TCP IP Addressing

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  • 1. TCP/IP Addressing Presentation by:- Ritul Sonania 2005H124416 BITS Pilani 02 March 2007
  • 2. Contents
    • TCP/IP Introduction
    • TCP/IP Addressing
    • Classful Addressing
      • Classes
      • Masking
      • Subnetting
    • Classless Addressing
      • CIDR
      • Variable length subnet masking
      • Supernetting
  • 3. Introduction
    • TCP/IP is Transmission Control Protocol/Internetworking Protocol
    • Developed and founded by ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency)
    • In the early 70’s ARPANET was using it
    • Now it is the backbone of the internetwork named these days as the INTERNET.
  • 4. Introduction Contd..
    • It is older than OSI model.
    • It mainly has 5 layers of service.
    • TCP/IP defines two protocols TCP & UDP in the Transport layer.
    • IP in the network layer.
    • There is no specific protocol defined for physical layer.
  • 5. TCP/IP Addressing
    • Three different levels of addresses are used in an internet using the TCP/IP protocols: physical (link) address, logical (IP) address , and port address .
  • 6.
    • Physical addresses are given by NIC’s (Network Interface Cards) attached to the computer.
    • They are represented in 12 Hex digits.
    07:01:02:01:2C:4B A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address.
  • 7. j,k are port addresses A,P are logical addresses
  • 8. TCP/IP Addr. Contd…
    • A port address is 16-bit address represented as one decimal number as shown below.
    753 A 16-bit port address represented as one single number.
  • 9. TCP/IP Addr. Contd…
    • Each Internet address consists of a 4 byte (32 bit) address.
    • Each IP address is unique.
    • Six versions – IPv4, IPv5…
    • It defines three fields :-
      • Class Type
      • Net id
      • Host id
  • 10. IP Address Example..
      • Dotted-Decimal Notation
        • 128.119.91.173 (sisko.ecs.umass.edu)
        • 66.218.71.198 (www.yahoo.com)
  • 11. Classes
    • There are five classes – A,B,C,D,E
    • Class A 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255
    • Class B 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255
    • Class C 192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255
    • Class D 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
    • Class E 240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255
  • 12. MASKING It helps in knowing which portion of given IP address identifies network and which identifies host. Default mask for : A -> 255.0.0.0 B -> 255.255.0.0 C -> 255.255.255.0
  • 13. Masking contd..
    • Example :
    • Determine Net and Host ID of the IP address 12.20.9.1
    • Step 1 : Find Class, Default mask
    • Step2 : write both in binary
    • 00001100 .00010100.00001001.00000001
    • 11111111 .00000000.00000000.00000000
    • NET ID: 12 , HOST ID 20.9.1
  • 14. Problem in classic addressing
    • Class A networks (/8) 8-bit network prefix
      • Prefix: 3.0.0.0/8
      • Hosts: 3.0.0.0 ~ 3.255.255.255
      • 16,777,216 hosts (Too big?)
    • Class B networks (/16) 16-bit network prefix
      • Prefix: 128.119.0.0/16
      • Hosts: 128.119.0.0 ~ 128.119.255.255
    • Class C networks (/24) 24-bit network prefix
      • Prefix: 202.63.28.0/24
      • Hosts: 202.63.28.0 ~ 202.63.28.255
      • Only 255 hosts (Too small?)
  • 15. SUBNETTING
    • It allows creating multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A,B or C network.
    • If this is not done only one network will be allowed on one address(unrealistic).
    • After doing this every sub-network will be having its own unique ID.
  • 16. SUBNETTING Contd.
    • For subnetting a network , increase the net id to corresponding bits.
    • Example 204.12.8.0
    • Default mask : 255.255.255.0
    • Subnet mask : 255.255.255.224
    • 11001100.00001100.00001000.00000000
    • 11111111.11111111.11111111. 111 00000
    • With these 3 bits possible subnets-> 8
    • Left 5 bits are now used for hosts. So possible hosts under each subnet is 32.
  • 17. SUBNETTTING Contd.
    • 204.12.8.0 (x.x.x.224) range 1 to 30.
    • 204.12.8.32(x.x.x.224) range 33 to 62
    • .
    • .
    • .
    • 204.12.8.224(x.x.x.224) range 225 to 254
  • 18. Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
    • Introduced in 1993
    • It replaced the previous generation of IP address syntax.
    • CIDR is principally a bitwise, prefix-based standard for the interpretation of IP addresses. It facilitates routing by allowing blocks of addresses to be grouped together into single routing table entries. These groups, commonly called CIDR blocks , share an initial sequence of bits in the binary representation of their IP addresses.
    • It uses Variable length subnet mask (VLSM).
    • A subnet mask encodes the same information as a prefix length, but predates the advent of CIDR.
    • One more property that CIDR has is that it allows super-netting .
  • 19. Format of CIDR n denotes the prefix. Example :- Find the first address in the block if one of the addresses is 140.120.84.24/20 . Ans: 140.120.80.0/20 . (CIDR Form)
  • 20. Supernetting
  • 21. Why CIDR is popular ?
    • It allows with only block addressing full routing table to saved on the routers.
    • The routers today that are available to handle the full routing table are:
      • cisco 7000 w/ 64Mb
      • cisco 4500 w/ 32Mb
      • IBM ENSS and CNSS w/ 64Mb
      • BayNetworks models AN/ASN/BLN/BCN w/ 32Mb
  • 22.  
  • 23.
    • Thanks