ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE IN PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE MECHANISM Aluminum hydroxide : direct cytoprotective effect The exact mechanism of action is UNCLEAR. The drug binds to and forms an adherent complex with protein in the ulcer base, thus inhibiting further acid-pepsin digestion. It also forms complexes with pepsin and stimulates endogenous prostaglandin synthesis in the mucosa Help to relieve the symptoms of heartburn or dyspepsia
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE IN PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE EFFICACY : healing rate for duodenal ulcer Sucralfate 75% at 4 wks, 90-95% at 8 wks Ranitidine 85% at 4 wks, 90-95% at 8 wks The agent can also prevent ulcer recurrence when given 1 gm BID Single doses usually provide 200-1200 mg of aluminum hydroxide The amount of aluminum hydroxide in various antacid preparations varies greatly, and doses as high as 12,000 mg/d may be taken in extreme cases. orally as an antacid Combination with magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and/or simethicone. Commonly cause constipation
ALUM IRRIGATION THERAPY OF BLADDER HEMORRHAGE Common causes of intravesical (bladder) hemorrhage : bladder or prostate cancer, radiation cystitis, cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy of transitional cell carcinoma Intravesical alum Tissue contraction and blanching, which produces tamponade of bleeding vessels. Hardening of the cement substance of capillary endothelium, which inhibits transcapillary movement of plasma protein and reduces local edema, inflammation and exudation. Alum is minimally absorbed. More serious side effects such as encephalopathy may result when an instillation rate of 3 grams or more per hour is employed in renally-impaired patients.
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE Al(OH)3, ATH, Hydrate of alumina Insoluble forms of aluminum Properties Molecular formula Al(OH)3 Molar mass 78.00 g/mol Appearance White amorphous powder Density 2.42 g/cm³, solid Melting point 300 °C, 573 K, 572 °F solubility in water 0.0001 g/100 mL (20 °C) Solubility soluble in acids, alkalis, HCl, H2SO4 Acidity(pKa) >7
CHEMISTRY Amphoteric It dissolves in acid, forming Al(H2O)63+ (hexaaquaaluminium(3+)) or its hydrolysis products. It also dissolves in strong alkali, forming Al(OH)4- (tetrahydroxidoaluminate(1-)).
USE Antacids, antiperspirants, dentifrices Included as an adjuvant in some vaccines (e.g. anthrax vaccine) Stimulates the immune system by inducing the release of uric acid, an immunological danger signal. In a mouse model of allergen sensitization during pregnancy Aluminum hydroxide is also widely used in the chemical, pharmaceutical, fabric, paper, glass, pottery, and printing industries. : Fire retardant, polyesters, acrylics, ethylene vinyl acetate, epoxies, PVC, rubber
유통중인 ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE 가스민에프정 Aluminum hydroxide gel 450mg 뉴란타 Aluminum hydroxide gel 250g Chlorhexidine acetate 0.003g +Magnesium hydroxide 400mg 다겔정 Aluminum hydoxide gel 300mg (건조수산화알루미늄겔) 메빌정 Aluminum hydoxide gel 250mg
ADVERSE EFFECTS Adverse effects in humans resulting from the use of aluminium hydroxide adjuvants have not been proven, although it has been a subject of controversy. Brain lesions found in Alzheimers disease sometimes contain more aluminium compared to normal tissue. It is not thought that aluminium causes Alzheimers, but rather that once the disease develops, aluminium may be involved in its progression. Multiple epidemiological studies have found no connection between exposure to aluminium and neurological disorders. In 2007, tests in mice of the anthrax vaccine using aluminium hydroxide adjuvant were reported as resulting in adverse neuropathy symptoms.
TERATOGENICITY The frequency of malformations was not increased among the offspring of pregnant rats or mice given 192-768 mg/kg/d or 66.5- 300 mg/kg/d of aluminum hydroxide Respectively Decreased fetal weight and increased frequencies of skeletal variations were seen among the offspring of pregnant rats given 384 mg/kg/d of aluminum hydroxide and also citric acid, which promotes absorption of aluminum, but maternal toxicity was evident under these conditions. (Gomez et al., 1991) Similarly, decreased fetal weight was seen along with evidence of maternal toxicity when pregnant mice were treated with 166 mg/kg/d of aluminum hydroxide and also with lactic acid, which increases the solubility of the aluminum. (Colomina et al., 1992)
TERATOGENICITY The coadministration of citrate with aluminum hydroxide, to promote the absorption of aluminum, did not increase the incidence of malformations among exposed rats, but it did increase the incidence of developmental variations and fetotoxicity. As was suggested by the data in this report, other animal studies indicate that parenterally administered aluminum from various aluminum salts can cross the placenta and accumulate in fetal tissues. These exposures have been associated with an increase in fetal death and reabsorptions in rats, as well as abnormal skeletal growth, and impaired learning, memory, and neuromotor development in treated offspring.
TERATOGENICITY In a case report from 1998, the mother of a 9-year-old girl with profound mental retardation, multifocal seizures, spastic tetraplegia, growth retardation, and spasticity (cerebral cortical atrophy and neurological dysfunction) was found to have used an average of 15,000 mg of aluminum hydroxide per day throughout pregnancy, implicating aluminum intoxication as a possible cause of the neurological dysfunction in the child. (Gilbert-Barness et al., 1998) In a review of mice, rat, and rabbit studies, Borak and Wise question whether dietary aluminum exposure will lead to significant accumulation in pregnant animals or their fetuses. It is important to note that in most studies, adverse developmental effects of aluminum have not been associated with orally administered aluminum.
TERATOGENICITY Magnitude of teratogenic risk to child born after exposure during gestation : UNDETERMINED Quality and quantity of data on which risk estimated is based : LIMITED
ALUMINUM Ubiquitous distribution The most abundant metal in the earths crust (Baselt, 2000; Lewis, 1997) Sources of exposure are constant through dust particles and ingestion of food and water. Aluminum has one naturally occurring isotope: Al(27). In addition, ten radioactive isotopes are known (Budavari, 1996) Absorption of aluminum through the skin is insignificant. An average adult is estimated to absorb 15 mcg (0.3 to 0.5 %) of the 5 mg/day that is taken in from the environment (Committee on Nutrition, 1986)
ALUMINUM not occur free in its metallic form in nature it exists naturally SALT ALUMINUM combined with fluorine, silicon, ALUMINUM % ELEMENTAL oxygen and other substances in the earths crust (Bingham et al, 2001; HSDB , 2001; Lewis, 1997) Aluminum hydroxide 34.58 It often occurs as an oxide and combined with silica (Budavari, Aluminum oxide 52.91 1996) Soy-based infant formulas may contain a mean22.12 Aluminum phosphate aluminum content of 1,478 mcg/L Bismuth aluminate 20.97 should probably not be used in infants with renal impairment Dihydroxy aluminum carbonate (Committee on 18.74 or in low-birth-weight infants Nutrition, 1986). aluminum content was lowest in breast milk (23.4 +/- 9.6 mcg/L) cows milk was 70 mcg/L reconstituted infant formulas was 226 mcg/L, with wide variation (302 to 1,149 mcg/L) in aluminum content (Fernandez-Lorenzo et al, 1999 Spain)
ALUMINUM-DIETARY SOURCES present in most foods and is used in food packaging intake may range from 4 to 80 mg/day (Baselt, 2000). found in a number of commercial teas. : One study found between 555 and 1,009 mcg Al per gram (dry weight) the absorption of aluminum from tea may be very low. The main dietary source of aluminum is food additives. Food preparation and storage, including soft drink packaging in aluminum cans, contributes little aluminum to the diet. Preparation of acidic foods in aluminum cookware can increase their aluminum content (Muller et al, 1993).
ALUMINUM WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE Acute aluminum toxicity is unlikely. Most cases of aluminum toxicity in humans are in one of two categories: Patients with chronic renal failure People exposed to aluminum in the workplace Soluble forms of aluminum Aluminum chloride AlCl(3+), aluminum fluoride AlF(3), aluminum sulfate (Al(SO4)3), aluminum citrate (AlC(6)H(8)O(7)) Greater potential for toxicity than , due to their greater absorption Insoluble forms (such as aluminum hydroxide (AlOH(3)). Insoluble forms of aluminum are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Aluminum accumulation may occur in individuals with normal renal function and who receive chronic parenteral nutrition with aluminum-contaminated solutions (Klein, 1995). ADDITIVES & SOLUTIONS MEAN ALUMINUM CONTENT (mcg/L) Albumin 5% 486 Albumin 25% 1161-1647 Ca gluconate 10% 270-5056 Heparin 1000 units/Ml 684 Potassium phosphate 1890-16,598 Sodium phosphate 54-5994
ALUMINUM Aluminum is renally excreted Patients with renal failure are prone to aluminum toxicity, either from aluminum in the dialysate or other exogenous sources, especially aluminum-containing phosphate binders and antacids. Signs and symptoms may include dementia, memory loss, aphasia, ataxia, seizures, altered EEG and osteomalacia. Chronic exposure to aluminum dust may cause dyspnea, cough, pulmonary fibrosis, pneumothorax, pneumoconiosis, encephalopathy, weakness, incoordination and epileptiform seizures.
HEENT: Eye: innocuous Aluminum salts : may cause eye irritation. mucous membranes, conjunctivitis, dermatoses, and eczema. CARDIOVASCULAR Cardiac hypertrophy may occur in chronic hemodialysis patients with aluminum accumulation. RESPIRATORY Pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, COPD, chronic interstitial pneumonia, sarcoid- like lung granulomatosis, dyspnea, cough and pneumothorax may occur after chronic inhalation. SHAVERS DISEASE – This illness is caused by industrial exposure to aluminum fumes or dust Respiratory distress and fibrosis with large blebs. Symptoms include productive coughing and wheezing, substernal pain, weakness and fatigue; spontaneous pneumothorax is a frequent complication. Autopsy findings include emphysema and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Silicon is often inhaled with the aluminum, and the function of each of these elements is as yet unclear (Bingham et al, 2001; Hammond & Beliles, 1980; Harbison, 1998).
NEUROLOGIC Dialysis encephalopathy syndrome (DES) The most widely recognized and probably the most severe manifestation of aluminum toxicity. DES usually requires serum aluminum levels above 100 mcg/L. DES was originally secondary to high levels of aluminum in dialysate, mainly in dialysis therapy using softened or untreated water. Reduction in the aluminum content to 0.4 micromol/L (10 mcg/L) or less resulted in prevention. Moreover, the switch to aluminum-free phosphate binders (such as calcium carbonate) to treat patients with chronic renal failure has also decreased their per oral aluminum exposure Clinical features of dialysis dementia Memory loss, include speech and language impairment epileptic seizures (focal or grand mal), motor disturbance , dementia
NEUROLOGIC linked to the histopathology of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer disease : illness with deterioration of mental functions related to memory, judgment and abstract thinking, plus personality/behavior changes. The distinctive pathohistological features : neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques and amyloid deposits. According to some sources, aluminum is linked to these senile plaques and amyloid deposits. Increased concentrations of aluminum have been found in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer disease. It is still unclear whether aluminum is involved etiologically in this disease or exists merely as a marker of some other pathophysiologic process. Occupational exposure to aluminum has been associated with cognitive deficits and delayed reaction times
GASTROINTESTINAL Chronic aluminum hydroxide use may cause constipation. HEPATIC Linked to liver disorder. Aluminum-induced osteomalacia was reported in patients with liver failure who were taking aluminum containing antacids. GENITOURINARY The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome in patients with renal failure. Renal failure patients may also develop renal osteodystrophy and a type of microcytic anemia as effects of aluminum toxicity. HEMATOLOGIC Microcytic anemia may present as an effect of aluminum toxicity.
DERMATOLOGIC Dermatitis, irritation, delayed hypersensitivity, telangiectases and granulomas may occur from dermal contact with aluminum. MUSCULOSKELETAL Aluminum-related bone disease is a progressive form of osteomalacia that can lead to severe bone pain, fractures and crippling deformities. Aluminum may contribute to dialysis- associated arthropathy. ENDOCRINE May decrease parathyroid hormone secretion.
RANGE OF TOXICITY TLV (Al metal/Al oxides) - 10 mg/m. Reported oral animal LD50 values 0.1 g/kg for aluminum fluoride 1 to 4 g/kg for aluminum chloride 6 g/kg for aluminum sulfate. LABORATORY/MONITORING The most common method used for measuring aluminum in serum, water and dialysate is graphite furnace atomic absorption.
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE Quick take: Based on experimental animal studies, aluminum hydroxide is not expected to increase the risk of congenital malformations. Other toxicity of aluminum may occur if a sufficient amount is absorbed.
Study design Case : 임신중(1st trimester) aluminum hydroxide 에 노출된 산모 271대상 Estimate the gestational age at expose Estimate the time and dose of exposure to aluminum hydroxide demographic information, medical, obstetric history, details of any concomitant exposure Co-exposure to other medication Other relevant co-exposure
Control Age, gravity Co-exposure to other madicine Other relevant co-exposures Alcohol, cigarette smoking, X-ray
Major malformation Outcome :abnormality of structure, function, metabolism present at Spontaneous abortion birth that may result in physical, mental, social disabilities or death Live births Gestational age at delivery(weeks) Birth weight(g) Low birth weight (>2500g) Preterm births(<37weeks) Minor malformation : defects with limited medical, Major malformations mental, or social malformation Minor malformations Chromosomal abnormalities
Data analysis Continuous variables were compared between groups by Student t test. Categorical variables including rate of minor and major malformation, were compared between groups by means of a Fisher;s exact test Value of p <0.05 : statistically significant
Age(years) (mean±SD) 30.0±3.6Gravity (n) (mean±SD) 2.0±1.3Exposure to Aluminum hydroxide(median range) gestational age at expose(weeks) Dose(mg/day) Duration of exposure(day)Co-exposure to other medication (n)
TREATMENT OVERVIEW CHELATION - Aluminum intoxication may be treated with the chelating agent deferoxamine with symptomatic relief of dialysis encephalopathy and osteomalacia and aluminum-induced anemia. ENHANCED ELIMINATION - Hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and peritoneal dialysis will reduce SERUM aluminum. This may not effect the total body burden of aluminum unless aluminum has been mobilized from the tissues.