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Useful information about what happens when native speakers have a conversation and how this can be applied in the English class

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  • Thank you very much for your ppt. The structure of conversation is graphically represented, and the operation of the Cooperative Principle in conversation is vividly illustrated. What should be mentioned is the notion of 'adjacency pairs', which are only indicated here as 'not conversations'. Adjacency pairs seem to be a fundamental unit of conversational organization, and specifically are deeply interrelated with the turn-taking system as techniques for selecting a next speaker.
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  • Conversation is open-ended and has the potential to develop in any way. It is possible that the second example could contain a conversation if the speakers decided to talk about the price of oranges. They may do this in order to get a discount, or to develop a social relationship, and the potential is always there in real life. Unfortunately, sometimes we don’t have the confidence or opportunity to go beyond simple exchanges like the one above.
  • Conversation

    2. 2. CONVERSATION What is conversation?• We can describe a conversation as the time when two or more people have the right to talk or listen without having to follow a fixed schedule.
    3. 3. CONVERSATION What is conversation?• In a conversation everyone has something to say and anyone can speak at any time
    4. 4. The Functions of Conversation• exchange of information• creation and maintenance of social relationships• negotiation of status and social roles• deciding on and carrying out joint actions
    5. 5. The Units of Conversation EXCHANGEAn exchange consists of two moves or turns (aninitiating move and a response).These can be verbal or non-verbal.
    6. 6. • Let’s analyze the following exchange structure:• A: Jane.• B: Yes?• A: Could I use your printer?• B: Sure, it’s already on.• A: Thanks a lot.
    7. 7. Illustration of move and exchange structure Jane Turn 1 Exchange 1 call Turn 2 Yes? available Could I use your Turn 3 printer? Exchange 2 request Sure, it’s Turn 4 already on. comply Exchange 3 Thanks a lot Turn 5 thank
    8. 8. Not all exchanges are conversations!!! • A: Hi! Exchange 1 • B: Hi!
    9. 9. Not all exchanges are conversations!!!• A: How much are the oranges? Exchange 1• B: Eighteen pence each, madam.• A: I’ll have two, please. Exchange 2• B: That’s thirty-six pence.
    10. 10. What do native speakers do in conversation?• There are certain rules in conversation.• For instance:usually only one person speaks at a timethe speakers changethe length of any contribution variesthere are techniques for allowing the other party or parties to speakneither the content nor the amount of what we say is specified in advance
    11. 11. The Co-operative Principle• The maxim of quality Make your contribution one that is true Do not say what you believe is false Do not say anything for which you lack adequate evidence
    12. 12. The Co-operative Principle• The maxim of quantityMake your contribution just as informative as required and no more
    13. 13. The Co-operative Principle• The maxim of relation Make your contribution relevant and timely
    14. 14. The Co-operative Principle• The maxim of manner Avoid obscurity and ambiguity
    15. 15. Topics• Different cultures talk about different things in their everyday lives. Native speakers are very aware of what they should and should not talk about with specific categories of people in their own language, but the rules may be different in a foreign language.• In this sense, What is considered a ‘taboo’ subject? What do you consider an offence?