Changing Role of the Chinese Central Government in Urban and Rural Planning SHI, Nan 20 11 -12 -08 Moscow Urban Forum
Structure of the PresentationDecentralization: FactorsCentralization: FactorsDebatesConclusion
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Decentralization: A Historical Evolution CP ESDP Industries Housing EP CP ESDP Infrastructures Land-use CP CLUP 1950s 1980s 2000s City plan deals with City planning challenged City planning employed the spatial/physical by both market forces by the central aspect of economic and departmental government for macro plan, together as the interests, marginized economic control, foundation of from political arena of challenged by political system the central government intergovernmental competition of local authorities
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Capital Division of Power Enabling legislation Statutory Plan National Ministry ESDP’s Shift to spatial dimension in 1990s Economic & Social National Development The Constitution Development Plan (ESDP) and Reform • Economic & social Development Commission (NDRC) • development priority zone plan Urban and Rural City Plan (CP) Ministry of Housing and • Human habitat Urban-Rural Planning Act • Land use Development(MOHURD) Comprehensive Land Use Plan Land Administration (CLUP) Ministry of Land and Act • national territory Resources(MLR) • preservation of arable lands The inauguration of Authority of Land and Resource in 1980s
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Decentralization: Fiscal • Taxation system reform in 1994 – Streamline the taxes based on governmental responsibilities and establish stable fiscal relationship between government levels – Taxes for central government, Taxes for local government, and Taxes shared by both – Tax return and transfer payments – Unbalanced fiscal revenue for local government – Deficit covered by immense land leasing, resulted in planning failure
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Fiscal Expenditures & Transfer Payments 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1980 1981 1982 1982 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 全国财政支出 中央财政支出 地方财政支出 转移支付 National Expenditure Central Government Local Government Transfer Payment Expenditure Expenditure Based on Wenzheng: THE GOVERNANCE DIVISION BETWEEN THE CENTRAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS,2008
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Fiscal Revenue in Billion 35000 • Local debts totaled 2.79 trillion in the 18 provinces, 30000 among which 1.04 trillion Yuan or nearly 60 percent was generated in 2009. 25000 • The local debt expanded to 7.38 trillion at the end of 20000 2009, and has perhaps well exceeded 8 trillion by the end of May 2010. 15000 • Local government has to depend on land leasing 10000 to pay off the local debts. 5000 0 1980 1981 1982 1982 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 全国财政收入 中央财政收入 地方财政收入 National Revenue Central Revenue Local Revenue Based on Wenzheng: THE GOVERNANCE DIVISION BETWEEN THE CENTRAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS,2008
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Fiscal Revenue from Land Leasing • 700 billion in Top 10 cities in land revenue Yuan Billion 2006, 1,300 billion City 2007 2008 2009 in 2007, 960 billion Hangzhou 64.6 31.2 105.4 in 2008, 1,590 billion in 2009 Shanghai 80.3 38.2 104.3 • National audit Beijing 43.8 50.3 928 office (based on Tianjin 38.8 43.9 73.2 survey of 40 cites): Guangzhou 32.3 12.2 48.9 674.81 billion, 20.1% of Ningbo 5.2 6.8 48.8 total land leasing Chongqing 31.4 11.7 44.0 revenue in 11 cities Wuhan 26.7 8.1 36.1 have not been included in city Foshan 21.6 6.8 33.2 budget. Chengdu 39.6 6.6 32.4 China Real Estate Databank
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China By-effects of Taxation Reform Taxation reform Unbalanced local finance Land leasing spree City plan sabotaged Abnormal physical development
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Decentralization: Public Participation politician politician politician Entrepreneur planner Entrepreneur 1950s 1980s planner 1990s Enterprises Government Participants Organizer Market experiences Policy resources investment Incentive & catalyst City Planning Planner Citizen Participant Participants Professionalism Social awareness
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Centralization: Regional Planning • Pivot for the national West Bank of Taiwan Straits economy • Center for • Cooperation cross the manufacture, energy, Taiwan Straits grain production, etc. • Regional infrastructure • Revitalization of traditional industrial • Urban/rural integration bases Central China • Regional infrastructure
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Centralization: Supervising System • Covers: Cities with Planning Supervisor – All Provincial capital cities – All Sub-provincial level cities – All National Historic Cities except Municipalities 2006 (6 cities) Nanjing, Hangzhou, Zhengzhou, Xi’an, Kunming, Guilin Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Shenyang, Dalian, Xining, Lanzhou, Wuhan, Changsha, Guiyang, 2007 (12 cities) Nanning, Fuzhou, Xiamen Hohhot, Changchun, Harbin, Hefei, Nanchang, Jinan, Qingdao, Suzhou, Ningbo, Guangzhou, 2008 (17 cities) Shenzhen, Haikou , Chengdu, Chongqing, Lhasa, Yinchuan, Urumqi Handan, Baoding, Datong, Jilin, Daqing, Wuxi, Xuzhou, Changzhou, Zibo, Tai’an, Kaifeng, 2009 (17 cities) Luoyang, Anyang, Xiangfan, Jinzhou, Zhuhai, Liuzhou
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Major Aspects of Supervision • City master plan: – formulated, adjusted and submitted for approval within the statutory jurisdiction and procedures; – in conformity to requirements of the provincial urban system plan; • Secondary plans: in conformity to the compulsory requirements of city master plan; • Planning permit: in conformity with statutory procedures and compulsory requirement of the city master plan • Green space, water area, infrastructures, historic preservation etc. • Implementation of historic preservation plan
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Centralization: Plan Approval • In 1980s, 38 city plans approved by the State Council • In 1990s, “plans for cities with over 500 thousands non-agricultural population should be approved by the central government” (86 cities). • In 2000s, 20 more cities added to the list, Joint meeting chaired by MOC(Now MOHURD) with other 14 National Ministries, Checklists and requirements for plans…
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China 106 Cities Subject to State Council Approval In 1980s (38 Cities ) In 1990s (48 Cities added ) In 2000s (20 Cities added )
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Checklists of State Approval • Public absent • Planning area • Mixing details of checklists • Objectives/aims • Complicated procedure • City nature/identities • Inefficiency • City size: population, land • Unbalanced duty/power • Requirements from upper level • No cost-benefit/feasibility evaluation plans • Everything is nothing • Layout/spatial structure • Is plan approvable • Traffic and transportation • Wag the tail of development • Environmental and ecological concerns • Majority of GDP • Infrastructures and city safety • Major land resource • Historic preservation consumer • Planning implementation, etc. • National Interests
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Debate I: ONE Plan vs. Power Division • Planning system in China is a combination/result of political centralization and economic decentralization. • At the national level, separated government planning is a result of historic evolution, but never should be taken granted. • Decentralization needs more powers delegated to local government and integration of departmental planning at national level. • Central government approval proved a failure mechanism, it can be replaced by identifying national interests which shall compulsorily carried out by local planning.
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Debate II: Political vs. Technical • Planning is basically a local affair. But the decentralization in planning lies with the overall democratization process of the civic society. • Political legitimacy is far more important than technical rationality in a transitional society like China. • Supervision by Provincial Authority, City People’s Congress and general public is vital while the central government should be vested with policies and guidelines for urbanization.
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Debate III: A Free Hand or “Hands off” • Central government usually do no planning except in areas of environmental issue, national infrastructure and social development • Regional planning can only be initiated by provincial or regional governments. Central government should not be entitled to draft such plan on behalf of regional government. • National government can be very important in designing the policy regarding urbanization and framework for intergovernmental relations.
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Conclusion Decentralization Centralization Challenges Supervision Overlapping Integration Delegation Capital division Regional and ambiguous of power planning planning Political Fiscal Planning Wider social & Legitimacy decentralization supervising spatial divide Market/ & Public National Interests Plan approval planning participation failure
www.planning.org.cn 中国城市规划学会 Urban Planning Society of China Conclusion Those affairs evolves the whole country and trans- provincial affairs are vested in Central Government’s responsibility, while those evolves only local administrative regions vested in local government. Most important issue in central-local relationship is identifying national interests rather than the approaches to accomplish such interests.
• Thanks Shi Nan 中国城市规划学会 firstname.lastname@example.org Urban Planning Society of China +86-10-5832-3851 www.planning.org.cn +86-13801125011 Fax: +86-10-5832-3850