1exercise in pregnancy

  • 214 views
Uploaded on

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
214
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • 먼저 임신시 physiologic change와, Exercise 종류, 임신 중 benefit , contraindications, 운동을 끝마쳐야할 warning signs to terminate exercise순으로 알아보겠습니다.

Transcript

  • 1. Exercise in pregnancy 제일병원 전임의 신유정
  • 2. Table of contents  Physiologic changes in pregnancy  Type, intensity, and frequency of exercise  Benefit of exercise in pregnancy  Contraindications of exercise in pregnancy  Warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant  Maternal advice after exercise recommendation  Exercise in postpartum
  • 3. Physiologic changes in pregnancy  Nutritional requirement  Cardiovascular changes  Respiratory changes  Mechanical changes  Thermoregulatory changes  Metabolic changes
  • 4. Nutritional requirement  After the 13th weeks of pregnancy, about 300kcal per day are required to meet the metabolic needs of pregnancy  This energy requirement is increased through exercise.  In weight bearing exercise, such as walking, the energy requirement progressively increases with the increase in weight during the course of the pregnancy.  A related consideration to nutrition and exercise during pregnancy is adequate carbohydrate intake. Artal et al, 2003
  • 5. Cardiovascular changes  Pregnancy induces – increase in maternal blood volume, cardiac output, and resting pulse – decrease in maternal systemic vascular resistance. – Hemodynamics depends on position – Cardiac output in third-trimester pregnancy is maximal – in the left or right lateral recumbent position. – Decreased cardiac output – Supine position – Motionless standing Clark et al, 1991 Jovanovic-Peterson et al, 1989
  • 6. Respiratory changes  During pregnancy minute ventilation increases by almost 50%, largely as a result of increased tidal volume. – increase in arterial oxygen tension to 106-108 mmHg in the first trimester, decreasing to a mean of 101-106 mmHg by the third trimester. – increase in oxygen uptake, and a 10-20% increase in baseline O2 consumption. – Because of the increased resting oxygen requirements and the increased work of breathing brought about by physical effects of the enlarged uterus on the diaphragm, there is decreased oxygen available for the performance of aerobic exercise during pregnancy. – in some fit women, there do not appear to be associated changes in maximum aerobic power or acid-base balance during exercise in pregnancy when compared with the nonpregnant state Artal et al. 1986, Prowse et al.1965 Templeton et al,1976
  • 7. Mechanical changes  The enlargement of uterus and breasts that occurs during normal pregnancy results in a shift in the physical center of gravity in the pregnant woman. – loss of balance may prove dangerous  Hormonal influences may result in generalized increases in joint laxity, predisposing the pregnant woman to mechanical trauma or sprains. Calguneri et al. 1982, Artal etal.1991
  • 8. Thermoregulatory changes  Both basal metabolic rate and heat production increase during pregnancy  Teratogenecity – 39.2°C, with hot tub use in early pregnancy – an increase in maternal core body temperature during embryogenesis exceeding 1.5°C has been observed to cause cessation of neuronal mitotic cell growth in the ependymal layer of the developing brain. – Nonpregnant women exercising at 70% of maximal effort on a treadmill for 20 minutes, the core body temperature rose by an average of 1.5°C. – Fit individuals are known to thermoregulate their core temperature more efficiently. Hytten et al.1980, Artal et al.1991, Edwards et al.1986, Milunsky et al.1992
  • 9. 2002 ACOG recommendation Exercise in pregnancy  In the absence of either medical or obstetric complications during pregnancy  women should perform 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity exercise on most, if not all, days of the weeks.  Moderate exercise – Defined as activity for 30 or more minutes a day, 5 or more days a week – ex. : Brisk walking, bicycling, vacuuming, gardening, or any activity that causes small increases in breathing or heart rate ACOG, 2002 Centers for Disease Control, US physical activity statistics: definitions. 2006
  • 10. Type of exercise Safe Avoid Aerobic exercise Progressive resistive strengthening Stretching exercises Yoga Stationary bicycling Jogging Walking Stair climbing Treadmill use Water exercise Swimming Supine position after the first trimester Motionless standing Recreational sports with a high potential for contact, such as ice hockey and baseball Increased risk of falling, such as horseback riding and gymnastics Advised not to scuba dive because the fetus is at risk of decompression sickness Artal et al. 1991, Clark et al.1991, Camporesi et al. 1996 , ACOG 2002
  • 11. Intensity of exercise  ACSM(American college of sports medicine) recommend that intensity should be 60-90% of maximal heart rate or 50-85% of either maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate reserve.  60 % of maximal heart rate or 50% of maximal oxygen uptake – for most pregnant women who did not engage in regular exercise before pregnancy  70% of maximal heart rate or 60% of maximal oxygen uptake – for those who wish to continue to maintain fitness during pregnancy. Artal et al, 2003
  • 12. Intensity of exercise Daries et al, 2003
  • 13. Frequency of exercise and rate of progression  Previously sedentary women – Start with 15 min of exercise three times a week – Gradually increase to 30 min four times a weeks at low to moderate intensity  Active women – Keep their routine exercise or perform at least moderate- to- vigorous exercise – Four times a week in sessions of 30min or more  Atheletes or women who have higher fitness status – Evaluated individually – The intensity of exercise like running should be reduced Davies et al, 2003
  • 14. Benefits of exercise and activity during pregnancy  Decreased chance of preeclampsia, second leading cause of maternal death  Decreased chance of operative delivery  Decreased chance of developing gestational diabetes  Improved mood  Reduction of pregnancy discomforts- backache and lower extremity edema  Possible prevention of type II diabetes  Possible prevention of chronic hypertension ACOG, 2002
  • 15. Pre-eclamapsia Tanya et al., 2003
  • 16. Pre-eclamapsia Kasawara et al., 2012
  • 17. Tinoloy et al., 2014
  • 18. Deomendoz et al., 20140
  • 19. Exercise intervention (cesarean delivery) Deomendoz et al., 2014
  • 20. Birthweight Juhl, et al, 2010
  • 21. Gestational diabetes mellitus  Epidemiologic data suggest that exercise may be beneficial in the primary prevention of gestational diabetes, particularly in morbidly obese women (BMI >33)  The American Diabetes Association has endorsed exercise as “a helpful adjunctive therapy” for gestational diabetes mellitus when euglycemia is not achieved by diet alone  Vigorous activity : RR, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94).  Brisk walking pace : RR, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.46-0.95) compared with an easy pace. Dye et al, 1997 Jovanovic-Peterson et al 1996, Bung et al.,1996 Zhang et al, 2006
  • 22. ACOG contraindications to exercise in pregnancy  Hemodynamically significant heart disease  Restrictive lung disease  Incomplete cervix/cerclarge  Multiple gestation at risk for premature labor  Persistent second- or third trimester bleeding  Placenta previa after 26weeks of gestation  Premature labor during current pregnancy  Ruptured membranes  Preeclampsia ACOG,2002
  • 23. ACOG relative contraindications to aerobic exercise during pregnancy  Severe anemia  Unevaluated maternal cardiac arrhythmia  Chronic bronchitis  Poorly controlled type 1 diabetes  Extreme morbid obesity  Extreme underweight (BMI < 12)  History of extremely sedentary lifestyle  IUGR in current pregnancy  Poorly controlled hypertension  Orthopedic limitations  Poorly controlled seizure disorder  Poorly controlled hyperthyroidism  Heavy smoker ACOG,2002
  • 24. Warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnancy  Vaginal bleeding  Dyspnea prior to exertion  Dizziness  Headache  Chest pain  Muscle weakness  Calf pain or swelling (need to rule out thrombophlebitis)  Preterm labor  Decreasing fetal movement  Amniotic fluid leakage ACOG,2002
  • 25. Maternal advice after exercise recommendation  Should aware of uterine contractions  Less than the fetal movements in 12 hours is an indication that further investigation at a hospital is warranted  No longer suggest the routine counting of fetal movements in the second half of a woman’s pregnancy NICE Guideline, 2004
  • 26. Exercise in postpartum  Many of the physiologic and morphologic changes of pregnancy persist 4-6 weeks postpartum.  Thus, prepregnancy exercise routines should be resumed gradually based on a woman’s physical capability.  No known maternal complications are associated with resumption  Decreased incidence of postpartum depression and stress relieving Hale et al, 1996 Koltyn et al, 1997 ACOG, 1994; ACOG 2002
  • 27. Thank you for your attention