOT installed zig-zag pavement markings in 2009 where two roads intersect with the Washington & Old Dominion Trail in Northern Virginia to test their effectiveness in improving safety at trail crossings. The 45mile recreational trail has more than 70 highway crossings, creating the potential for serious crashes between vehicles and bicyclists and pedestrians. FHWA approved installation for this one-year pilot study after seeing the successful use of such markings in the United Kingdom and Australia. The study found that markings installed in advance of the two crossings heightened awareness of approaching motorists. This was indicated by reduced mean vehicle speeds within the marking zones. Further, a majority of respondents to a driver survey of this project said their awareness had increased, they had changed their driving behavior and they had a higher tendency to yield than before. The study recommends that VDOT lead an effort to recommend to FHWA that zig-zag markings be included in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD); continue to re-mark and maintain the zig-zag markings at both test sites; and monitor and collect data on crashes at both locations for three years. It also recommends a review of the Code of Virginia be undertaken with respect to those sections dealing with trail users on multi-use pathways and their obligation to Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 276
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research comply with non-signalized traffic-control devices, and the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices adopt as guidance the zig-zag marking design parameters in this study; Zig-zag pavement markings are a low-cost alternative to other safety improvements at mid-block locations. The benefits of zig-zag markings far exceed those of no markings and those of other countermeasures, when comparing the costs of installing zig-zag markings to those of other safety countermeasures and assuming the same effectiveness with respect to avoiding crashes. For example, if two injury crashes were avoided over five years, the monetary benefits associated with installing zig-zag markings would be approximately $91,000, compared to approximately $58,000 for advance flashing beacons. Overhead flashing beacons would cost approximately $7,000. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://vtrc.virginiadot.org/PUBDetails.aspx?Id=298143 277
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Precast Systems for Rapid Construction of Bridges ID WA-RD‘s 684.1, 684.2, & 684.3 Project Cost $200,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency WSDOT Submitter Contact Kim Willoughby Submitter E-mail willouk@wsdot.wa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization WSDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Kim Willoughby Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail willouk@wsdot.wa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Faster bridge construction is a priority for state transportation agencies and precast concrete components are used to accomplish this. Until recently, methods of making connections that are both structurally acceptable and quick to assemble were relatively unknown and not addressed in bridge design specifications. However, the performance of concrete bridges made with these precast components during earthquakes has been a concern in seismic regions. To address this concern, WSDOT initiated a research project to study seismic performance of precast concrete bent cap to column connections. The connection consisted of large column bars extended into the precast bent cap through grouted ducts. The overall objective of this study was to develop bridge structural systems that will lead to both rapid construction and satisfactory seismic performance. The research outcome was successfully applied to construction of a continuous precast prestressed bridge with precast bent cap. Construction costs were lower due to shorter construction times. Other benefits included fewer lane restrictions and traffic control, and better safety in the work zone. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 278
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research This connection will be used in 2011 construction of a Highways for Life project in Washington State to provide a demonstration project for other states that may be interested in this technology. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/684.1.pdf http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/684.2.pdf http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/684.3.pdf 279
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Identifying High Risk Locations of Animal-Vehicle Collisions on Washington State Highways ID WA-RD 752.1 Project Cost $90,000 Duration 18 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency WSDOT Submitter Contact Rhonda Brooks Submitter E-mail Brookrh@wsdot.wa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization State Planning and Research Funding Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Animal-vehicle collisions claim the lives of hundreds of motorists each year and also cause millions of dollars in injuries and property damage. With limited resources to install safety features, it is important to identify high-risk locations on highways so that strategic investments can be made. The two main difficulties in identifying locations are the quality of available data and the existence of a model that can translate the collision data and identify causal factors. This research collected and analyzed carcass removal data and collision data from accident reports. A fuzzy logic algorithm was created to match the records from the two data sets. Probability factors such as animal habitat areas, speed limits, number of lanes, access control, truck traffic and wider medians were identified and incorporated into the analysis. The result of the model output identified 10 high risk corridors to be examined in more detail. WSDOT is using the research to identify countermeasures such as fencing, signing and crossing structures that can be effectively deployed to reduce incidents and improve safety for travelers. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Research/Reports/700/752.1.htm 280
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Bituminous Surface Treatment Protocol ID WA-RD 652.1 Project Cost $50,000 Duration 2 years SUBMITTER Submitter Agency WSDOT Submitter Contact Kim Willoughby Submitter E-mail willouk@wsdot.wa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization WSDOT Sponsoring Agency Contact Kim Willoughby Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail willouk@wsdot.wa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project With constrained budgets and the increased cost of paving materials, a fundamental issue is how to best allocate the available funding for preservation projects. Since bituminous surface treatment (BST) has a significantly lower annualized cost than hot mix asphalt (HMA) resurfacings, this research examined the expanded use of BSTs on selected routes with higher levels of traffic. Prior to this research, WSDOT used an average daily traffic (ADT) of 2,000. Based on this study, WSDOT implemented the use of BSTs on roadways with an ADT of up to 5,000, which has saved approximately $10 million per year. This research also provided modifications to aggregate gradations and emulsion rates for inclusion into our standard specifications. The modifications were developed through meetings conducted by the Principal Investigator with WSDOT employees, contractors and suppliers. A continuing study will examine the effects of alternating BST and HMA overlays to achieve the lowest overall cost while maintaining the current level of service in terms of pavement performance. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/652.1.pdf 281
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title State Highways as Main Streets: A Study of Community Design and Visioning ID WA-RD 733.1 Project Cost $46,901 Duration 12 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency WSDOT Submitter Contact Kathy Lindquist; Paula Reeves Submitter E-mail lindquk@wsdot.wa.gov; ReevesP@wsdot.wa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization WSDOT Office of Research and Library Services Sponsoring Agency Contact Kathy Lindquist Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail lindquk@wsdot.wa.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project State highways are a town‘s main street in many communities. In the State of Washington, this is true for more than 500 miles of state highway. These main street highways provide local access for communities while serving regional mobility needs. Unfortunately, sections of these main street highways have some of the highest rates of pedestrian and traffic collisions in the state. As well, modification of these highways can affect community livability and safety. Projects on main street highways were found to have design changes in the later stages of a project, increasing costs and delaying construction. To better incorporate the needs of communities, WSDOT tested the use of community-design and visioning during project development. The process engages the community more actively than traditional transportation planning, allowing the agency and community to work together collaboratively. Early findings show that this approach has helped avoid costly changes to the project‘s scope and schedule and improved project delivery times. Main street highways are important to Washington‘s communities and this study demonstrated that additional investment in community design helps ensure improved safety, mobility, and efficient project delivery while supporting the community‘s needs. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 282
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Research/Reports/700/733.1.htm http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/47D9F8CE-B810-4A6E-8C78B51ECA0A4191/0/StateHighwaysasMainStreets.pdf 283
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Quantifying Incident Induced Travel Delays ID WA-RD 758.1 Project Cost $120,000 Duration 28 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency WSDOT Submitter Contact Doug Brodin Submitter E-mail brodind@wsdot.wa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization WSDOT SP&R and Transportation Northwest (TransNow regional UTC) Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Reducing traveler delay is an ongoing challenge in urban areas. A key contributor to delay is traffic incidents. A separate WSDOT research study recently computed the cost per minute of incidents ranges from $244 to $345. Better understanding of traveler delay related to incidents is needed to prevent and manage it. Analysis was limited because only a small portion of the transportation system has the sensors needed to obtain the data needed by the existing models. To remedy this, the WSDOT partnered with the University of Washington to develop a new method to quantify incident induced delay over a regional freeway network using more readily available volume data from traffic detectors. The model was tested against two known incident cases and found to produce good accuracy. Because this model relies on readily available data, it can be applied to more roadways in the network allowing us to analyze incidents and delays in more areas and across a region. This approach has been implemented on a regional map-based online platform to enable quick, convenient, and reliable freeway incident induced delay estimates in the Puget Sound region. http://www.uwdrive.net/ Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 284
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/758.1.pdf 285
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Incident Response Evaluation ID WA-RD 761.1 Project Cost $75,000 Duration 42 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency WSDOT Submitter Contact Doug Brodin Submitter E-mail brodind@wsdot.wa.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization WSDOT SP&R Program Sponsoring Agency Contact Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project This project investigated the basic relationship of incidents to delay on Puget Sound area freeways. The research showed that incidents, including crashes, do not by themselves cause measurable delay. Incidents cause delay only when the disruption they create causes roadway capacity to fall below actual demand. The study also determined that crash rates increase substantially when delays occur. A simple summary of the available data indicated that crash rates essentially double in corridors slowed by unexpected incident-related queuing. Because reducing the duration of incidents results in faster clearance of back-ups, clearing an incident has significant safety benefit, measured in a reduced crash rate. This study found the cost per minute of incidents ranged from $244 to $345. Based on these findings, for cost-effective deployment this project generally recommends that incident response teams be located: on roadway segments 5 to 7 miles long that produce roughly 45 crashes per year in one direction of travel, and where roadway volumes exceed a volume/capacity ratio of 0.6 on two-lane (in one direction) roadways or 0.7 on three-lane or larger roads. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 286
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research WSDOT is using these results to help deploy incident response team resources and minimize traveler delay caused by incidents. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/761.1.pdf 287
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Rapid Bridge Construction Technology – Precast Elements for Substructures ID 0092-07-08 Project Cost $124,411 Duration 4 years, 8 months (anticipated) SUBMITTER Submitter Agency WisDOT Submitter Contact Daniel Yeh Submitter E-mail daniel.yeh@dot.wi.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization WisDOT, Wisconsin Highway Research Program (WHRP) Sponsoring Agency Contact Daniel Yeh Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail daniel.yeh@dot.wi.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Traditional ways of bridge construction and rehabilitation involve traffic redirection, concrete formwork and removal, and significant fieldwork. WHRP research project 0092-07-08 examined the use of pre-cast concrete items for use in foundations, abutments and bridge column and pier caps. The goal was to determine if the use of pre-cast substructure items would be feasible in Wisconsin conditions as an alternative to cast-in-place construction methods. The results of the project, including two field examples, show the following: Precast substructure elements can lead to more rapid construction, improved workzone safety (due to reduced exposure opportunities), reduced environmental impact and improved quality control. However, standardization of precast elements is essential to ensure efficiency and address issues such as impacts to crane size and transportation capabilities. Precast elements will likely be more expensive in terms of unit costs as compared to cast-in-place. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 288
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research Given the balance of cost, safety, time and the need for standardization, precast systems would be preferred in projects with these conditions: Conditions that call for minimal traffic disruption; Repetitive nature that maximizes efficiency from standardization; Increased emphasis on safety and environmental concerns; and/or Where access is difficult for traditional forming and construction. WisDOT will need to take the results of the research and further develop standardization templates and evaluate situations where precast processes would provide the most benefits. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.whrp.org/research-areas/structures/structures_0092-0708.html 289
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Best Practices on Mega-Projects and ARRA Projects ID 0092-10-20 Project Cost $94,860 Duration 1 year, 6 months (anticipated) SUBMITTER Submitter Agency WisDOT Submitter Contact Daniel Yeh Submitter E-mail daniel.yeh@dot.wi.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization WisDOT, Wisconsin Highway Research Program (WHRP) Sponsoring Agency Contact Daniel Yeh Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail daniel.yeh@dot.wi.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Since 2004, WisDOT has developed a number of new techniques, processes and procedures for management of ―Megaprojects‖ and projects funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The department could strongly benefit from a comprehensive evaluation of the processes used on both of these types of projects to determine their effectiveness and whether they have provided sufficient benefit to be more widely implemented on other projects. WisDOT Policy Research project 0092-10-20 identifies procedures, standards, and programs used by WisDOT in the delivery of select Megaprojects and ARRA projects in four key construction areas: Project management with benchmarking and metrics; Project change management; Document control and reporting; and Financial reporting. The project has already conducted a review of the Request for Information (RFI) process used on the Marquette Interchange Project (completed in 2008) and the I-94 North-South Corridor Project (ongoing). The study analyzed and categorized more than 1,400 RFIs. Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 290
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research The project provided recommendations and benchmarks to standardize the RFI process, forms and response mechanisms. The project just recently convened an expert panel of WisDOT staff, consultants and contractors to evaluate and rank about 45 other best practices in the four key construction areas. The results of this project will assist WisDOT as it develops a new oversight structure for megaprojects and as it determines how to respond to additional demands for federal and public review and reporting on projects. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://on.dot.wi.gov/wisdotresearch/rip.htm#Policy 291
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research PROJECT INFORMATION Project Title Evaluation of Intelligent Compaction Technology for Roadway Subgrades & Structural Layers ID 0092-08-07 Project Cost $99,999.44 Duration 2 years, 11 months SUBMITTER Submitter Agency WisDOT Submitter Contact Daniel Yeh Submitter E-mail daniel.yeh@dot.wi.gov RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsoring Agency or Organization WisDOT, Wisconsin Highway Research Program (WHRP) Sponsoring Agency Contact Daniel Yeh Sponsoring Agency Contact’s E-mail daniel.yeh@dot.wi.gov RESEARCH AND RESULTS Brief Summary of the Research Project Intelligent compaction (IC) shows promise for improving densification of unbound soil and aggregate materials as well as on in-place asphalt mixtures. IC utilizes rollers that are equipped with sensors that measure density on a continuous basis; and an on-board computer collects and displays density measurements for each small section of the site as determined by a Global Positioning System unit. The goals of this project were to help WisDOT evaluate the advantages and limitations of Intelligent Compaction (IC) for achieving density, and to determine the material types and conditions that might cause inaccuracies in IC roller output. Researchers evaluated IC technologies on three projects in Wisconsin, including two for unbound materials and one for hot-mix asphalt. For unbound materials, demonstration projects indicate that IC is an effective technology to map the stiffness of layers and identify weak areas prior to the placement of subsequent layers. IC rollers can also be used to determine the best rolling patterns and number of passes to achieve a specific stiffness level in unbound layers, identify when aggregates are being damaged by over-rolling, compact deeper lifts by optimizing compacting effort, and identify locations for point measurements with field devices during construction quality assurance. IC has the potential to lower construction costs, improve the uniformity Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper 292
  • Transportation Excellence Through Research of compaction, and increase pavement performance and service life. More research is needed on the reliability and accuracy of the IC measures, confirmation of improvement in the uniformity of compaction, and quantification of IC‘s economic benefits. Research is also needed to investigate the effect of lift thickness on IC output and to correlate IC output from different manufacturers‘ reporting systems to standard measures of acceptance. Impact, or Potential Impact, of Implementing Research Results Web Links (if available) Research Impacts: Better—Faster—Cheaper http://www.whrp.org/research-areas/geotechnics/geotechnics_0092-0807.html 293